Theology is the critical study of the nature of the divine. It is taught as an academic discipline in universities and seminaries. Theology is the study of deities or their scriptures in order to discover what they have revealed about themselves, it occupies itself with the unique content of analyzing the supernatural, but especially with epistemology, asks and seeks to answer the question of revelation. Revelation pertains to the acceptance of God, gods, or deities, as not only transcendent or above the natural world, but willing and able to interact with the natural world and, in particular, to reveal themselves to humankind. While theology has turned into a secular field, religious adherents still consider theology to be a discipline that helps them live and understand concepts such as life and love and that helps them lead lives of obedience to the deities they follow or worship. Theology is derived from the Greek theologia, which derived from Τheos, meaning "God", -logia, meaning "utterances, sayings, or oracles" which had passed into Latin as theologia and into French as théologie.
The English equivalent "theology" had evolved by 1362. The sense the word has in English depends in large part on the sense the Latin and Greek equivalents had acquired in patristic and medieval Christian usage, although the English term has now spread beyond Christian contexts. Augustine of Hippo defined the Latin equivalent, theologia, as "reasoning or discussion concerning the Deity"; the term can, however, be used for a variety of fields of study. Theology begins with the assumption that the divine exists in some form, such as in physical, mental, or social realities, that evidence for and about it may be found via personal spiritual experiences or historical records of such experiences as documented by others; the study of these assumptions is not part of theology proper but is found in the philosophy of religion, through the psychology of religion and neurotheology. Theology aims to structure and understand these experiences and concepts, to use them to derive normative prescriptions for how to live our lives.
Theologians use various forms of analysis and argument to help understand, test, defend or promote any myriad of religious topics. As in philosophy of ethics and case law, arguments assume the existence of resolved questions, develop by making analogies from them to draw new inferences in new situations; the study of theology may help a theologian more understand their own religious tradition, another religious tradition, or it may enable them to explore the nature of divinity without reference to any specific tradition. Theology may be used to propagate, reform, or justify a religious tradition or it may be used to compare, challenge, or oppose a religious tradition or world-view. Theology might help a theologian address some present situation or need through a religious tradition, or to explore possible ways of interpreting the world. Greek theologia was used with the meaning "discourse on god" in the fourth century BC by Plato in The Republic, Book ii, Ch. 18. Aristotle divided theoretical philosophy into mathematike and theologike, with the last corresponding to metaphysics, for Aristotle, included discourse on the nature of the divine.
Drawing on Greek Stoic sources, the Latin writer Varro distinguished three forms of such discourse: mythical and civil. Theologos related to theologia, appears once in some biblical manuscripts, in the heading to the Book of Revelation: apokalypsis ioannoy toy theologoy, "the revelation of John the theologos". There, the word refers not to John the "theologian" in the modern English sense of the word but—using a different sense of the root logos, meaning not "rational discourse" but "word" or "message"—one who speaks the words of God, logoi toy theoy; some Latin Christian authors, such as Tertullian and Augustine, followed Varro's threefold usage, though Augustine used the term more to mean'reasoning or discussion concerning the deity'In patristic Greek Christian sources, theologia could refer narrowly to devout and inspired knowledge of, teaching about, the essential nature of God. The Latin author Boethius, writing in the early 6th century, used theologia to denote a subdivision of philosophy as a subject of academic study, dealing with the motionless, incorporeal reality.
Boethius' definition influenced medieval Latin usage. In scholastic Latin sources, the term came to denote the rational study of the doctrines of the Christian religion, or the academic discipline which investigated the coherence and implications of the language and claims of the Bible and of the theological tradition. In the Renaissance with Florentine Platonist apologists of Dante's poetics, the distinction between "poetic theology" and "revealed" or Biblical theology serves as steppingstone for a revival of philosophy as independent of theological authority, it is in this last sense, theology as an academic discipline involving rational study of Christian teaching
Museum of Natural History, Lima
The Natural History Museum in Lima, is Peru's most important museum of natural history. It belongs to the National University of San Marcos; the present director is Dr. Betty Millán; the museum was founded in 1918 by the Faculty of Sciences of the Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. The first director and founder of the museum was Carlos Rospigliosi; the initial personal of the museum consisted in one curator in chief, three curators for the areas of Zoology and Mineralogy. The first scientific expedition was organized by Rospigliosi in April 1918, that collected specimens of fauna and minerals from the departments of Junín and Huánuco; the second expedition was organized by the Geographic Society of Lima in 1920 that included the participation of Swedish geologist and explorer Otto Nordenskiöld. This expedition explored the foothills of the Andes in the department of Junín. In 1920, the rector of the National University of San Marcos, Dr. Javier Prado, interceded in order to acquire the collections of Antonio Raimondi for the created museum.
