Fraternities and sororities
Fraternities and sororities, or Greek letter organizations, are social organizations at colleges and universities. A form of the social fraternity, they are prominent in the United States, with small numbers of non-residential fraternities existing in France and the Philippines. Similar organizations exist in other countries as well, including the Studentenverbindungen of German-speaking countries. Similar, but much less common, organizations exist for secondary school students, as do fraternal orders for other adults. In modern usage, "Greek letter organization" is synonymous with the terms "fraternity" and "sorority". Two additional types of fraternities, professional fraternities and honor societies, incorporate some limited elements of traditional fraternity organization, but are considered a different type of association. Traditional fraternities of the type described in this article are called "social fraternities". Membership in a fraternity or sorority is obtained as an undergraduate student but continues, for life.
Some of these organizations can accept graduate students as well as undergraduates, per constitutional provisions. Individual fraternities and sororities vary in organization and purpose, but most share five common elements: Secrecy Single-sex membership Selection of new members on the basis of a two-part vetting and probationary process known as rushing and pledging Ownership and occupancy of a residential property where undergraduate members live A set of complex identification symbols that may include Greek letters, armorial achievements, badges, hand signs, passwords and colorsFraternities and sororities engage in philanthropic activities, host parties, provide "finishing" training for new members such as instruction on etiquette and manners, create networking opportunities for their newly graduated members; the first fraternity in North America to incorporate most of the elements of modern fraternities was Phi Beta Kappa, founded at the College of William and Mary in 1775. The founding of Phi Beta Kappa followed the earlier establishment of two other secret student societies that had existed at that campus as early as 1750.
In 1779 Phi Beta Kappa expanded to include chapters at Yale. By the early 19th century, the organization transformed itself into a scholastic honor society and abandoned secrecy. In 1825, Kappa Alpha Society, the oldest extant fraternity to retain its social characteristic, was established at Union College. In 1827, Sigma Phi and Delta Phi were founded at the same institution, creating the Union Triad; the further birthing of Psi Upsilon, Chi Psi and Theta Delta Chi collectively established Union College as the Mother of Fraternities. It should be noted that the social fraternity Chi Phi, although formed in 1854, traces its roots to 1824, oldest.org considers it the oldest social fraternity. Fraternities represented the intersection between dining clubs, literary societies and secret initiatory orders such as Freemasonry, their early growth was opposed by university administrators, though the increasing influence of fraternity alumni, as well as several high-profile court cases, succeeded in muting opposition by the 1880s.
The first fraternity meeting hall, or lodge, seems to have been that of the Alpha Epsilon chapter of Chi Psi at the University of Michigan in 1845, leading to a tradition in that fraternity to name its buildings "lodges". As fraternity membership was punishable by expulsion at many colleges at this time, the house was located deep in the woods; the first residential chapter home, built by a fraternity, is believed to have been Alpha Delta Phi's chapter at Cornell, with groundbreaking dated to 1878. Alpha Tau Omega became the first fraternity to own a residential house in the South when, in 1880, its chapter at the University of the South acquired one. Chapters of many fraternities followed suit and less building them with support of alumni. Phi Sigma Kappa's chapter home at Cornell, completed in 1902, is the oldest such house still occupied by its fraternal builders. Sororities began to develop in 1851 with the formation of the Adelphean Society Alpha Delta Pi, though fraternity-like organizations for women didn't take their current form until the establishment of Pi Beta Phi in 1867 and Kappa Alpha Theta in 1870.
The term "sorority" was invented by a professor of Latin who felt the word "fraternity" was inappropriate for a group of ladies. The first organization to use the term "sorority" was Gamma Phi Beta, established in 1874; the development of "fraternities for women" during this time was a major accomplishment in the way of women's rights and equality. By mere existence, these organizations were defying the odds; the first "Women's Fraternities" not only had to overcome "restrictive social customs, unequal status under the law and the underlying presumption that they were less able than men," but at the same time had to deal with the same challenges as fraternities with college administrations. Today, both social and multicultural sororities are present on more than 650 college campuses across the United States and Canada; the National Panhellenic Conference serves as the "umbrella organization" for 26 national sororities. Founded in 1902, the NPC is one of the oldest and largest women's membership organizations, representing more than 4 million women at 655 college/university campuses and 4,500 local alumnae chapters in the U.
