SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

National Wild and Scenic Rivers System

The National Wild and Scenic Rivers System was created by the Wild and Scenic Rivers Act of 1968, enacted by the U. S. Congress to preserve certain rivers with outstanding natural and recreational values in a free-flowing condition for the enjoyment of present and future generations; the Act is notable for safeguarding the special character of these rivers, while recognizing the potential for their appropriate use and development. It encourages river management that crosses political boundaries and promotes public participation in developing goals for river protection; the Act, signed into law by President Lyndon B. Johnson in the height of the United States environmental era, states:"It is hereby declared to be the policy of the United States that certain selected rivers of the Nation which, with their immediate environments, possess outstandingly remarkable scenic, geologic and wildlife, cultural or other similar values, shall be preserved in free-flowing condition, that they and their immediate environments shall be protected for the benefit and enjoyment of present and future generations.

The Congress declares that the established national policy of dams and other construction at appropriate sections of the rivers of the United States needs to be complemented by a policy that would preserve other selected rivers or sections thereof in their free-flowing condition to protect the water quality of such rivers and to fulfill other vital national conservation purposes." The Act established the National Wild and Scenic Rivers System to protect and enhance rivers found to be regionally and nationally significant. Rivers may be designated by Congress or, if certain requirements are met, the Secretary of the Interior; each designated river is administered by either a federal, state, or tribal agency, or as a partnership between any number of these government entities and local NGOs. Designated segments may include headwaters and tributaries. For federally administered rivers, the designated boundaries average one-quarter mile on either bank in the lower 48 states and one-half mile on rivers outside national parks in Alaska in order to protect river-related values.

As of August 2018, the National System protects over 12,700 miles of 209 rivers in 40 states and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. By comparison, more than 75,000 large dams across the country have modified at least 600,000 miles, or about 17%, of American rivers; the National Wild and Scenic Rivers Act was an outgrowth of the recommendations of a Presidential commission, the Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission. Among other things, the commission recommended that the nation protect wild rivers and scenic rivers from development that would change their free-flowing nature and values. At this time, the country was experiencing rapid degradation of its water resources due to municipal and industrial effluent being released into the nation's rivers. Many waterways and the fish in them were toxic. Populations of aquatic species were declining and people were being relocated from their communities due to rampant dam building. All across the country people were writing letters imploring the President and First lady to protect their beloved rivers.

The act was sponsored by Sen. Frank Church and signed into law by President Lyndon B. Johnson on October 2, 1968. A river, or river section, may be designated by the U. S. Congress or the Secretary of the Interior. In 1968, as part of the original act, eight rivers were designated as National Wild and Scenic Rivers; as of November 2018, 209 rivers, totaling 12,754 miles of river in 40 states and Puerto Rico, have Wild and Scenic status. By comparison, more than 75,000 large dams across the country have modified at least 600,000 miles, or about 17%, of American rivers. Selected rivers in the United States are preserved for possessing Outstandingly Remarkable Values that fall into the 8 categories: Scenic, Geologic, Wildlife, Culture, or Other similar values; these values can be considered synonymous with ecosystem services, or those goods and services that nature provides and that benefit society. Rivers so designated are set out for protection and enhancement in perpetuity by preserving their free-flowing condition from dams and development that would otherwise diminish the quality of their remarkable values.

National Wild and Scenic designation vetoes the licensing of new dams on, or directly affecting the designated section of river. It provides strong protection against federally funded bank and channel alterations that adversely affect river values, protects riverfront public lands from new oil and mineral development, creates a federal reserved water right to protect flow-dependent values such as fish habitat. Designation as a Wild and Scenic River is not the same as a national park designation, does not confer the same protections as a Wilderness Area designation. Wild and Scenic designation protects the free-flowing nature of rivers in both federal and non-federal areas, something the Wilderness Act and other federal designations cannot do. Despite misplaced fears, WSR designation does not alter private property rights. Federally administered National Wild and Scenic Rivers are managed by one or more of the four principal land-managing agencies of the federal government. Of the 209 National Wild and S

Skelton, York

Skelton is a village and civil parish in the unitary authority of the City of York, in North Yorkshire, England. It is 4 miles north northwest of the city of York, west of Haxby, on the east bank of the River Ouse. Skelton covers 977.3 hectares. Skelton was made a conservation area in 1973; the village name began as the Anglo-Saxon'Shelfton' –'the settlement on high ground'– becoming the present'Skelton' under the invading Danes. The village, along with nearby Overton, is mentioned in the Domesday Book. According to the 2001 census the parish had a population of 1,640, reducing to 1,549 at the 2011 Census. Between 1974 and 1996 it was in the Ryedale district and prior to 1974 in the historic North Riding of Yorkshire. Skelton is mentioned in the Domesday Book. Skelton Grange was built by the Place family in the 18th century and rebuilt after fire in 1866.'The Grange' was sold in 1981 due to a lack of funds for upkeep. It was demolished by a local property developer for a large housing development on the site.