These samples included zoological and mineralogical specimens. The museum was located at the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences at the campus in Parque Universitario. In 1934, it moved to its current location on Av. Arenales 1256, Jesús María in Lima, Peru; the museum is repository of representative specimens of Peruvian fauna and minerals, including exhibitions of mammals, invertebrates, amphibians, plants, dinosaurs and minerals. Highlights of the collections include: Skeletons of a sperm whale Fossils of South American horses Fossils of giant ground sloths The first publication series was the Boletín del Museo de Historia Natural in 1937 aimed to divulge institutional activities and results of scientific research; the Publicaciones del Museo series in Zoology and Geology were published from 1948, the Memorias del Museo in 1951 and the Serie de Divulgación in 1964. Since its foundation, the direction of the museum has been responsibility of the following researchers: Dr. Carlos Rospigliosi Dr. Carlos Morales Dr. Jehan Vellard Ing.
Bernardo Boit Dr. Ramón Ferreyra Dr. Hernando de Macedo Dr. Emma Cerrate Dr. Gerardo Lamas Blgo. Hernán Ortega Dr. Magda Chanco Dr. Niels Valencia Dr. Gerardo Lamas Dr. Betty Millán The museum is open for visits every day. Location Av. Arenales 1256, Jesús María, Perú Apartado 14-0434, Lima 14, Perú. Official website of the Natural History Museum
A graduate school is a school that awards advanced academic degrees with the general requirement that students must have earned a previous undergraduate degree with a high grade point average. A distinction is made between graduate schools and professional schools, which offer specialized advanced degrees in professional fields such as medicine, business, speech-language pathology, or law; the distinction between graduate schools and professional schools is not absolute, as various professional schools offer graduate degrees and vice versa. Many universities award graduate degrees. While the term "graduate school" is typical in the United States and used elsewhere, "postgraduate education" is used in English-speaking countries to refer to the spectrum of education beyond a bachelor's degree; those attending graduate schools are called "graduate students", or in British English as "postgraduate students" and, colloquially, "postgraduates" and "postgrads". Degrees awarded to graduate students include master's degrees, doctoral degrees, other postgraduate qualifications such as graduate certificates and professional degrees.
Producing original research is a significant component of graduate studies in the humanities, natural sciences and social sciences. This research leads to the writing and defense of a thesis or dissertation. In graduate programs that are oriented towards professional training, the degrees may consist of coursework, without an original research or thesis component; the term "graduate school" is North American. Additionally, in North America, the term does not refer to medical school, only refers to law school or business school. Graduate students in the humanities and social sciences receive funding from the school and/or a teaching assistant position or other job. Although graduate school programs are distinct from undergraduate degree programs, graduate instruction is offered by some of the same senior academic staff and departments who teach undergraduate courses. Unlike in undergraduate programs, however, it is less common for graduate students to take coursework outside their specific field of study at graduate or graduate entry level.
At the Ph. D. level, though, it is quite common to take courses from a wider range of study, for which some fixed portion of coursework, sometimes known as a residency, is required to be taken from outside the department and college of the degree-seeking candidate, to broaden the research abilities of the student. Some institutions denote other divisions. Graduate degrees in Brazil are called "postgraduate" degrees, can be taken only after an undergraduate education has been concluded". Lato sensu graduate degrees: degrees that represent a specialization in a certain area, take from 1 to 2 years to complete. Sometimes it can be used to describe a specialization level between a master's degree and a MBA. In that sense, the main difference is that the Lato Sensu courses tend to go deeper into the scientific aspects of the study field, while MBA programs tend to be more focused on the practical and professional aspects, being used more to Business and Administration areas. However, since there are no norms to regulate this, both names are used indiscriminately most of the time.
Stricto sensu graduate degrees: degrees for those who wish to pursue an academic career. Masters: 2 years for completion. Serves as additional qualification for those seeking a differential on the job market, or for those who want to pursue a PhD. Most doctoral programs in Brazil require a master's degree, meaning that a Lato Sensu Degree is insufficient to start a doctoral program. Doctors / PhD: 3–4 years for completion. Used as a stepping stone for academic life. In Canada, the Schools and Faculties of Graduate Studies are represented by the Canadian Association of Graduate Studies or Association canadienne pour les études supérieures; the Association brings together 58 Canadian universities with graduate programs, two national graduate student associations, the three federal research-granting agencies and organizations having an interest in graduate studies. Its mandate is to promote and foster excellence in graduate education and university research in Canada. In addition to an annual conference, the association prepares briefs on issues related to graduate studies including supervision and professional development.