S. and Canada. In 1867, the Chi Phi fraternity established its Theta chapter at the University of Edi
Howard University is a private, federally chartered black university in Washington, D. C, it is categorized by the Carnegie Foundation as a research university with higher research activity and is accredited by the Middle States Commission on Higher Education. From its outset Howard has been open to people of all sexes and races. Howard offers more than 120 areas leading to undergraduate and professional degrees. Howard is classified as a Tier 1 national university and ranks second among HBCUs by U. S. News & World Report. Howard is the only HBCU ranked in the top 40 on the Bloomberg Businessweek college rankings; the Princeton Review ranked the school of business first in opportunities for minority students and in the top five for most competitive students. The National Law Journal ranked the law school among the top 25 in the nation for placing graduates at the most successful law firms. Howard has produced four Rhodes Scholars between 1986 and 2017. Between 1998 and 2018, Howard University produced two Marshall Scholars, eleven Truman Scholars, seventy Fulbright Scholars, a Schwarzman Scholar and twenty-two Pickering Fellows.
Howard produces the most black doctorate recipients of any university. Shortly after the end of the American Civil War, members of The First Congregational Society of Washington considered establishing a theological seminary for the education of African-American clergymen. Within a few weeks, the project expanded to include a provision for establishing a university. Within two years, the University consisted of the Colleges of Liberal Medicine; the new institution was named for General Oliver Otis Howard, a Civil War hero, both the founder of the University and, at the time, Commissioner of the Freedmen's Bureau. Howard served as President of the University from 1869–74. U. S. Congress chartered Howard on March 2, 1867, much of its early funding came from endowment, private benefaction, tuition. (In the 20th and 21st centuries an annual congressional appropriation, administered by the U. S. Department of Education, funds Howard University and Howard University Hospital After five years of being an institution, Howard University became the place of education for over 150,000 freed slaves.
Many improvements were made on campus. Howard Hall was made a dormitory for women. From 1926-1960, Howard University's first African-American presideant, Dr. Mordecai Wyatt Johnson, Sr. reigned. The Great Depression years of the 1930s brought hardship to campus. Despite appeals from Eleanor Roosevelt, Howard saw its budget cut below Hoover administration levels during the Presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt. Howard University has played an important role in American history and the Civil Rights Movement on a number of occasions. Alain Locke, Chair of the Department of Philosophy and first African American Rhodes Scholar, authored The New Negro, which helped to usher in the Harlem Renaissance. Ralph Bunche, the first Nobel Peace Prize winner of African descent, served as chair of the Department of Political Science. Beginning in 1942, Howard University students pioneered the "stool-sitting" technique of occupying stools at a local cafeteria which denied service to African Americans blocking other customers waiting for service.
This tactic was to play a prominent role in the Civil Rights Movement. By January 1943, students had begun to organize regular sit-ins and pickets at cigar stores and cafeterias around Washington, D. C. which refused to serve them because of their race. These protests continued until the fall of 1944. Stokely Carmichael known as Kwame Toure, a student in the Department of Philosophy and the Howard University School of Divinity, coined the term "Black Power" and worked in Lowndes County, Alabama as a voting rights activist. Historian Rayford Logan served as chair of the Department of History. E. Franklin Frazier served as chair of the Department of Sociology. Sterling Allen Brown served as chair of the Department of English; the first sitting president to speak at Howard was Calvin Coolidge in 1924. His graduation speech was entitled, "The Progress of a People," and highlighted the accomplishments to date of the blacks in America since the Civil War, his concluding thought was, "We can not go out from this place and occasion without refreshment of faith and renewal of confidence that in every exigency our Negro fellow citizens will render the best and fullest measure of service whereof they are capable."
