History of the National Park Service
The national park idea has been credited to the artist George Catlin. He wrote, “by some great protecting policy of government, a nation’s park, containing man and beast, in all the wild and freshness of their nature’s beauty. ”Catlin’s vision had no immediate effect. Slowly unspoiled nature and spectacular natural areas of the West became better known, in California, several state leaders sought to protect Yosemite Valley. In 1864, Sen. John Conness of California sponsored an act to transfer the valley, President Abraham Lincoln signed this act of Congress on June 30,1864. California was granted the valley and the grove on condition that They would “be held for use and recreation. inalienable for all time. ”The Yellowstone country was first officially explored by David E. Folsom, Henry D. Washburn. This myth was successfully exploited by National Park advocates but eventually was debunked by historians, an early ally in promoting a public reservation was the Northern Pacific Railroad Company. They were seeking major destinations for their route through Montana, in 1875, Mackinac National Park was created on a resort island in Lake Huron in Michigan, the second national park.
As at Yellowstone, the garrison at Fort Mackinac were in charge of supervising and improving the park. The fort and the park were turned over to state control in 1895. U. S. cavalry units took up a position in California-controlled Yosemite Park in 1891, in 1906 the park was completely taken into federal control. Often local ranchers would try to protect these ruins from plunder, the effort began in Boston and spread to Washington, New York and Santa Fe, during the 1880s and 1890s. Rep. John Fletcher Lacey of Iowa and Senator Henry Cabot Lodge of Massachusetts, the Antiquities Act of 1906 was designed to protect antiquities and objects of scientific interest on the public domain. The Act declared these sites to be National Monuments and it prohibited the excavation or removal of objects on Federal land unless a permit had been issued by the appropriate department. Between 1906 and 1933 three Federal agencies, the Departments of Interior and War, initiated and administered separate groups of National Monuments, President Theodore Roosevelt signed the Antiquities Act on June 8,1906.
As early as 1889 Congress authorized the President to reserve the land on which the well known Casa Grande Ruin was located. In 1904, Dr. Edgar Lee Hewett made a review of all the Indian ruins on Federal lands in Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado and he recommended many sites for protection. Devils Tower is a Wyoming landmark, a 600-foot high tower of rock and it has been a guidepost and a religious site. In December of that year, three more National Monuments were created, el Morro, New Mexico is a wayside in the rugged desert lands used by Indians settlers and travelers for centuries as a watering hole and a place to leave their marks
Law of the United States
The United States Code is the official compilation and codification of general and permanent federal statutory law. Federal law and treaties, so long as they are in accordance with the Constitution, preempt conflicting state and territorial laws in the 50 U. S. states, the scope of federal preemption is limited because the scope of federal power is not universal. Indeed, states may grant their citizens broader rights than the federal Constitution as long as they do not infringe on any federal constitutional rights. Thus, most U. S. law consists primarily of state law, which can and does vary greatly from one state to the next. At both the federal and state levels, the law of the United States is largely derived from the law system of English law. However, American law has diverged greatly from its English ancestor both in terms of substance and procedure, and has incorporated a number of civil law innovations. In the United States, the law is derived from five sources, constitutional law, statutory law, administrative regulations, where Congress enacts a statute that conflicts with the Constitution, the Supreme Court may find that law unconstitutional and declare it invalid.
Notably, a statute does not disappear automatically merely because it has been found unconstitutional, many federal and state statutes have remained on the books for decades after they were ruled to be unconstitutional. However, under the principle of stare decisis, no sensible lower court will enforce an unconstitutional statute, any court that refuses to enforce a constitutional statute will risk reversal by the Supreme Court. The United States and most Commonwealth countries are heirs to the common law tradition of English law. Certain practices traditionally allowed under English common law were expressly outlawed by the Constitution, such as bills of attainder, as common law courts, U. S. courts have inherited the principle of stare decisis. The actual substance of English law was received into the United States in several ways. Some reception statutes impose a specific date for reception, such as the date of a colonys founding. Thus, contemporary U. S. Second, a number of important British statutes in effect at the time of the Revolution have been independently reenacted by U. S. states.
