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National Trust for Scotland

The National Trust for Scotland for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty known as the National Trust for Scotland is a Scottish conservation organisation. It is the largest membership organisation in Scotland and describes itself as "the conservation charity that protects and promotes Scotland's natural and cultural heritage for present and future generations to enjoy"; the Trust owns and manages around 130 properties and 180,000 acres of land, including castles, ancient small dwellings, historic sites and remote rural areas. It is similar in function to the National Trust, which covers England and Northern Ireland, to other national trusts worldwide; the Trust was established in 1931 and had 450 employees, over 310,000 members, 1.5 million recorded visitors. The Trust's Patron is Prince Duke of Rothesay, it is a registered charity under Scottish law. The charity owned properties rather than "wilderness" areas; when the Trust took on the management of rural estates there was controversy concerning issues such as the siting of visitor centres and placing of signposts.

However, the Trust has learned to adopt a more sensitive approach to the extent of removing some intrusive facilities such as the original Glen Coe Visitor Centre. In August 2010, a report called Fit For Purpose by George Reid, commissioned by the Trust, cited shortcomings that were corrected though organizational restructuring completed by the end of its 2011/12 Fiscal Year; the stabilisation of the Trust's finances allowed it to make its first acquisition in seven years when it bought the Alloa Tower in Clackmannanshire in 2015. For the year ended 28 February 2015, the Trust's total income was £47 million, down from £49 million in 2013–14; the largest sources of income were membership subscriptions, commercial activities and investment income. In the same year the Trust's total expenditure was £49 million, the majority of, spent on property operating and conservation expenditures; as part of its current five-year strategy, the Trust is working to generate additional income and improve operational efficiency with the aim of eliminating its operating deficit by the end of the 2016/17 financial year.

Annual membership of the Trust allows free entry to properties and "Discovery Tickets" are available for shorter term visitors. Membership provides free entry to National Trust properties in England and Wales and Northern Ireland, vice versa; the Trust has independent sister organisations in the United States, Canada. The organisation's membership magazine, Scotland in Trust, is published three times a year. For the maintenance of its nature properties, the Trust depends on the contributions of volunteers, with local circles of Conservation Volunteers working on projects during weekends; the charity organises working holidays called "Thistle Camps" on various properties, with activities undertaken including footpath maintenance and woodland work such as rhododendron control. The Trust manages 129 heritage properties consisting of 1,500 individual buildings, 270 of which are listed. Most grounds and open spaces are open throughout the year but buildings may only be visited from Easter to October, sometimes only in the afternoons.

The Trust is Scotland's largest garden owner with just under 70 gardens that cover 238 hectares and contain 13,500 varieties of plant. These gardens include 35 "major gardens" with the remainder forming part of other properties; the gardens represent the full history of Scottish gardening ranging from the late medieval at Culross Palace, through the 18th-century picturesque at Culzean Castle and Victorian formality at the House of Dun to 20th-century plant collections at Brodick and Inverewe. The Trust is the third largest land manager in Scotland, owning 76,000 hectares of Scottish countryside including 46 Munros, more than 400 islands and islets and significant stretches of coastline. Trust countryside properties include Glen Coe and Mar Lodge Estate; the Trust's management of its coastal and countryside sites is guided by its Wild Land Policy which aims to preserve the land in its undeveloped state and provide access and enjoyment to the public. Trust sites are home to a diverse variety of native wildlife.

The Trust estimate that 25% of Scotland's seabirds nest on its island and coastal sites, equivalent to 8% of seabirds in Europe. The Trust's countryside properties are home to native mammal species including red deer, pine marten and red squirrel. Since 1957, the Trust have owned and managed the archipelago of St Kilda, Scotland's first World Heritage Site and the only World Heritage Site in the UK to be listed for both its natural and cultural significance. St Kilda and the surrounding sea stacks are home to over one million seabirds as well as three species unique to the islands. Across its properties the Trust is responsible for the conservation and display of hundreds of thousands of objects from paintings to furniture and domestic tools; the primary aim of the Trust's curatorship is to present collections and works of art in the historic settings for which they were commissioned or acquired. In the year 2014–15 the Trust welcomed 2,480,000 visitors to its properties, an increase of 93,000 on the previous year's total of 2,387,000.