In 1965, President Lyndon B. Johnson delivered a speech to the graduating class at Howard, where he outlined his plans for civil rights legislation and endorsed aggressive affirmative action to combat the effects of years of segregation of blacks from the nation's economic opportunities. At the time, the Voting Rights bill was still pending in the House of Representatives. In 1975 the historic Freedman's Hospital closed after 112 years of use as Howard University College of Medicine's primary teaching hospital. Howard University Hospital opened that same year and continues to be used as Howard University College of Medicine's primary teaching hospital with service to the surrounding community. In 1989, Howard gained national attention when students rose up in protest against the appointment of then-Republican National Committee Chairman Lee Atwater as a new member of the university's board of trustees. Student activists disrupted Howard's 122nd anniversary celebrations, occupied the university's Administration building.
Within days, both Atwater and Howard's President, James E. Cheek, resigned. In April 2007, the head of the faculty senate called for the ouster of Howard University President H. Patrick Swygert, saying the school was in a state of crisis and it was time to end "an intolerable condition of incompetence
Illinois is a state in the Midwestern and Great Lakes region of the United States. It has the fifth largest gross domestic product, the sixth largest population, the 25th largest land area of all U. S. states. Illinois is noted as a microcosm of the entire United States. With Chicago in northeastern Illinois, small industrial cities and immense agricultural productivity in the north and center of the state, natural resources such as coal and petroleum in the south, Illinois has a diverse economic base, is a major transportation hub. Chicagoland, Chicago's metropolitan area, encompasses over 65% of the state's population; the Port of Chicago connects the state to international ports via two main routes: from the Great Lakes, via the Saint Lawrence Seaway, to the Atlantic Ocean and from the Great Lakes to the Mississippi River, via the Illinois Waterway to the Illinois River. The Mississippi River, the Ohio River, the Wabash River form parts of the boundaries of Illinois. For decades, Chicago's O'Hare International Airport has been ranked as one of the world's busiest airports.
Illinois has long had a reputation as a bellwether both in social and cultural terms and, through the 1980s, in politics. The capital of Illinois is Springfield, located in the central part of the state. Although today's Illinois' largest population center is in its northeast, the state's European population grew first in the west as the French settled the vast Mississippi of the Illinois Country of New France. Following the American Revolutionary War, American settlers began arriving from Kentucky in the 1780s via the Ohio River, the population grew from south to north. In 1818, Illinois achieved statehood. Following increased commercial activity in the Great Lakes after the construction of the Erie Canal, Chicago was founded in the 1830s on the banks of the Chicago River at one of the few natural harbors on the southern section of Lake Michigan. John Deere's invention of the self-scouring steel plow turned Illinois's rich prairie into some of the world's most productive and valuable farmland, attracting immigrant farmers from Germany and Sweden.
The Illinois and Michigan Canal made transportation between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River valley faster and cheaper, new railroads carried immigrants to new homes in the country's west and shipped commodity crops to the nation's east. The state became a transportation hub for the nation. By 1900, the growth of industrial jobs in the northern cities and coal mining in the central and southern areas attracted immigrants from Eastern and Southern Europe. Illinois was an important manufacturing center during both world wars; the Great Migration from the South established a large community of African Americans in the state, including Chicago, who founded the city's famous jazz and blues cultures. Chicago, the center of the Chicago Metropolitan Area, is now recognized as a global alpha-level city. Three U. S. presidents have been elected while living in Illinois: Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, Barack Obama. Additionally, Ronald Reagan, whose political career was based in California, was born and raised in the state.
Today, Illinois honors Lincoln with its official state slogan Land of Lincoln, displayed on its license plates since 1954. The state is the site of the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum in Springfield and the future home of the Barack Obama Presidential Center in Chicago. "Illinois" is the modern spelling for the early French Catholic missionaries and explorers' name for the Illinois Native Americans, a name, spelled in many different ways in the early records. American scholars thought the name "Illinois" meant "man" or "men" in the Miami-Illinois language, with the original iliniwek transformed via French into Illinois; this etymology is not supported by the Illinois language, as the word for "man" is ireniwa, plural of "man" is ireniwaki. The name Illiniwek has been said to mean "tribe of superior men", a false etymology; the name "Illinois" derives from the Miami-Illinois verb irenwe·wa - "he speaks the regular way". This was taken into the Ojibwe language in the Ottawa dialect, modified into ilinwe·.