Admission to a master's program requires a bachelor's degree in a related field, with sufficiently high grades ranging from B+ and higher, recommendations from professors. Some schools require samples of the student's writing as well as a research proposal. At English-speaking universities, applicants from countries where English is not the primary language are requir
White is the lightest color and is achromatic. It is the color of fresh snow and milk, is the opposite of black. White objects reflect and scatter all the visible wavelengths of light. White on television and computer screens is created by a mixture of red and green light. In ancient Egypt and ancient Rome, priestesses wore white as a symbol of purity, Romans wore a white toga as a symbol of citizenship. In the Middle Ages and Renaissance a white unicorn symbolized chastity, a white lamb sacrifice and purity, it was the royal color of the Kings of France, of the monarchist movement that opposed the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War. Greek and Roman temples were faced with white marble, beginning in the 18th century, with the advent of neoclassical architecture, white became the most common color of new churches and other government buildings in the United States, it was widely used in 20th century modern architecture as a symbol of modernity and simplicity. According to surveys in Europe and the United States, white is the color most associated with perfection, the good, cleanliness, the beginning, the new and exactitude.
White is an important color for all world religions. The Pope, the head of the Roman Catholic Church, has worn white since 1566, as a symbol of purity and sacrifice. In Islam, in the Shinto religion of Japan, it is worn by pilgrims. In Western cultures and in Japan, white is the most common color for wedding dresses, symbolizing purity and virginity. In many Asian cultures, white is the color of mourning; the word white continues Old English hwīt from a Common Germanic *χwītaz reflected in OHG wîz, ON hvítr, Goth. ƕeits. The root is from Proto-Indo-European language *kwid-, surviving in Sanskrit śveta "to be white or bright" and Slavonic světŭ "light"; the Icelandic word for white, hvítur, is directly derived from the Old Norse form of the word hvítr. Common Germanic had the word *blankaz, borrowed into Late Latin as *blancus, which provided the source for Romance words for "white"; the antonym of white is black. Some non-European languages have a wide variety of terms for white; the Inuit language has seven different words for seven different nuances of white.
Sanskrit has specific words for bright white, the white of teeth, the white of sandalwood, the white of the autumn moon, the white of silver, the white of cow's milk, the white of pearls, the white of a ray of sunlight, the white of stars. Japanese has six different words, depending upon brilliance or dullness, or if the color is inert or dynamic. White was one of the first colors used in art; the Lascaux Cave in France contains drawings of bulls and other animals drawn by paleolithic artists between 18,000 and 17,000 years ago. Paleolithic artists used calcite or chalk, sometimes as a background, sometimes as a highlight, along with charcoal and red and yellow ochre in their vivid cave paintings. In ancient Egypt, white was connected with the goddess Isis; the priests and priestesses of Isis dressed only in white linen, it was used to wrap mummies. In Greece and other ancient civilizations, white was associated with mother's milk. In Greek mythology, the chief god Zeus was nourished at the breast of the nymph Amalthea.
In the Talmud, milk was one of four sacred substances, along with wine and the rose. The ancient Greeks saw the world in terms of darkness and light, so white was a fundamental color. According to Pliny the Elder in his Natural History and the other famous painters of ancient Greece used only four colors in their paintings. A plain white toga, known as a toga virilis, was worn for ceremonial occasions by all Roman citizens over the age of 14–18. Magistrates and certain priests wore a toga praetexta, with a broad purple stripe. In the time of the Emperor Augustus, no Roman man was allowed to appear in the Roman forum without a toga; the ancient Romans had two words for white. A man who wanted public office in Rome wore a white toga brightened with chalk, called a toga candida, the origin of the word candidate; the Latin word candere meant to be bright. It was the origin of the words candid. In ancient Rome, the priestesses of the goddess Vesta dressed in white linen robes, a white palla or shawl, a white veil.