The 10 most visited properties are: List of National Trust for Scotland properties Historic Scotland Bremner, Douglas. For the Benefit of the Nation. McGraw-Hill Contemporary. 2001. ISBN 978-0-

March of the Living

The March of the Living is an annual educational program which brings students from around the world to Poland, where they explore the remnants of the Holocaust. On Holocaust Memorial Day observed in the Jewish calendar, thousands of participants march silently from Auschwitz to Birkenau, the largest Nazi concentration camp complex built during World War II; the program was established in 1988 and takes place annually for two weeks around April and May following Passover. Marchers have come from over 50 countries, as diverse as United States, Australia, New Zealand, Estonia, Mexico, Brazil and Turkey; the Israeli founders of the March of the Living were Dr. Shmuel Rosenman, they were assisted in the early years by Jewish communal leaders and philanthropists from the United States, Canada. The climax of the program is the March, designed to contrast with the death marches which occurred towards the end of World War II; when Nazi Germany withdrew its soldiers from forced-labour camps, inmates – most starving and stricken by oppressive work – were forced to march hundreds of miles further west, while those who lagged behind or fell were shot or left to freeze to death in the winter climate.

The March of the Living, in contrast to the death marches, serves to illustrate the continued existence of the Jewish people despite Nazi attempts at their obliteration. After spending a week in Poland visiting other sites of Nazi Germany's persecution, such as Majdanek and the Warsaw Ghetto, former sites of Jewish life and culture, various Synagogues, many of the participants in the March travel on to Israel where they observe Yom Hazikaron and celebrate Yom Haatzmaut; the March of the Living is aimed at Jewish high school students and its goals are both universal and particular. A key element of the program is the participation of Holocaust survivors who share the memories of their war-time experiences with the students, while they are still well enough to participate in this challenging two-week trip of the young. Though the vast majority of participants in the March of the Living are Jewish high school students from different countries including Israel, there are many non-Jewish groups in attendance, along with adult groups such as the Polish Friends of Israel, Japan's Bridges for Peace and others.

One of the largest groups are students from Polish schools, with over 1,000 attending annually in recent years. In mid January 2014 a new exhibit on the March of the Living opened at the United Nations, which housed the exhibit until the end of March 2014. Titled "When you Listen to a Witness, You Become a Witness", the exhibit includes photographs and writings devoted to the 25-year history of the March of the Living; the exhibit tells the stories of the aging survivors and their young students who, hand in hand, embark on a life-changing journey and return profoundly transformed. It contains archival photos of deportation and mass murder from the Holocaust period. An interactive component of the exhibition allows visitors to fill out their own pledge of tolerance and compassion which may be taken on the March of the Living and planted alongside thousands of other plaques of tolerance and compassion on the grounds of Auschwitz-Birkenau; the title of the exhibit is taken from the words of Judy Weissenberg Cohen in a speech given to students on the 1997 March of the Living describing the last time she saw her mother during the selection of Hungarian Jewry in Auschwitz-Birkenau in the spring of 1944.

I never had a chance to say goodbye to my mother. We didn't know we had to say goodbye... I am an old woman today and I never made peace with the fact I never had that last hug and kiss, they say "when you listen to a witness, you become a witness too." I am only asking you to work for a world... where nobody will have to live memories like mine again. Please work for Tikkun Olam. On March 10, 2014, a group of students from New York's Pine Bush High School – part of a district where there have been press reports alleging widespread anti-Semitism – visited the UN Exhibit, they were addressed by Holocaust survivors Judy Weissenberg Cohen and Fanya Heller, as well as by Rick Carrier, a World War II Liberator. In November 2015, the Exhibit was mounted at the Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum; the UN Exhibit became the basis of a book published in the fall of 2015, Witness: Passing the Torch of Holocaust Memory to New Generations. The book has a unique interactive feature where the survivors, World War II liberators, Righteous Among the Nations featured in the book, include an invisible link embedded on their image.