The French borrowed these forms, changing the /we/ ending to spell it as -ois, a transliteration for its pronunciation in French of that time. The current spelling form, began to appear in the early 1670s, when French colonists had settled in the western area; the Illinois's name for themselves, as attested in all three of the French missionary-period dictionaries of Illinois, was Inoka, of unknown meaning and unrelated to the other terms. American Indians of successive cultures lived along the waterways of the Illinois area for thousands of years before the arrival of Europeans; the Koster Site demonstrates 7,000 years of continuous habitation. Cahokia, the largest regional chiefdom and urban center of the Pre-Columbian Mississippian culture, was located near present-day Collinsville, Illinois, they built an urban complex of more than 100 platform and burial mounds, a 50-acre plaza larger than 35 football fields, a woodhenge of sacred cedar, all in a planned design expressing the culture's cosmology.
Monks Mound, the center of the site, is the largest Pre-Columbian structure north of the Valley of Mexico. It is 100 feet high, 951 feet long, 836 feet wide, covers 13.8 acres. It contains about 814,000 cubic yards of earth, it was topped by a structure thought to have measured about 105 feet in length and 48 feet in width, covered an area 5,000 square feet, been as much as 50 feet high, making its peak 150 feet above the level of the pl
Omega Psi Phi
Omega Psi Phi is an international fraternity with over 750 undergraduate and graduate chapters. The fraternity was founded on November 17, 1911 by three Howard University juniors, Edgar Amos Love, Oscar James Cooper and Frank Coleman, their faculty adviser, Dr. Ernest Everett Just. Omega Psi Phi is the first predominantly African-American fraternity to be founded at a black university. Since its founding in 1911, Omega Psi Phi's stated purpose has been to attract and build a strong and effective force of men dedicated to its Cardinal Principles of manhood, scholarship and uplift. Throughout the world, many notable members are recognized as leaders in the arts, athletics, business, civil rights, education and science fields. A few notable members include Bill Cosby, Samuel M. Nabrit, Walter E. Massey, Benjamin Mays, Bayard Rustin, Langston Hughes, Count Basie, Roy Wilkins, Benjamin Hooks, Vernon Jordan, Robert Henry Lawrence, Jr. Malcolm Jenkins, Rev. Jesse Jackson, William H. Hastie and L. Douglas Wilder, Representative James Clyburn, Earl Graves, Tom Joyner, Charles Bolden, Ronald McNair, General William "Kip" Ward, Michael Jordan, Ovince Saint Preux, Shaquille O'Neal, Roger Kingdom, Terrence Trammell, Shammond Williams, Vince Carter, Steve Harvey, Rickey Smiley, Ray Lewis, Stephen A. Smith, numerous presidents of colleges and universities.
Over 250,000 men have been initiated into Omega Psi Phi throughout the United States, Bahamas, Virgin Islands, South Korea, Liberia and Kuwait. On the 2013 Super Bowl champion Baltimore Ravens, six players and GM Ozzie Newsome are members. In 1924, at the urging of fraternity member Carter G. Woodson, the fraternity launched Negro History and Literature Week in an effort to publicize the growing body of scholarship on African-American history. Encouraged by public interest, the event was renamed "Negro Achievement Week" in 1925 and given an expanded national presence in 1926 by Woodson's Association for the Study of Negro Life as "Negro History Week." Expanded to the full month of February from 1976, this event continues today as Black History Month. Since 1945, the fraternity has undertaken a National Social Action Program to meet the needs of African Americans in the areas of health, civil rights, education. Omega Psi Phi has been a patron of the United Negro College Fund since 1955, providing an annual gift of $350,000.00 to the program.