Two examples that many lawyers will recognize are the Statute of Frauds, such English statutes are still regularly cited in contemporary American cases interpreting their modern American descendants. However, it is important to understand that despite the presence of reception statutes, early on, American courts, even after the Revolution, often did cite contemporary English cases. But citations to English decisions gradually disappeared during the 19th century as American courts developed their own principles to resolve the problems of the American people. The number of published volumes of American reports soared from eighteen in 1810 to over 8,000 by 1910
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
A business magnate refers to an entrepreneur of great influence, importance, or standing in a particular enterprise or field of business. Such individuals may be called czars, proprietors, taipans, the word magnate derives from the Latin magnates, meaning a great man or great nobleman. The word tycoon derives from the Japanese word taikun, which means great lord, the word entered the English language in 1857 with the return of Commodore Perry to the United States. U. S. President Abraham Lincoln was humorously referred to as the Tycoon by his aides John Nicolay, the term spread to the business community, where it has been used ever since. The word mogul is an English corruption of mughal, Persian or Arabic for Mongol and it alludes to emperors of the Mughal Empire in the Medieval India, who possessed great power and storied riches capable of producing wonders of opulence such as the Taj Mahal. Modern business magnates are entrepreneurs that amass on their own or wield substantial family fortunes in the process of building or running their own businesses and their dominance was known as the Second Industrial Revolution, the Gilded Age, or the Robber Baron Era.
The Famous 15, Americas Most Fascinating Tycoons,25 Tycoons Who Run the World
General Federation of Women's Clubs
The General Federation of Womens Clubs, founded in 1890 during the Progressive Movement, is a federation of over 3,000 local womens clubs which promote civic improvements through volunteer service. Many of its activities and service projects are done independently by local clubs through their communities or GFWCs national partnerships, GFWC maintains nearly 100,000 members throughout the United States and internationally. GFWC remains one of the worlds largest and oldest nonpartisan, nondenominational, the GFWC was founded by Jane Cunningham Croly, a leading New York journalist. In 1868 she helped found the Sorosis club for professional women and it was the model for the nationwide GFWC in 1890. In 1889 Mrs. Croly organized a conference in New York that brought delegates from 61 womens clubs. The women formed a permanent organization in 1890 with Charlotte Emerson Brown as its first president, in 1901 it was granted a charter by Congress. Dietz proclaimed, We look for unity, but unity in diversity, southern white women played a central role in the early years.
Local womens clubs joined the General Federation directly but came into membership through state federations that began forming in 1892. The GFWC counts international clubs among its members, southern women led by president Rebecca Douglas Lowe, a Georgia native, told Ruffin that she could be seated as a representative of the two white clubs but not the black one. She refused on principle and was excluded from the proceedings and these events became known as The Ruffin Incident and were widely covered in newspapers around the country, most of whom supported Ruffin. At the same time and the Georgia Education League provided kindergartens for children in Georgia. In a time when rights were limited the State Federation chapters held grassroots efforts to make sure the womans voice was heard. Through monthly group meetings, to annual meetings, women of influential status within their communities could have their feelings heard. They were able to meet with officials in order to have a say in community events.
Until the right to vote was granted, these clubs were the best outlet for women to be heard. Womens clubs spread very rapidly after 1890, taking up some of the left by the decline of the WCTU. Local clubs at first were mostly reading groups focused on literature, to The clubs avoided controversial issues that would divide the membership, especially religion and the prohibition issue. In the South and East, suffrage was highly divisive, in the Midwest, clubwomen had first avoided the suffrage issue out of caution, but after 1900 increasingly came to support it
Gifford Pinchot was an American forester and politician. He was a member of the Republican Party for most of his life, Pinchot is known for reforming the management and development of forests in the United States and for advocating the conservation of the nations reserves by planned use and renewal. He called it the art of producing from the forest whatever it can yield for the service of man, Pinchot coined the term conservation ethic as applied to natural resources. He was the first to demonstrate the practicality and profitability of managing forests for continuous cropping and his leadership put conservation of forests high on Americas priority list. Asked how to say his name, he told The Literary Digest as though it were spelled pincho and he graduated from Phillips Exeter Academy and in 1889, Yale University, where he was a member of Skull and Bones. He had a brother Amos Pinchot and a sister Antoinette, the Pinchots made a great fortune from lumbering and land speculation, and Pinchots father regretted the damage his familys work had done to the land.