When their image is accessed with a smart phone or other device, the reader is taken to an excerpt of their video testimony on USC Shoah Foundation Institute for Visual History and Education or March of the Living Digital Archive Project websites. Translations in several other languages are in the works. In recent years the March of the Living has attempted to broaden its focus from only concentrating on the Holocaust, include other program content in the Poland portion of the trip; these elements include: celebrating Jewish life before the war, establishing dialogue with Polish students, meeting with Polish Righteous among the Nations, connecting with the contemp

Kawasaki triple

The Kawasaki triples were a range of 250 to 750 cc motorcycles made by Kawasaki from 1968 to 1980. The engines were air-cooled, three-cylinder, piston-controlled inlet port two-strokes with two exhaust pipes exiting on the right side of the bike, one on the left, it was the first production street motorcycle with capacitor discharge ignition. Right from the first triple model, the 1968 Mach III H1 500 cc, it was a sales success that gained a reputation for unmatched acceleration as well as an air of danger for inexperienced riders trying to cope with the bike's increased power to weight ratio over any available stock motorcycles; the market for motorcycles in 1968 was changing from utilitarian transport to more aggressive sporting motorcycles that disregarded fuel economy and noise, in favor of quicker quarter mile times, which were prominently advertised by manufacturers. While Kawasaki had an inline-four four-stroke in development, it was not going be ready in time to upstage the 1969 Honda CB750, so instead they moved up the release of their conventional piston port two-stroke triple to "make a real splash".

They turned to the N100 Plan, a project begun in June, 1967, whose intent was to design the most powerful production motorcycle engine in the world. They first considered increasing the bore of an existing engine but instead created an all-new engine, experimenting with both inline and L cylinder arrangements, with both two and three cylinders, they settled on an inline-three arrangement after testing showed that an inline layout did not adversely affect cooling of the middle cylinder. The result of this project was the H1 Mach III, with a 15° inclined, inline-triple 498 cc engine, first produced in September, 1968, 14 months after the N100 project began; the new model did indeed sell well with young men in the late 1960s, with total production exceeding 110,000 units, though it was unpopular with authorities. The bike gave Kawasaki a "rebel" image, "outside the law"; the racing version, the H1R ridden by Ginger Molloy, took second place in the 1970 Grand Prix World Championship. The H1 was the first multi-cylinder street motorcycle to use capacitor discharge ignition which operated through an automotive style distributor only used in off-road single cylinder motorcycles.

The first version of this electronic ignition was overly complex and proved unreliable, so Kawasaki gave up on it using traditional breaker points, one set for each cylinder, in 1972. For the 1973 H1D, a redesigned CDI was used, more reliable with a hotter spark at lower engine speeds, which in turn made it possible to re-jet the three Mikuni carburetors for a wider power band; the US version came with a high handlebar. The bike had both detractors and enthusiastic fans, who either complained of poor handling and tendency to wheelie, or praised the power, light weight, tendency to wheelie. For inexperienced riders the two-stroke engine's increasing power curve, with little response until a rush of power about 5,000 rpm, contributed to this unexpected liftoff of the front wheel, creating "fearsome reputation"; the Mach III became known to its critics as "dangerous for inexperienced riders". The H1 had a high power-to-weight ratio for the time, 45 kW and a dry weight of 384 pounds, comparable to a top racing motorcycle, but had poor handling and weak drum brakes front and rear.

It could accelerate along the 1/4 mile test course in 12.4 seconds. When the H1 was first announced, Motorcycle Mechanics criticised Kawasaki for their "own ambitious claim" that it was "the fastest and best accelerating road machine produced, being capable of 124 mph and 12.4 sec. for the standing start quarter mile". Cycle World's 1969 test quoted 119.14 mph and 13.20 seconds, with bike-retailer Reads of London at 109 and 13.5, whereas Dutch motorcycle drag racer Henk Vink, importer of Kawasakis into the Netherlands, was quoted as achieving 13.48. Motorcycle Classics said in 2009 that the frequent complaints about the brakes of the H1 by modern writers did not account for the poor braking of all motorcycles of the period, noting that in a 1970 Cycle magazine comparison of seven top bikes of the time, the H1's braking performance was second only to the Honda CB750. Cycle World's test found: "Repeated high speed stops did not disclose any braking difficulties; the two-leading-shoe front stopper performed the task of slowing this...very admirably, but without locking the wheel.