Omega Psi Phi is a member of the National Pan-Hellenic Council, composed of nine predominately African-American Greek-letter sororities and fraternities that promote interaction through forums and other media for the exchange of information, engage in cooperative programming and initiatives throughout the world. The represents over 2.5 million members. Omega Psi Phi celebrated its centennial during the week of July 27–31, 2011 in Washington, D. C. becoming distinguished as only the third African-American collegiate fraternity to reach the century mark. The Centennial Celebration recognized the impact of the Fraternity in communities over the past 100 years, honored Omega Men for achievement in all walks of life, reiterated Omega Psi Phi's commitment to providing unparalleled community service and scholarship, charted the Fraternity's future activities; each Chapter administers Internationally Mandated Programs every year:Achievement Week – A week in November that seeks to recognize individuals who have made notable contributions to society.
During the Achievement Week, a High School Essay Contest is held and the winner receives a scholarship award. Scholarship – The Charles R. Drew Scholarship Program encourages academic progress among the organization's undergraduate members. A portion of the fraternity's budget is designated for the Charles R. Drew Scholarship Commission, which awards scholarships to members and non-members. Social Action Programs – All chapters are required to participate in programs that uplift their society. Many participate in activities like: voter registration, illiteracy programs, mentoring programs and charitable organizations such as American Diabetes Association, United Way, the Sickle Cell Anemia Foundation. Talent Hunt Program – Each chapter is required to hold a yearly talent contest, to encourage young people to expose themselves to the Performing Arts. Individuals who win these talent contests receive an award, such as a scholarship. Memorial Service – March 12 is Omega Psi Phi Memorial Day; every chapter of the Fraternity performs a ritualistic memorial service to remember members who have died.
Reclamation and Retention – This program is an effort to encourage inactive members to become active and participate in the fraternity's programs. College Endowment Funds – The fraternity donates thousands of dollars to Historically Black Colleges and Universities each year. Health Initiatives – Chapters are required to coordinate programs that will encourage good health practices. Programs that members involve themselves in include HIV/AIDS awareness, blood drives, prostate cancer awareness, sickle cell anemia awareness programs. Voter Registration and Motivation – Coordination activities that promote voter registration and mobilization. NAACP – A Life Membership at Large in the NAACP is required by all chapters and districts. Omega Psi Phi recognizes graduate membership. College students must be working toward a bachelor's degree at a four-year institution, have at least 31 semester credits, maintain at least a 2.5 grade point average. For the graduate chapter, an applicant must possess a bachelor's degree.
The fraternity grants honorary membership to men who have contributed to society in a positive way on a na
Sigma Gamma Rho
Sigma Gamma Rho Sorority, Inc. was founded on November 12, 1922, at Butler University in Indianapolis, Indiana by seven young educators. It was incorporated within the state of Indiana in December 1922 and became a national collegiate sorority on December 30, 1929, when a charter was granted to the Alpha chapter; the sorority is a non-profit. Public service, leadership development and the education of youth are the hallmark of the organization's programs and activities. Founded in the midst of segregation, Sigma Gamma Rho Sorority, Inc. is the only sorority of the four African-American sororities which comprise the National Pan-Hellenic Council established at a predominantly white campus. Sigma Gamma Rho Sorority, Inc. has over 100,000 members with more than 500 undergraduate and alumnae chapters throughout the United States, The Bahamas, Canada and Korea. Women may join through undergraduate chapters at a college or university, or through an alumnae chapter after earning a college degree. Sigma Gamma Rho supports two affiliates: youth group of young women called the Rhoers and the Philos, women who are friends of the sorority.
Mary Lou Allison Gardner LittleRaised by a family friend because both of her parents were killed when she was three, Founder Little graduated from Shortridge High School in 1915 and received a diploma from the Indianapolis Normal School in 1918. She began her teaching career after graduation. In 1928, Little moved to Los Angeles with her husband and finished her undergraduate training at UCLA, she taught in the Los Angeles School System until her retirement in 1967. The Mary Lou Allison Loving Cup Award is presented at each Boule to the chapter reporting the most successful program. Dorothy Hanley WhitesideAfter graduating from Shortridge High School, Founder Whiteside entered the Indianapolis City Normal School. In 1922, when in training as a cadet teacher, she met the teachers who became her best friends and founders of Sigma Gamma Rho. Ms. Whiteside taught school until 1951 when she retired and helped her husband to develop a business, she started her own millinery business and worked with her church and various other organizations.