James made conservation a family affair and suggested that Gifford should become a forester, Gifford studied as a postgraduate at the French National School of Forestry, in Nancy, for a year. He returned home and plunged into the nascent forestry movement, intent on shaping a national forest policy, family financial affairs were managed by brother Amos Pinchot, thus freeing Gifford to do the more important work of developing forest management concepts. Unlike some others in the movement, Giffords wealth allowed him to singly pursue this goal without worry of income. Pinchots approach set him apart from the leading forestry experts, especially Bernhard E. Fernow. Schenck was Pinchots successor at the Biltmore Estate and founder of the Biltmore Forest School on Biltmore Estate. Perhaps, the men who had the most influence on his development as a forester were Sir Dietrich Brandis, who had brought forestry to the British Empire, and Sir Wilhelm Schlich, Brandis successor. Pinchot relied heavily upon Brandis advice for introducing professional forest management in the U. S.
in 1896, the National Academy of Sciences formed the National Forest Commission. Pinchot was the only non-Academy member, President Grover Cleveland asked Pinchot to develop a plan for managing the nations Western forest reserves. In 1897, Pinchot became a member of Boone and Crockett Club one of North Americas first conservation organizations, in 1898, Gifford Pinchot succeeded Bernhard Fernow as chief of the Division of Forestry, renamed the United States Forest Service in 1905. Thus, management of the federal forests changed from the United States Department of the Interior to this agency within the Department of Agriculture. Pinchot introduced better forestry methods into the operations of private owners and small, by using new forestry school graduates to good practices. In 1900, Pinchot established the Society of American Foresters and this helped bring credibility to the new profession of forestry, and was part of the broader professionalization movement underway in the United States at the turn of the twentieth century
Smoot was a prominent leader of the LDS Church, chosen to serve as an apostle in the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles prior to his election to the Senate. His role in the LDS Church led to a controversy of four years after he was elected to the Senate. A Senate committee investigated his eligibility to serve and recommended against him, after being defeated for office in 1932, the year Democrat Franklin D. Roosevelt was elected to the presidency, Smoot returned to Utah in 1933. Retiring from politics and business, he devoted himself to the church, at the time of his death, he was third in the line of succession to lead the LDS Church. Smoot was born in 1862 in Salt Lake City, Utah Territory and he was the son of Mormon pioneer Abraham O. Smoot from Kentucky and Iowa, who served as mayor of the city from 1856 to 1862. His mother was Anne Kristina Smoot, his fathers fifth wife of six plural marriages, the family moved to Provo, when his father was called by Brigham Young to head the stake there. Reed Smoot attended public schools and the University of Utah, after graduation, Smoot served as a Mormon missionary in England.
After returning to Utah, Smoot married Alpha M. Eldredge of Salt Lake City on September 17,1884, Smoot became a successful businessman in the Salt Lake City area. From 1895, he became involved in the hierarchy of the LDS Church. On April 8,1900, Smoot was ordained an LDS Church apostle, after becoming an apostle in 1900, Smoot received the approval of LDS Church president Joseph F. Smith to run for office in 1902. He had joined the Republican Party, Smoot was elected by the Utah legislature to the United States Senate on January 20,1903, as a Republican Senator, representing the state. Smoot was introduced to the United States Senate by Utahs senior U. S. Senator, Republican Thomas Kearns, a Catholic who was elected in 1901. Kearns, a prominent mining magnate, newspaper owner, banker, LDS Church president Lorenzo Snow had not supported Smoot for the position and was influential among legislative leaders. Smoots election sparked a bitter battle in the Senate on whether Smoot was eligible. Many senators were suspicious of the LDS Church because of its earlier polygamous practices, in addition, some thought Smoots position as a Mormon apostle would disqualify him from representing all his constituents.
Many were convinced that his association with the church disqualified him from serving in the United States Senate, only a few years earlier, another prominent Utah Mormon, B. H. Roberts, had been elected to the House of Representatives. He was denied his seat on the basis that he practiced plural marriage, Smoot did not practice plural marriage, but the Senate likely learned that his father had had six wives and 27 children. The LDS Church had officially renounced future plural marriages in an 1890 Manifesto, but the Salt Lake Tribune reported that church leaders continued to approve secretly of new, post-Manifesto plural marriages
Frederick Law Olmsted Jr.
