National Semiconductor

National Semiconductor was an American semiconductor manufacturer which specialized in analog devices and subsystems with headquarters in Santa Clara, United States. The company produced power management integrated circuits, display drivers and operational amplifiers, communication interface products and data conversion solutions. National's key markets included wireless handsets, displays and a variety of broad electronics markets, including medical, automotive and test and measurement applications. On September 23, 2011, the company formally became part of Texas Instruments as the "Silicon Valley" division. National Semiconductor was founded in Danbury, Connecticut, by Dr. Bernard J. Rothlein on May 27, 1959, when he and seven colleagues, Edward N. Clarke, Joseph J. Gruber, Milton Schneider, Robert L. Hopkins, Robert L. Koch, Richard R. Rau and Arthur V. Siefert, left their employment at the semiconductor division of Sperry Rand Corporation; the founding of the new company was followed by Sperry Rand filing a lawsuit against National Semiconductor for patent infringement.

By 1965, as it was reaching the courts, the preliminaries of the lawsuit had caused the stock value of National to be depressed. The depressed stock values allowed Peter J Sprague to invest in the company with Sprague's family funds. Sprague relied on further financial backing from a pair of West Coast investment firms and a New York underwriter to take control as the chairman of National Semiconductor. At that time Sprague was 27 years old. Jeffrey S. Young characterized the era as the beginning of venture capitalism; that same year National Semiconductor acquired Molectro. Molectro was founded in 1962 in Santa Clara, California, by J. Nall and D. Spittlehouse, who were employed at Fairchild Camera and Instrument Corporation; the acquisition brought to National Semiconductor two experts in linear semiconductor technologies, Robert Widlar and Dave Talbert, who were formerly employed at Fairchild. The acquisition of Molectro provided National with the technology to launch itself in the fabrication and manufacture of monolithic integrated circuits.

In 1967, Sprague hired five top executives away from Fairchild, among whom were Charles E. Sporck and Pierre Lamond. At the time of Sporck's hiring, Robert Noyce was de facto head of semiconductor operations at Fairchild and Sporck was his operations manager. Sporck was appointed CEO of National. To make the deal better for Sporck's hiring and appointment at half his former salary at Fairchild, Sporck was allotted a substantial share of National's stock. In essence, Sporck took four of his personnel from Fairchild with him as well as three others from TI, Perkin-Elmer, Hewlett-Packard to form a new eight-man team at National Semiconductor. Incidentally, Sporck had been Widlar's superior at Fairchild before Widlar left Fairchild to join Molectro after a compensation dispute with Sporck. In 1968, National shifted its headquarters from Connecticut, to Santa Clara, California. However, like many companies, National retained its registration as a Delaware corporation, for legal and financial expediency.

Over the years National Semiconductor acquired several companies like Fairchild Semiconductor, Cyrix. However, over time National Semiconductor spun off these acquisitions. Fairchild Semiconductor became a separate company again in 1997, the Cyrix microprocessors division was sold to VIA Technologies of Taiwan in 1999. From 1997 to 2002, National enjoyed a large amount of publicity and awards with the development of the Cyrix Media Center, Cyrix WebPad, WebPad Metro and National Origami PDA concept devices created by National's Conceptual Products Group. Based on the success of the WebPad, National formed the Information Appliance Division in 1998; the Information Appliance Division was sold to AMD in 2003. Other businesses dealing in such products as digital wireless chipsets, image sensors, PC I/O chipsets have been closed down or sold off as National has reincarnated itself as a high-performance analog semiconductor company. Peter Sprague, Pierre Lamond and the affectionately called Charlie Sporck worked hand-in-hand, with support of the board of directors to transform the company into a multinational and world-class semiconductor concern.

After becoming CEO, Sporck started a historic price war among semiconductor companies, which trimmed the number of competitors in the field. Among the casualties to exit the semiconductor business were General Electric and Westinghouse. Cost control, overhead reduction and a focus on profits implemented by Sporck was the key element to National surviving the price war and subsequently in 1981 becoming the first semiconductor company to reach the US$1 billion annual sales mark. However, the foundation that made National successful was its expertise in analog electronics, TTL and MOSFET integrated circuit technologies; as they had while employed in Fairchild and Lamond directed National Semiconductor towards the growing industrial and commercial markets and began to rely less on military and aerospace contracts. Those decisions coupled with inflationary growth in use of computers provided the market for the expansion of National. Meanwhile, sources of funds associated with Sprague coupled with creative structuring of cash flow buffering due to Sporck and Lamond provided the financing required for that expansion.