After the death of her husband, she ran their business from 1955 until 1957 and returned to teaching in 1959, where she remained until her retirement in 1970. Vivian Irene White MarburyFounder Marbury was born March 11, 1900, she attended the Indianapolis City Normal School. She earned her BS in Education from Butler University in June 1931 and her Master's from Columbia University in New York City, she was awarded the highest alumni honor at Butler University. Her professional career included teaching at Morehouse College in Atlanta and serving as Director of Practice Training of teachers from Butler University and Indianapolis State University, she taught in the Indianapolis School System for nine years. She organized Public School 87, which grew from a 4-room portable school to 18 rooms and 24 teachers, where she was principal for 48 years until her retirement in 1967, she is the mother of two children. Founder Marbury died on July 29, 2000, she was the last of the seven founders to join Omega Rho.
Nannie Mae Gahn JohnsonFounder Johnson was born on June 1904, in Indianapolis, Indiana. She received her BS in her MS in 1941 from Butler University, she started as a teacher in 1923 and was promoted to principal of one of the largest elementary schools in Indianapolis at the time. She was very involved with many clubs and organizations dedicated to community service. Ms. Johnson retired in 1966. Hattie Mae Annette Dulin RedfordA cum laude graduate of South Bend Central High School, Founder Redford continued her education to receive a B. S from Indiana State Teachers College and a M. S. from Butler University. She studied at Western Reserve in Cleveland and Indiana University Extension, she taught one year in Terre Haute, 37 years in Indianapolis, Indiana. She was Grand Epistoleus, Grand Tamiochus, Financial Consultant and received various awards and honors from Sigma Gamma Rho. Plaques are awarded in Ms. Redford's name at each Boule for exhibits of chapter achievements. Bessie Mae Downey Rhoades MartinFounder Martin was born on July 12, 1900.
The youngest of six children, Ms. Martin attended grade school in Indianapolis, she graduated from the City Teachers Normal. She earned her BS in Education from Butler University in June 1943. Ms. Martin taught at Indianapolis Public School 4 for over 25 years, she was a devoted wife and hard worker in school and the sorority. Cubena McClureA graduate of Shortridge High School and the Indianapolis City Normal School, Founder McClure attended Western Reserve University in Cleveland, OH, she won the Gregg Scholarship which she planned to use to attend Columbia University, but due to illness, she could not accept the scholarship. McClure was talented in art and she helped to design the sorority pin. Ms. McClure died young on August 24, 1924. Sigma Gamma Rho Sorority, Inc. gives its leadership and resources toward removing barriers and inequalities so that all Americans may develop their potential and exercise full citizenship. Through support of human rights legislation, service to and support of grass root individual and community development activities, through active participation in the programs of affiliate and other organizations, the sorority has shown its commitment to working to improve the quality of the lives and the societies it serves.
Sigma Gamma Rho participates in the sponsoring of national and international programs designed for the improved welfare of all people. Th
Iota Phi Theta
Iota Phi Theta Fraternity, Incorporated is a nationally incorporated African-American, collegiate fraternity. It was founded on September 19, 1963, at Morgan State University in Baltimore and now has initiated over 30,000 members. There are over 263 undergraduate and alumni chapters, as well as colonies located in 40 U. S. states, the District of Columbia, The Bahamas, South Korea, Japan. The fraternity holds membership in the National Pan-Hellenic Council, an umbrella organization comprising nine international African-American Greek letter sororities and fraternities, the North-American Interfraternity Conference; the fraternity was founded by 12 men — Albert Hicks, Lonnie Spruill Jr. Charles Briscoe, Frank Coakley, John Slade, Barron Willis, Webster Lewis, Charles Brown, Louis Hudnell, Charles Gregory, Elias Dorsey Jr. and Michael Williams — during the Civil Rights Movement. On September 19, 1963, these twelve founders gathered together on the steps of Hurt Gymnasium on the campus of Morgan State College and formed Iota Phi Theta Fraternity, Inc. as a support system for men of color in the era's turbulent social climate.