The rear brake...would lock up the back end any time after several high speed stops.". While Kawasaki was working to "make the H1 acceptable in civilized society", they released the delayed inline-four four-stroke, the Z1, in 1972, which had adequate brakes and handling, comfortable seating, did not guzzle fuel; the sales success of the Z1 demonstrated that there were more buyers for higher-priced but less obnoxious sport bikes, than buyers who would accept numerous compromises for an fast motorcycle at a low price. More stringent noise and pollution regulations contributed to the end of the H1 500 production, whose final year was 1976; the Mach III H1 500 subsequently has been of great interest to collectors and historians of motorcycles appearing on lists of most significant motorcycles. The H1 was included in the Guggenheim Museum's 1999 The Art of the Motorcycle exhibition in New York, Las Vegas, Bilbao, Spain. Motorcycle historian Clement Salvadori noted in the Guggenheim's catalog that the H1, "was one of the least useful motorcycles available on the market" yet still sold well because, in the heyday of American muscle cars where quarter mile times were paramount

City of Culture of Galicia

The City of Culture of Galicia is a complex of cultural buildings in Santiago de Compostela, Province of A Coruña, Spain, designed by a group of architects led by Peter Eisenman. Construction is challenging and expensive as the design of the buildings involves high degree contours, meant to make the buildings look like rolling hills. Nearly every window of the thousands that are part of the external façade has its own custom shape. In 2013 it was announced; the International Art Center and Music and Scenic Arts Center will not be built. In February 1999 the Parliament of Galicia held an international design competition for a cultural center on Mount Gaiás; the entrants were Ricardo Bofill, Manuel Gallego Jorreto, Annette Gigon and Mike Guyer, Steven Holl, Rem Koolhaas, Daniel Libeskind, Juan Navarro Baldeweg, Jean Nouvel, Dominique Perrault, Cesar Portela, Santiago Calatrava, who withdrew his proposal, Eisenman, whose proposal was selected for both conceptual uniqueness and exceptional harmony with the place.

The concept of the project is a new peak on Monte Gaiás, made up of a stony crust reminiscent of an archaeological site divided by natural breaks that resemble scallops, the traditional symbol of Compostela. The building site has become the base for the development of a public transparency urban experiment by the Spanish architect and artist Andrés Jaque. With Jaque's 12 Actions to Make the Cidade da Cultura Transparent, the building site was equipped with devices that make the political implications and ecological extension of the construction works understandable for the general public; the project has more than doubled its original budget and has not attracted significant numbers of visitors. Construction of the final two planned buildings was stopped in 2012 and terminated definitively in March 2013 following high cost overruns. Codex: The City of Culture of Galicia. Eisenman Architects. Monacelli Press 2005. Official City of Culture of Galicia website— Spain's extravagant City of Culture opens amid criticism.

2011-01-11 Article discussing the decision to stop the project BBC Spain in crisis: Broken visions dot Galicia's landscape Official Government presentation Fragments of a program critic about the spending on Cidade da Cultura: Part 1, Part 2

M-1 Grand Prix

The M-1 Grand Prix known as the Autobacs M-1 Grand Prix, is an annual Manzai competition planned by Shinsuke Shimada and run by Yoshimoto Kogyo. The supporter Asahi Broadcasting Corporation broadcasts live throughout Japan via All-Nippon News Network, it is the most prevalent manzai competition in Japan. The grand prix ended in 2010 and was brought back in 2015 with sponsors including Cygames, Nissin Foods, FamilyMart and Uniqlo. Before 2010, to qualify as a contestant, the unit must have a career age of 10 years or under; when the competition was brought back in 2015, this limit was changed under. Other than this condition, anyone can enter the competition and reach the televised semifinals and finals if they pass through. Contestants must go through 5 rounds of elimination before moving to the televised finals, where only 8 units are selected from the semifinals to become finalists; the second chance round was introduced in the 2nd Grand Prix and allows for semi finalists to compete in an additional round competing for an addition spot as the second chance winners in the finals.