They protected the penates of Rome. White symbolized their purity and chastity; the early Christian church adopted the Roman symbolism of white as the color of purity and virtue. It became the color worn by priests during Mass, the color worn by monks of the Cistercian Order, under Pope Pius V, a former monk of the Dominican Order, it became the official color worn by the pope himself. Monks of the Order of Saint Benedict dressed in the white or gray of natural undyed wool, but changed to black, the color of humility and penitence. Postclassical history art, the white lamb became the symbol of the sacrifice of Christ on behalf of mankind. John the Baptist described Christ as the lamb of God; the white lamb was the center of one of the most famous paintings of the Medieval period, the Ghent Altarpiece by Jan van Eyck. White was the symbolic color of the transfiguration; the Gospel of Saint Mark describes Jesus' clothing in this event as "shining, exceeding white as snow." Artists such as Fra Angelico used their skill
Apocrypha are works written, of unknown authorship or of doubtful origin. Biblical apocrypha is a set of texts included in the Latin Vulgate and Septuagint but not in the Hebrew Bible. While Catholic tradition considers some of these texts to be deuterocanonical, Protestants consider them apocryphal. Thus, Protestant bibles do not include the books within the Old Testament but have included them in a separate section called the Apocrypha. Other non-canonical apocryphal texts are called pseudepigrapha, a term that means "false attribution"; the word's origin is the Medieval Latin adjective apocryphus, "secret, or non-canonical", from the Greek adjective ἀπόκρυφος, "obscure", from the verb ἀποκρύπτειν, "to hide away". The term "Apocrypha" appears in Christian religious contexts concerning disagreements about biblical canonicity. Apocryphal writings are a class of documents rejected by some as being either pseudepigraphical or unworthy to be properly called Scripture, though, as with other writings, they may sometimes be referenced for support, such as the lost Book of Jasher.
While writings that are now accepted by Christians as Scripture were recognized as being such by various believers early on, the establishment of a settled uniform canon was a process of centuries, what the term "canon" meant saw development. The canonical process took place with believers recognizing writings as being inspired by God from known or accepted origins, subsequently being followed by official affirmation of what had become established through the study and debate of the writings; the Catholic Church provided its first dogmatic definition of its entire canon in 1546, which put a stop to doubts and disagreements about the status of the Apocrypha. The leader of the Protestant Reformation, Martin Luther, like the Catholic Church father Jerome, favored the Masoretic canon for the Old Testament, excluding apocryphal books in his non-binding canon as unworthy to be properly called Scripture, but included most of them in a separate section, as per Jerome. Luther did not include the deuterocanonical books in his Old Testament, terming them "Apocrypha, that are books which are not considered equal to the Holy Scriptures, but are useful and good to read."The Eastern Orthodox Church accepts a few more books than appear in the Catholic canon.
The word "apocryphal" was first applied to writings which were kept secret because they were the vehicles of esoteric knowledge considered too profound or too sacred to be disclosed to anyone other than the initiated. For example, the disciples of the Gnostic Prodicus boasted that they possessed the secret books of Zoroaster; the term in general enjoyed high consideration among the Gnostics. Sinologist Anna Seidel refers to texts and items produced by ancient Chinese sages as apocryphal and studied their uses during Six Dynasties China; these artifacts were used as symbols guaranteeing the Emperor's Heavenly Mandate. Examples of these include talismans, writs and registers; the first examples were stones, jade pieces, bronze vessels and weapons, but came to include talismans and magic diagrams. From their roots in Zhou era China these items came to be surpassed in value by texts by the Han dynasty. Most of these texts have been destroyed as Emperors during the Han dynasty, collected these legitimizing objects and proscribed and burnt nearly all of them to prevent them from falling into the hands of political rivals.
It is therefore fitting with the Greek root of the word, as these texts were hidden away to protect the ruling Emperor from challenges to his status as Heaven's choice as sovereign. "Apocrypha" was applied to writings that were hidden not because of their divinity but because of their questionable value to the church. Many in Protestant traditions cite Revelation 22:18–19 as a potential curse for those who attach any canonical authority to extra-biblical writings such as the Apocrypha. However, a strict explanation of this text would indicate it was meant for only the Book of Revelation. Rv.22:18–19f. States: "For I testify unto every man that heareth the words of the prophecy of this book, If any man shall add unto these things, God shall add unto him the plagues that are written in this book: And if any man shall take away from the words of the book of this prophecy, God shall take away his part out of the book of life, out of the holy city, from the things which are written in this book."