Lamond and Sporck had managed to attract and extract substantial funds to finance the expansion. Among Sporck's cost control efforts was his offshore outsourcing of labour. National Semiconductor was among the pioneers in the semicon

Henry (bishop of Finland)

Henry was a medieval English clergyman. He came to Sweden with Cardinal Nicholas Breakspeare in 1153 and was most designated to be the new Archbishop of Uppsala, but the independent church province of Sweden could only be established in 1164 after the civil war, Henry would have been sent to organize the Church in Finland, where Christians had existed for two centuries. According to legend, he entered Finland together with King Saint Eric of Sweden and died as a martyr, becoming a central figure in the local Catholic Church. However, the authenticity of the accounts of his life and ministry are disputed and there are no historical records of his birth, existence or death. Together with his alleged murderer Lalli, Henry is an important figure in the early history of Finland, his feast is celebrated by the majority Lutheran Church of Finland, as well as by the Catholic Church of Finland. He is commemorated in the liturgical calendars of several Anglican churches; the legend of Bishop Henry's life, or his Vita, was written 150 years after his time, at the end of the 13th century, contains little concrete information about him.

He is said to have been an English-born bishop in Uppsala at the time of King Eric the Saint of Sweden in the mid-12th century, ruling the peaceful kingdom with the king in heavenly co-existence. To tackle the perceived threat from the non-Christian Finns and Henry were forced to battle them. After they had conquered Finland, baptized the people and built many churches, the victorious king returned to Sweden while Henry remained with the Finns, more willing to live the life of a preacher than that of a high bishop; the legend draws to a conclusion. The accused man became enraged and killed the bishop, thus considered to be a martyr; the legend emphasizes that Henry was a Bishop of Uppsala, not a Bishop of Finland which became a conventional claim on by the church itself. He was never appointed as a bishop there; the legend does not state whether there had been bishops in Finland before his time or what happened after his death. The vita is so void of any concrete information about Finland that it could have been created anywhere.

The Latin is scholastic and the grammar is in general exceptionally good. Henry's Vita is followed by the more local miracula, a list of eleven miracles that various people were said to have experienced sometime after the bishop's death. With the exception of a priest in Skara who suffered a stomach ache after mocking Henry, all miracles seem to have taken place in Finland; the other miracles, which occurred following prayer to Bishop Henry, were: The murderer lost his scalp when he put the bishop's hat on his head The Bishop's finger was found the next Spring A boy was raised from the dead in Kaisala A girl was raised from the dead in Vehmaa A sick woman was healed in Sastamala A Franciscan called Erlend had his headache healed A blind woman got back her eyesight in Kyrö A man with a paralyzed leg could walk again in Kyrö A sick girl was healed A group of fishermen from Kokemäki survived a stormMost versions of Henry's legend only include a selection of these miracles. Henry and his crusade to Finland were a part of the legend of King Eric.

The appendix of the early 13th century Västgötalagen, which has a short description of Eric's memorable deeds makes no reference to Henry or the crusade. Henry and the crusade do not appear until a version of Eric's legend that dates to 1344. Similarities in the factual content and phraseology regarding the common events indicate that either one of the legends has acted as the model for the other. Henry's legend is considered to have been written during the 1280s or 1290s at the latest, for the consecration of the Cathedral of Turku in 1300, when his alleged remains were translated there from Nousiainen, a parish not far from Turku, yet as late as in the 1470s, the crusade legend was ignored in the Chronica regni Gothorum, a chronicle of the history of Sweden, written by Ericus Olai, the Canon of the Uppsala cathedral. Noteworthy in the development of the legend is that the first canonically elected Bishop of Turku, Johan of Polish origin, was elected as the Archbishop of Uppsala in 1289, after three years in office in Turku.

The Swedish bishops of Finland before him, Bero and Kettil, had been selected by the King of Sweden. Related to the new situation was the appointment of the king's brother as the Duke of Finland in 1284, which challenged the Bishop's earlier position as the sole authority on all local matters. Johan was followed in Turku by Bishop Magnus, born in Finland. In 1291 a document by the cathedral chapter makes no reference to Henry though it mentions the cathedral and election of the new bishop many times. A papal letter by Pope Nicholas IV from 1292 has the Virgin Mary as the sole patrona in Turku; the first mention of Bishop Henry in historical sources is from 1298, when he is mentioned along with king Eric in a document from a provincial synod of Uppsala in Telge. This document, although mentioned many times as a source over the centuries, was not dated until 1910; the legend itself is first referred in a letter by the Archbishop of Uppsala in 1298, where Eric and Henry are mentioned together as martyrs who needed to be prayed to for the sake of the situation in Karelia, associating their alleged crusade to Finland with the new expeditions against Novgorod.