From 2017 and onward, the total number of finalists increased to 9, plus an additional second chance winner. The finalists does a lottery draw to determine the entrance order, are given points out of 100 by each of the judges. After all contestants have performed and points are given, the top 3 units with the highest points advanced to perform a second time at the grand finals; the judges do a final vote to crown the winner. Preliminary from August or September until December Round 1: Sapporo, Tokyo, Nagoya, Takamatsu, Fukuoka Round 1: Sapporo, Tokyo, Nagoya, Hiroshima, Fukuoka Round 1: Sapporo, Tokyo, Osaka, Fukuoka Round 1: Sapporo, Tokyo, Nagoya, Hiroshima, Fukuoka Round 2, Round 3, Quarterfinal: Tokyo, Osaka Semifinal: Tokyo Second Chance Consolation from noon until 5 p.m. on the day of the finals aired on Sky A Sports Plus, a satellite broadcasting company owned by ABC The winner of the Second Chance Consolation gets a second chance as the final contestant at the M-1 finals 2002-2004: special floor in front of Panasonic Center Tokyo 2005: Meiji Jingu Stadium 2006: Ariake Coliseum 2007-2010: Ohi Racecoursethe Finalslive on TV 2001: Lemon Studio 2002-2004: Panasonic Center Ariake Studio 2005-2010: TV Asahi Headquarters Studio 1 Under Final Votes, bold means it was a unanimous victory, all 7 judges voted for that unit as the winner.

Winner's prize ¥10,000,000 Winner's trophy Additional prizes for 2015Vacation to Palau courtesy of Cygames Champion jacket and commercial deal courtesy of Uniqlo 10 years worth of Donbei cup noodles courtesy of Nissin Foods 1000 pieces of Family Mart Premium fried chicken courtesy of FamilyMartAdditional prizes for 2016Vacation to Hawaii courtesy of Cygames Commercial deal for M-1 no don courtesy of Nissin Foods 100 kg of FamilyMart Premium fried chicken courtesy of FamilyMart 1 year worth of The Premium Malts beer courtesy of SuntoryAdditional prizes for 2017Luxury vacation to Hawaii courtesy of Cygames T Point Card with points to redeem 1 year worth of Donbei cup noodles and FamilyMart Premium fried chicken courtesy of Nissin Foods and FamilyMart 1 year worth of Strong Zero alcoholic beverage courtesy of SuntoryAdditional prizes for 2018Tickets for Serie A match with Juventus FC in Turin, Italy courtesy of Cygames 100 kg of FamilyMart Premium fried chicken courtesy of FamilyMart 1 year worth of Strong Zero alcoholic beverage courtesy of Suntory Chianina beef from Italy with 1 meal worth of Donbei cup noodles courtesy of Nissin Foods The affiliated agency listed is the unit's agency at the time of the competition The 7 judges are: Shinsuke Shimada, Hitoshi Matsumoto, Shoji Kokami, LaSalle Ishii, Koasa Shunpūtei, Yukio Aoshima, Kiyoshi Nishikawa The 3 audience judges are from the cities of: Sapporo, FukuokaNotes Matsumoto gave King Kong a score of 55 while Nishikawa gave them a score of 95, causing a 40-point difference, the largest point difference for a single participant Nakagawake are the only winners with the first entrance order Four of the finalists this year are winners or would go on to become winners in years, the most The 7 judges are: Shinsuke Shimada, Hitoshi Matsumoto, Makoto Otake, LaSalle Ishii, Yōshichi Shimada, Kausu Nakada, Danshi TatekawaNotes The Second Chance or Consolation Round was introduced this year The only year where there were more finalists who are not affiliated with Yoshimoto than those who are All 3 units in the grand finals became winners in future years The 7 judges are: Shinsuke Shimada, Hitoshi Matsumoto, Kiyotaka Nanbara, Yōshichi Shimada, LaSalle Ishii, Makoto Otake, Kausu NakadaNotes The restrictions for participation changed from less than 10 years since formation to less than or equals to 10 years since formation From this year and forward, judge points became more consistent in the range of the 70s as low and 90s are high All 3 units in the grand finals became winners in future years Koji Imada was appointed the MC from this year and onward The 7 judges are: Kiyoshi Nishikawa, Kiyotaka Nanbara, Makoto Otake, Yoshichi Shimada, Koasa Shunpūtei, LaSalle Ishii, Kausu NakadaNotes Untouchable holds the record for the single highest points attained with 673 points, all judges had given more than 95 points The point difference between the 1st place and 2nd place between Untouchable and Nankai Candies are