Influences included organizations such as the Black Panthers, SNCC, individuals like Malcolm X, Stokely Carmichael. Unlike most of their fraternity peers, the founders were all non-traditional students. Many of them were three to five years older and attended classes full time, had served in the military, had families with small children; these experiences gave the founders a different perspective than the typical fraternity member. Brothers participated in various protests and sit-ins throughout Baltimore to fight racial segregation; the earliest was a protest organized with a civic interest group, composed of Morgan State College students, against the theater at Northwood Shopping Center in Baltimore, located diagonally across the street from Morgan State College. In the majority-white area, Northwood continued to segregate its services, affecting thousands of students at the black college. In many theaters, only white people could occupy seating on the main floor, while black people were restricted to the "Jim Crow" balcony with a separate ticket booth and entrance.
This protest started February 15, 1963, over the course of the six days, the total number of picketers involved reached 1500, over 400 individuals were arrested. The protest took place in the context of a longer history of protests against the theater's white-only policy. Annual demonstrations against the theater had been held since 1955, including a sit-in at Northwood and picketing downtown; the theater was a last holdout of racial segregation in the blocks surrounding the college. On February 22, 1963, the theater ended its white-only policy; the fraternity functioned as a local entity until the first interest groups were established in 1967 at Hampton Institute and Delaware State College. Further expansion took place in 1968, with chapters formed at Norfolk State College and Jersey City State College; the fraternity was incorporated on November 1, 1968, as a national fraternity under the laws of the State of Maryland. Zeta Chapter (North Carolina A&T was founded in spring 1969. Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, the fraternity supported the Big Brothers of America.
In 1974, the Grand Polaris, Thomas Dean, appeared in a local television commercial on behalf of Big Brothers of America. The fraternity continues to support service initiatives with national organizations such as the NAACP, the United Negro College Fund, the National Sickle Cell Foundation, the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, the National Federation of the Blind, Project IMAGE, as well as its own fraternity service initiatives; the first steps toward moving the fraternity from a regional to a national scope were taken with the creation of Upsilon Chapter at Southern Illinois University in 1974. It was during this period that the fraternity's first four graduate chapters were formed across the South and the East Coast, which created a base for the organization in the Northeast, Mid-Atlantic, Midwest regions of the country; the next regional expansion occurred in 1983 with the establishment of the Alpha Chi and Xi Omega chapters in California. While joining the National Pan-Hellenic Council was an important objective for the fraternity, it prioritized entering an affiliation that would provide resources and relationships essential for Iota's long-term growth and development.
With that in mind, Iota Phi Theta petitioned for membership in the North-American Interfraternity Conference in 1985. Iota Phi Theta became the second African American fraternity to join the NIC and remains one of only four African-American fraternities which are NIC members. While its NIC membership was and is beneficial, Iota continued contact with the NPHC, which at the time had no expansion policy with which to accept new members. At its 1993 national convention, the NPHC adopted a constitutional amendment which provided for expansion, several years a NPHC expansion committee developed criteria for potential new member organizations and a procedure by which they might apply. In 1996, Iota Phi Theta submitted a formal application to the NPHC expansion committee for review, after which it was delivered to the NPHC Executive Board. After deliberation, the board unanimously approved Iota Phi Theta's membership application. Effective No
Bloomington is a city in and the county seat of Monroe County in the southern region of the U. S. state of Indiana. It is the seventh-largest city in Indiana and the fourth-largest outside the Indianapolis metropolitan area. According to the Monroe County History Center, Bloomington is known as the "Gateway to Scenic Southern Indiana." The city was established in 1818 by a group of settlers from Kentucky, the Carolinas, Virginia who were so impressed with "a haven of blooms" that they called it Bloomington. The population was 80,405 at the 2010 census; the city's population was estimated at 84,067 as of July 2016 by the U. S. Census Bureau. Bloomington is the home to Indiana University Bloomington. Established in 1820, IU Bloomington has 49,695 students, as of September 2016, is the original and largest campus of Indiana University. Most of the campus buildings are built of Indiana limestone. Bloomington is the home of the Indiana University School of Education, Indiana University School of Public and Environmental Affairs, Indiana University Maurer School of Law, the Jacobs School of Music, Indiana University Press, the Kelley School of Business, the Kinsey Institute, the Stone Age Institute, the Indiana University School of Optometry, the Indiana University School of Informatics and Engineering.