In the context of Revelation, a book predicting the future atrocities of man, it means that God will strip them of the goodness of life and that they will be removed from heaven. The early Christian theologian Origen, in his Commentaries on Matthew, distinguishes between writings which were read by the churches and apocryphal writings: γραφὴ μὴ φερομένη μέν ἒν τοῖς κοινοῖς καὶ δεδημοσιευμένοις βιβλίοις εἰκὸς δ' ὅτι ἒν ἀποκρύφοις φερομένη; the meaning of αποκρυφος is here equivalent to "excluded from the public use of the church", prepares the way for an less favourable use of the word. In general use, the word "apocrypha" came to mean "false, bad, or heretical." This meaning appears in Origen's prologue to his commentary on the Song of Songs, of which only the Latin translation survives: De scripturis his, quae appellantur apocriphae, pro eo quod multa in iis corrupta et contra fidem veram inveniuntur
Mario Vargas Llosa
Jorge Mario Pedro Vargas Llosa, 1st Marquess of Vargas Llosa, more known as Mario Vargas Llosa, is a Peruvian writer, journalist and college professor. Vargas Llosa is one of Latin America's most significant novelists and essayists, one of the leading writers of his generation; some critics consider him to have had a larger international impact and worldwide audience than any other writer of the Latin American Boom. In 2010 he won the Nobel Prize in Literature, "for his cartography of structures of power and his trenchant images of the individual's resistance and defeat."Vargas Llosa rose to fame in the 1960s with novels such as The Time of the Hero, The Green House, the monumental Conversation in the Cathedral. He writes prolifically across an array of literary genres, including literary criticism and journalism, his novels include comedies, murder mysteries, historical novels, political thrillers. Several, such as Captain Pantoja and the Special Service and Aunt Julia and the Scriptwriter, have been adapted as feature films.
Many of Vargas Llosa's works are influenced by the writer's perception of Peruvian society and his own experiences as a native Peruvian. However, he has expanded his range, tackled themes that arise from other parts of the world. In his essays, Vargas Llosa has made many criticisms of nationalism in different parts of the world. Another change over the course of his career has been a shift from a style and approach associated with literary modernism, to a sometimes playful postmodernism. Like many Latin American writers, Vargas Llosa has been politically active throughout his career. While he supported the Cuban revolutionary government of Fidel Castro, Vargas Llosa became disenchanted with its policies after the imprisonment of Cuban poet Heberto Padilla in 1971, he ran for the Peruvian presidency in 1990 with the center-right Frente Democrático coalition, advocating classical liberal reforms, but lost the election to Alberto Fujimori. He is the person who, in 1990, "coined the phrase that circled the globe," declaring on Mexican television, "Mexico is the perfect dictatorship," a statement which became an adage during the following decade.
Mario Vargas Llosa was born to a middle-class family on March 28, 1936, in the southern Peruvian provincial city of Arequipa. He was the only child of Ernesto Vargas Maldonado and Dora Llosa Ureta, who separated a few months before his birth. Shortly after Mario's birth, his father revealed. Vargas Llosa lived with his maternal family in Arequipa until a year after his parents' divorce, when his maternal grandfather was named honorary consul for Peru in Bolivia. With his mother and her family, Vargas Llosa moved to Cochabamba, where he spent the early years of his childhood, his maternal family, the Llosas, were sustained by his grandfather. As a child, Vargas Llosa was led to believe that his father had died—his mother and her family did not want to explain that his parents had separated. During the government of Peruvian President José Bustamante y Rivero, Vargas Llosa's maternal grandfather obtained a diplomatic post in the northern Peruvian coastal city of Piura and the entire family returned to Peru.
While in Piura, Vargas Llosa attended elementary school at the religious academy Colegio Salesiano. In 1946, at the age of ten, he met his father for the first time, his parents re-established their relationship and lived in Magdalena del Mar, a middle-class Lima suburb, during his teenage years. While in Lima, he studied at the Colegio La Salle, a Christian middle school, from 1947 to 1949; when Vargas Llosa was fourteen, his father sent him to the Leoncio Prado Military Academy in Lima. At the age of 16, before his graduation, Vargas Llosa began working as an amateur journalist for local newspapers, he withdrew from the military academy and finished his studies in Piura, where he worked for the local newspaper, La Industria, witnessed the theatrical performance of his first dramatic work, La huida del Inca. In 1953, during the government of Manuel A. Odría, Vargas Llosa enrolled in Lima's National University of San Marcos, to study law and literature, he married Julia Urquidi, his maternal uncle's sister-in-law, in 1955 at the age of 19.