John Forbes (theologian, born 1593)

John Forbes of Corse was a Scottish minister and theologian, one of the Aberdeen doctors, noted for his eirenic approach in church polity and opposition to the National Covenant. He was the second son of Patrick Forbes of Corse Castle, bishop of Aberdeen, by his marriage to Lucretia, a daughter of David Spens of Wormiston, Fife, he entered King's College, Aberdeen, in 1607. In 1612 he visited his exiled uncle John Forbes at Middelburg, went to the university of Heidelberg. There he studied theology under David Pareus. In 1615 he moved to Sedan, continued his studies under his kinsman Andrew Melville. After some time at other universities, he was ordained at Middelburg in April 1619, by his uncle John Forbes and other presbyters, he married about this time a Middelburg lady, Soete Roosboom, returned the same year to Aberdeen, of which his father was by bishop. In 1620 he was appointed by the synod professor of divinity in King's College, his first publication, Irenicum Amatoribus Veritatis et Pacis in Ecclesia Scoticana, Aberdeen, 1629, was commended by James Ussher.

In this work he defended with moderation the lawfulness of episcopacy, of the innovations in worship allowed by the synod of Perth in 1618. On his father's death in 1635 he succeeded to the Corse Castle estate, his elder brother Patrick having predeceased him, he contributed a Latin sermon, a Dissertatio de Visione Beatifica, Latin verses to the bishop's'Funerals,' and supervised the whole collection. When at Aberdeen he sought recreation in the game of golf. In February 1637 he took some part in furthering John Durie's plans for uniting the reformed and Lutheran churches. Forbes, though he deplored Charles I's measures for remodelling the church of Scotland, considered the National Covenant an unlawful bond, in April 1638 he published a tract against it entitled A Peaceable Warning to the Subjects in Scotland. In July 1638 the Earl of Montrose, Alexander Henderson, other covenanting leaders visited Aberdeen to make converts to their cause. Forbes and five other doctors of divinity put into their hands a paper containing queries concerning the covenant, a debate followed, conducted in writing.

The doctors argued against the covenant as unlawful in itself, as abjuring episcopacy and Perth articles, to which they had sworn obedience at their ordination. In 1639 subscription was made compulsory. Efforts were made to induce Forbes to sign, the covenanters acknowledged his orthodoxy, his final answer was that he could not profess what his conscience condemned, he was thereupon deprived of his chair, forced to leave the official residence, which he had himself given to the university. The synod of Aberdeen petitioned the general assembly to allow him to continue his professorial duties without taking the covenant, but this was refused, he made no separation from the church, now presbyterian, but attended its services and received the communion as formerly. In 1643 the solemn league and covenant was sanctioned by the assembly and parliament, all adults were ordered to swear it on pain of confiscation, of being declared enemies to God and country. For Forbes, who thought the solemn league more objectionable than the national covenant, obedience was out of the question, to escape prosecution he sailed for Veere 5 April 1644, with his surviving son George.

He visited towns in the Netherlands, at Amsterdam prepared his major theological work. Forbes preached in the Scots and English churches, joined in the Dutch and French services, he returned to Aberdeen in July 1646, spent the remainder of his life in seclusion at Corse. He was buried in the churchyard of Leochel, his son George married a daughter of Kennedy of Kermuck. A second edition of his Instructiones was published at Geneva in 1680, in 1702-3 all of his works in Latin were printed at Amsterdam in two folio volumes; this edition contains a translation into Latin of his diary, treatises on moral theology, the Pastoral Care, his printed works, with additions and corrections from his manuscripts. The First Book of the Irenicum of John Forbes of Corse: a contribution to the theology of re-union. Cambridge: University Press, 1923 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: "Forbes, John". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900. Works by John Forbes at Post-Reformation Digital Library