Bloomington has been designated a Tree City for 32 years, as of 2015. The city was the location of the Academy Award–winning 1979 movie Breaking Away, featuring a reenactment of Indiana University's annual Little 500 bicycle race. Monroe County's famous limestone quarries are featured in the movie. Bloomington was platted in 1818. A post office has been in operation at Bloomington since 1825. Bloomington was incorporated in 1827; the Elias Abel House, Blair-Dunning House, Bloomington City Hall, Bloomington West Side Historic District, Cantol Wax Company Building, Coca-Cola Bottling Plant, Cochran-Helton-Lindley House, Courthouse Square Historic District, Hinkle-Garton Farmstead, Home Laundry Company, Illinois Central Railroad Freight Depot, Johnson's Creamery, Legg House, Millen House, Millen-Chase-McCalla House, Monroe Carnegie Library, Monroe County Courthouse, Morgan House, J. L. Nichols House and Studio, North Washington Street Historic District, The Old Crescent, Princess Theatre, Prospect Hill Historic District, Second Baptist Church, Seminary Square Park, Steele Dunning Historic District, University Courts Historic District, Vinegar Hill Historic District, Wicks Building, Woolery Stone Company, Andrew Wylie House are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
According to the 2010 census, Bloomington has a total area of 23.359 square miles, of which 23.16 square miles is land and 0.199 square miles is water. Southern Indiana receives an abundance of rain, with a yearly average of nearly 45 inches. Bloomington is an area of irregular limestone terrain characterized by sinks, fissures, underground streams, sinking streams and caves, it is situated in the rolling hills of southern Indiana, resting on the intersection of the Norman Uplands and the Mitchell Plain. The varied topography of the city provides a sharp contrast to the flatter terrain more typical of central to northern portions of Indiana. Bloomington is located on a comparatively high ground, the summit of the divide between the basins of the West Fork and East Fork of Indiana's White River. Accordingly, there are no major watercourses within the city, nor is much groundwater available for wells; the largest stream within the city itself is Clear Creek, with its eastern branch known on the Indiana University campus as Jordan River.
Due to the absence of either natural lakes or rivers or groundwater in or near the city, a number of dams have been constructed on nearby creeks over the last 100 years to provide for the water needs of Bloomington and Monroe County. Early 20th-century damming projects occurred at a number of locations southwest of the city, the most notable of them being the Leonard Springs Dam. Due to the limestone formations underlying the reservoirs and the dams, water kept seeping from the reservoirs through developing underground channels. Despite all efforts, the city was never able to stop the leakage, had to resort to pumping leaking water back to the reservoir. By the 1920s, a more radical solution was needed to deal with the water crisis. A new reservoir, known as Griffy Lake, was constructed in a more geologically suitable area north of the city. In the 1950s, two much larger reservoirs, Lake Lemon and Lake Monroe were created in the northeastern and southeastern parts of Monroe County. Monroe Lake was created by the US Army Corps of Engineers for flood control, but has since been used to supply the city and the county with water.
The water pumping station at Griffy Lake has been mothballed. PCB pollution, associated with Westinghouse's operations, long was a concern in the area. A number of sites, in particular, Bennett's Dump and Lemon Lane Landfill at the northwestern edge of the city and Neal's Landfill in the county, were listed as Superfund sites. Clean-up operations at the Bennett Quarry site, started in 1983, were completed by 2000. While cleanups at the other sites were completed in 2012. Bloomington is the principal city of the Bloomington Metropolitan Statistical Area, a metropolitan area that covers Greene and Owen counties and had a combined population of 175,506 at the 2000 census; as of the 2010 census, there were 80,405 people, 31,425 households, 11,267 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,471.7 inhabitants per square mile. There were 33,239 housing units at an average density of 1,435.2 per square mile (554.1/k