Frederick Law Olmsted Jr. was an American landscape architect and city planner known for his wildlife conservation efforts. He had a commitment to national parks, and worked on projects in Acadia. Olmsted Point in Yosemite and Olmsted Island at Great Falls of the Potomac River in Maryland are named after him and he was the son of Frederick Law Olmsted, Sr. and he and his brother John C. Olmsted created Olmsted Brothers as a firm to their fathers. Olmsted was born on Staten Island, New York, the son of Frederick Law Olmsted and Mary Cleveland Perkins, after graduating from the Roxbury Latin School in 1890, he began his career as his famous fathers apprentice. He entered Harvard College where he earned his bachelors degree in 1894 and he became a partner in his fathers Brookline, Massachusetts landscape architecture firm in 1895. Olmsted and his half brother quickly took over leadership of the firm, for the next half-century, the Olmsted brothers firm completed thousands of landscape projects nationwide.
In 1900 Olmsted returned to Harvard to teach, and he established the schools first formal training program in landscape architecture. In 1901, he was appointed by President Theodore Roosevelt as a member of the Senate Park Improvement Commission for the District of Columbia, in 1910, he was approached by the American Civic Association for advice on the creation of a new bureau of national parks. I have made at different times two suggestions, one of which was, a definition of the purposes for which the national parks and monuments are to be administered by the Bureau. Olmsted and his wife, Sarah Hall Sharples, whom he married on March 30,1911, had one child, by 1920, his better-known projects included plans for metropolitan park systems and greenways across the country. And was a member and president of the American Society of Landscape Architects. Under the leadership of John Charles Olmsted and Frederick Law Olmsted Jr. the Olmsted Brothers firm employed nearly 60 staff at its peak in the early 1930s, as the last surviving family member in the firm, Olmsted retired in 1949.
The Caracas Country Club is today the place in the city were one can actually see how the valleys original natural landscape was before the city was built. In his years, Olmsted worked for the protection of Californias coastal redwoods, redwood National Parks Olmsted Grove was dedicated to him in 1953, the same year in which he received the Pugsley Gold Medal. He was responsible for the original master plan layout of Cornell University. He worked on the Bok Tower Gardens in Lake Wales, Olmsted died while visiting friends in Malibu, California and is buried at Old North Cemetery in Hartford, Connecticut. Landscape design at Waveny Park, New Canaan, Connecticut,1912, shelter at Casa Grande Ruins National Monument,1932 St
United States Department of the Interior
The United States Department of the Interior is the United States federal executive department of the U. S. About 75% of federal land is managed by the department. The Department is administered by the United States Secretary of the Interior, the current Secretary is Ryan Zinke. The Inspector General position is vacant, with Mary Kendall serving as acting Inspector General. Despite its name, the Department of the Interior has a different role from that of the ministries of other nations. In the United States, national security and immigration functions are performed by the Department of Homeland Security primarily, the Department of the Interior has often been humorously called The Department of Everything Else because of its broad range of responsibilities. A department for domestic concern was first considered by the 1st United States Congress in 1789, the idea of a separate domestic department continued to percolate for a half-century and was supported by Presidents from James Madison to James Polk.
The 1846–48 Mexican–American War gave the new steam as the responsibilities of federal government grew. Polks Secretary of the Treasury, Robert J. Walker, became a champion of creating the new department. In 1849, Walker stated in his report that several federal offices were placed in departments with which they had little to do. Walker argued that these and other bureaus should be together in a new Department of the Interior. A bill authorizing its creation of the Department passed the House of Representatives on February 15,1849, the Department was established on March 3,1849, the eve of President Zachary Taylors inauguration, when the Senate voted 31 to 25 to create the Department. Its passage was delayed by Democrats in Congress who were reluctant to create more patronage posts for the incoming Whig administration to fill, the first Secretary of the Interior was Thomas Ewing. Many of the concerns the Department originally dealt with were gradually transferred to other Departments. Other agencies became separate Departments, such as the Bureau of Agriculture, however and natural resource management, American Indian affairs, wildlife conservation, and territorial affairs remain the responsibilities of the Department of the Interior.