The war between Novgorod and Sweden for the control of Karelia had started in 1293. The first certain appearance

The Hundred-Foot Journey (film)

The Hundred-Foot Journey is a 2014 American comedy-drama film directed by Lasse Hallström from a screenplay written by Steven Knight, adapted from Richard Morais' 2010 novel of the same name. The film stars Helen Mirren, Om Puri, Manish Dayal and Charlotte Le Bon and is about a battle of two restaurants in a village: one by an Indian family and the other, a lofty Michelin-starred restaurant. Produced by Steven Spielberg and Oprah Winfrey for DreamWorks Pictures through their respective production companies, Amblin Entertainment and Harpo Films, in association with Participant Media and Reliance Entertainment, it was released by Touchstone Pictures on August 8, 2014, earned nearly $90 million at the worldwide box office; the Kadam family ran a restaurant in Mumbai. The second-oldest son, was being groomed to replace his mother as the restaurant's main cook. However, a mob firebombs the restaurant over an election dispute. Papa Kadam and his family evacuate the guests. Seeking asylum in Europe, the family first settles in London, where their residence proves ill-suited for a restaurant.

They depart for mainland Europe. Shortly after entering France, the brakes on Papa's van fail near Saint-Antonin-Noble-Val in the Midi-Pyrénées. Marguerite, a sous chef at an upscale French restaurant named "Le Saule Pleureur", passes by and offers to help the Kadams find an auto repair shop and a guest house, she treats them to cold food. Papa is amazed at the quality of the food in the village and its availability and discovers that Marguerite made the food herself. Papa learns of an abandoned restaurant building available for purchase, it is located directly across the street — only a hundred feet — from Le Saule Pleureur. Madame Mallory, proprietor of Le Saule Pleureur and purporting to act as caretaker for the owners of the abandoned restaurant, asks the Kadams to leave because it is "private property". Papa buys the property though the rest of his family is against it, names the restaurant "Maison Mumbai". Mallory asks for their menu and by the time of their opening night has bought all the locally available ingredients they would need to serve.

A cold war erupts between Mallory. The war peaks on Bastille Day when one of Mallory's chefs, Jean-Pierre, two others vandalize the Kadams' restaurant by spray-painting words which translate to "France for the French" on the outer wall and firebombing the interior. Hassan catches the arsonists in the act and scares them off; the following morning Mallory, who deduced, responsible for the arson and vandalism, dismisses Jean-Pierre and cleans the graffiti from Maison Mumbai. Hassan, having heard from Marguerite that Mallory hires potential chefs by taste-testing an omelette and deciding whether the person is indeed a great chef, asks if he may cook an omelette for her to his recipe. Due to his injured hands, Mallory helps under Hassan's supervision. After tasting the omelette, which had Indian influences to it, Mallory recognizes Hassan's potential and invites him to work for her as an apprentice, confesses that she deliberately sabotaged his apology on behalf of his father, when he recreated a classic pigeon dish.

Papa is against the move, but strikes a deal with her as to Hassan's pay. Hassan's cooking, which evolves into a fusion of Indian cuisine and French cuisine, results in Mallory's restaurant receiving its second Michelin star; the award draws national attention to Hassan's cooking, he is offered and accepts a job in Paris. Papa and Mallory make amends and begin seeing each other, but Hassan's relationship with Marguerite has soured. Hassan's cooking in Paris receives critical acclaim, fueling speculation of a third Michelin Star for the Paris restaurant, but his work is bogged down by thoughts of his family and Marguerite. Hassan returns home a year and reunites with Marguerite, he invites Marguerite to join him in a business venture—buying a stake in Mallory's restaurant, along with operational control. Hassan believes; that evening and Marguerite prepare dinner at Mallory's restaurant and bring the dishes across the road to the courtyard of Maison Mumbai for all to enjoy. Helen Mirren as Madame Mallory Om Puri as Papa Kadam Manish Dayal as Hassan Kadam Rohan Chand as young Hassan Kadam Charlotte Le Bon as Marguerite Amit Shah as Mansur Farzana Dua Elahe as Mahira Dillon Mitra as Mukthar Aria Pandya as Aisha Michel Blanc as Mayor Shuna Lemoine as Mayor's wife Clément Sibony as Jean-Pierre Juhi Chawla as Mama Kadam Vincent Elbaz as Paul, Manager of the Parisian molecular cuisine restaurant On June 3, 2013, Helen Mirren was in negotiations to join the cast.

On July 1, DreamWorks confirmed the casting of Manish Dayal. Principal photography began on September 23, 2013, in southern France, in Saint-Antonin-Noble-Val, lasted for nine weeks and proceeded in The Netherlands and in the Cité du Cinéma studio complex, located in Saint-Denis, north of Paris; the Hundred Foot Journey was extensively shot at scenic locales of Midi-Pyrénées. Prior to actual filming, actors Manish Dayal and Charlotte Le Bon spent a considerable amount of time going to restaurants and observing and learning in kitchens. To sign off on the food featured in the film, producer Juliet Blake consulted Indian-born chef Floyd Cardoz who understands “fusing together two cultures through cooking.” Indian actress Juhi Chawla plays Om Puri's character's wife in the film. The makers felt the need for her to look 15 years older than her present age. That's why she has b