Vargas Llosa began his literary career in earnest in 1957 with the publication of his first short stories, "The Leaders" and "The Grandfather", while working for two Peruvian newspapers. Upon his graduation from the National University of San Marcos in 1958, he received a scholarship to study at the Complutense University of Madrid in Spain. In 1960, after his scholarship in Madrid had expired, Vargas Llosa moved to France under the impression that he would receive a scholarship to study there. Despite Mario and Julia's unexpected financial status, the couple decided to remain in Paris where he began to write prolifically, their marriage lasted only a few more years, ending in divorce in 1964. A year Vargas Llosa married his first cousin, Patricia Llosa, with whom he had three children: Álvaro Vargas Llosa, a writer and editor.
General Archive of the Indies
The Archivo General de Indias, housed in the ancient merchants' exchange of Seville, the Casa Lonja de Mercaderes, is the repository of valuable archival documents illustrating the history of the Spanish Empire in the Americas and the Philippines. The building itself, an unusually serene and Italianate example of Spanish Renaissance architecture, was designed by Juan de Herrera; this structure and its contents were registered in 1987 by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site together with the adjoining Seville Cathedral and the Alcázar of Seville. The origin of the structure dates to 1572 when Philip II commissioned the building from Juan de Herrera, the architect of the Escorial to house the Consulado de mercaderes of Seville; until the merchants of Seville had been in the habit of retreating to the cool recesses of the cathedral to transact business. The building encloses a large central patio with ranges of two storeys, the windows set in sunken panels between flat pilasters. Plain square tablets float in the space above each window.
The building is surmounted with rusticated obelisks standing at the corners. There is no sculptural decoration, only the discreetly contrasting tonalities of stone and stucco, the light shadows cast by the slight relief of the pilasters against their piers, by the cornices, by the cornice strips that cap each window; the building was begun in 1584 by Juan de Mijares, using Herrera's plans, was ready for occupation in 1598, according to an inscription on the north façade. Work on completing the structure proceeded through the 17th century, directed until 1629 by the archbishop Juan de Zumárraga and finished by Pedro Sanchez Falconete. Researchers who wish to examine the archive's sources use another building located across the street. In 1785, by decree of Charles III the archives of the Council of the Indies were to be housed here, in order to bring together under a single roof all the documentation regarding the overseas empire, which until that time had been dispersed among various archives, as Simancas, Cádiz and Seville.
Responsibility for the project was delegated to José de Gálvez y Gallardo, Secretary for the Indies, who depended on the historian Juan Bautista Muñoz for the plan's execution. Two basic motivations underlay the project, it was decided that, for the time being, documents evolved after 1760 would remain with their primary institutions. The first cartloads of the documents arrived in October 1785; some restructuring of the Casa Lonja to accommodate the materials was required, a grand marble staircase was added in 1787, to designs of Lucas Cintara. The archives are rich with autograph material from the first of the Conquistadores to the end of the 19th century. Here are Miguel de Cervantes' request for an official post, the Bull of Demarcation Inter caetera of Pope Alexander VI that divided the world between Spain and Portugal, the journal of Christopher Columbus and plans of the colonial American cities, in addition to the ordinary archives that reveal the month-to-month workings of the whole vast colonial machinery, which have been mined by many historians in the last two centuries.
Today the Archivo General de Indias houses some nine kilometers of shelving, in 43,000 volumes and some 80 million pages, which were produced by the colonial administration: Consejo de Indias, 16th–19th centuries Casa de la Contratación, 16th–18th centuries Consulados de Sevilla y Cádiz, 16th–19th centuries Secretarías de Estado y Despacho Universal de Indias, de Estado, Gracia y Justicia, Hacienda y Guerra, 18th–19th centuries Secretaría del Juzgado de Arribadas de Cádiz, 18th–19th centuries Comisaría Interventora de la Hacienda Pública de Cádiz, Dirección General de la Renta de Correos, 18th–19th centuries Sala de Ultramar del Tribunal de Cuentas, 19th century Real Compañía de la Habana, 18th–19th centuriesThe structure underwent a thorough restoration in 2002–2004, without interrupting its function as a research library. As of 2005, its 15 million pages are in the process of being digitized; the digitized sources are accessible online website of the Archive virtual tour of the Archive Monumentos de Sevilla: Archivo de Indias Fernando Bruner Prieto, "El Archivo General de Indias de Sevilla, Sagrario de la Hispanidad" Interactive 360° panorama from Plaza del Triunfo with Cathedral, Alcázar and Archivo General de Indias