As of mid-2004, the Department managed 507 million acres of surface land, energy projects on federally managed lands and offshore areas supply about 28% of the nations energy production. Within the Interior Department, the Bureau of Indian Affairs handles some federal relations with Native Americans, the current acting Assistant Secretary for Indian Affairs is Lawrence S. Roberts, an enrolled member of the Oneida Tribe in Wisconsin. Several cases have sought accounting of such funds from the departments of Interior, in addition, some Native American nations have sued the government over water-rights issues and their treaties with the US
A national park is a park in use for conservation purposes. Often it is a reserve of natural, semi-natural, or developed land that a sovereign state declares or owns, although individual nations designate their own national parks differently, there is a common idea, the conservation of wild nature for posterity and as a symbol of national pride. An international organization, the International Union for Conservation of Nature, although Yellowstone was not officially termed a national park in its establishing law, it was always termed such in practice and is widely held to be the first and oldest national park in the world. The first area to use national park in its legislation was the USs Mackinac Island. Australias Royal National Park, established in 1879, was the third official national park. In 1895 ownership of Mackinac Island was transferred to the State of Michigan as a state park, as a result, Australias Royal National Park is by some considerations the second oldest national park now in existence.
The largest national park in the meeting the IUCN definition is the Northeast Greenland National Park. According to the IUCN,6,555 national parks worldwide met its criteria in 2006, IUCN is still discussing the parameters of defining a national park. National parks are almost always open to visitors, in 1971, these criteria were further expanded upon leading to more clear and defined benchmarks to evaluate a national park. In 1810, the English poet William Wordsworth described the Lake District as a sort of property, in which every man has a right and interest who has an eye to perceive. It was known as Hot Springs Reservation, but no authority was established. Federal control of the area was not clearly established until 1877, John Muir is today referred to as the Father of the National Parks due to his work in Yosemite. He published two articles in The Century Magazine, which formed the base for the subsequent legislation. President Abraham Lincoln signed an Act of Congress on July 1,1864, ceding the Yosemite Valley, according to this bill, private ownership of the land in this area was no longer possible.
The state of California was designated to manage the park for use, resort. Leases were permitted for up to ten years and the proceeds were to be used for conservation, a public discussion followed this first legislation of its kind and there was a heated debate over whether the government had the right to create parks. The perceived mismanagement of Yosemite by the Californian state was the reason why Yellowstone at its establishment six years was put under national control, in 1872, Yellowstone National Park was established as the United States first national park, being the worlds first national park. In some European countries, national protection and nature reserves already existed, such as Drachenfels, Yellowstone was part of a federally governed territory
United States Congress
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States consisting of two chambers, the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Congress meets in the Capitol in Washington, D. C, both senators and representatives are chosen through direct election, though vacancies in the Senate may be filled by a gubernatorial appointment. Members are usually affiliated to the Republican Party or to the Democratic Party, Congress has 535 voting members,435 Representatives and 100 Senators. The House of Representatives has six non-voting members in addition to its 435 voting members and these members can, sit on congressional committees and introduce legislation. Puerto Rico, American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands, the members of the House of Representatives serve two-year terms representing the people of a single constituency, known as a district. Congressional districts are apportioned to states by using the United States Census results. Each state, regardless of population or size, has two senators, there are 100 senators representing the 50 states.
Each senator is elected at-large in their state for a term, with terms staggered. The House and Senate are equal partners in the legislative process—legislation cannot be enacted without the consent of both chambers, the Constitution grants each chamber some unique powers. The Senate ratifies treaties and approves presidential appointments while the House initiates revenue-raising bills, the House initiates impeachment cases, while the Senate decides impeachment cases. A two-thirds vote of the Senate is required before a person can be forcibly removed from office. The term Congress can refer to a meeting of the legislature. A Congress covers two years, the current one, the 115th Congress, began on January 3,2017, the Congress starts and ends on the third day of January of every odd-numbered year. Members of the Senate are referred to as senators, members of the House of Representatives are referred to as representatives, congressmen, or congresswomen. One analyst argues that it is not a solely reactive institution but has played a role in shaping government policy and is extraordinarily sensitive to public pressure.
Several academics described Congress, Congress reflects us in all our strengths, Congress is the governments most representative body. Congress is essentially charged with reconciling our many points of view on the public policy issues of the day. —Smith and Wielen Congress is constantly changing and is constantly in flux, most incumbents seek re-election, and their historical likelihood of winning subsequent elections exceeds 90 percent