The York Corporation bought Fairfield House on the opposite side of the main Road in 1918 and opened it as a tuberculosis sanatorium in the following year. It is now a hotel. Skelton is part of the Unitary Authority of the City of York Council; as of 2010 the Ward of Skelton and Clifton Without is represented by Councillors Richard Moore and Irene Waudby of the local Liberal Democrat Party and by Joe Watt of the local Conservative party. Skelton Parish Council is elected by the residents of the parish to administer local matters and consists of nine Councillors. In 1890 its population was recorded as 313. By 1901 the village was recorded as comprising 2473 acres with a population of 270 having varied over the previous hundred years between 203 and 367. In 1951 the population was still only about 481 but expanded rapidly. In 2001 the population stood at 1,640; the village was agricultural in nature, but is now residential with a small commercial district to the south west of the village. Local Services consist of a Post Office and General Store, one Public House and one Social Club, a Doctor's Surgery.

The old village centre stands on a deposit of boulder clay, taking this part to a height some 25 metres above sea level, 10 metres more than the remainder of the village, on strong clay, resting on gravel and sand. Within the settlement are several ponds, indicating a high water-table; the flora and fauna was documented in two surveys, one in 1956 and in 1971. In and around the village the surveys identified 100 species of bird, 328 species of trees and plants, 8 different ferns, 31 different types of moss, 9 fungi and amphibians including frogs, the Warty or Crested Newt and the Smooth Newt. Recorded were 21 species of mammals including the Whiskered Bat and the Long-Eared Bat; the bats and the Crested Newts in the village are protected species. In the village open spaces have been cared for by the Parish Council and local volunteer groups and include The Green, Crooking Green, Orchard Field, The Pasture, Skelton Pond, the open spaces at Sycamore Close and Brecksfield; the long, narrow plot boundaries extending back from the older houses are an example of the typical medieval pattern of'toft and croft' agriculture.

The main road which runs to the west of the village was a turnpike and in the last century became a major trunk route the A19. There were attempts to turnpike the York-Northallerton road that passed through Skelton in 1749, but these failed; the scheme was revived in 1752 when the York Corporation sought that no gate should be nearer to York than the north end of Skelton, that the section of the road nearer York should be repaired first. The Turnpike Trust was established in 1753; the trust was renewed in 1778, 1794, 1808, 1830, by the Continuance Acts until 1874. The village is served by four bus services as part of the York to Easingwold route, two further services as part of the York to Thirsk route, one local service to York. A school was built in 1872, it accommodated 120 children, had an average attendance of about half that number. Now primary education is catered for at Skelton Community Primary School located in Brecksfield; the village is within the Local Education Authority catchment area for Vale of York Academy on Rawcliffe Drive in nearby Clifton Without.

The Church of St Giles known as All Saints, dates from 1247, having been restored between 1810 and 1818 by Henry Graham and in 1863 by Ewan Christian. It is a Grade I listed building; the register dates from the year 1538. Local tradition maintains that it was built, in 1227, with the stones that remained after the building of the south transept of York Minster; the church is thus sometimes called "Little St Peter's". There is some truth in this as the following extract from Archbishop Grey's roll shows that its building took place previous to the year 1247: "Confirmation of a donation to the chapel of Skelton. To all, etc; the donation which our beloved son in Christ, Master E. Hagitur, treasurer of York, made to John de l'Edes, clerk of the chapel of Skelton, considering it to be agreeable and satisfactory to us, we confirm the same by our Pontifical authority, desiring the said treasurer, his successors, to pay annually the sum of 20d. to this parson. In witn

Giving Birth to a Stone

Giving Birth to a Stone is the debut and only studio album by UK metal band Peach, released in 1994 through Mad Minute Records. It was re-released in 2000 through Beatville Records, with different artwork, designed by Adam Jones of Tool, it was re-released again globally on April 2, 2007 through Sony BMG - and is being made available in downloadable formats. The song "You Lied" was included on their box set Salival. Following the album's release, Peach broke-up in 1995, reforming under the name Suns of Tundra in 2003. Bassist Justin Chancellor joined Tool in September 1995; every song on Giving Birth to a Stone appeared on an earlier EP by the band. The songs "Signpost In the Sea," "Don't Make Me Your God" and "Dougal" appeared on the EP Don't Make Me Your God, released in 1992.. The songs "Velvet" and "Peach" appeared on the EP Disappear Here released in 1992; the songs "Burn," "Naked" and "You Lied" appeared on the EP Burn, released in 1993. The songs "Spasm" and "Catfood" appeared on the album Spasm released in 1993.

All tracks are written except where noted. PeachSimon Oakes – Vocals Rob Havis – Drums Ben Durling – Guitar Justin Chancellor – BassAdditionalStewart Lee - inaudibly mixed spoken word section on the track "You Lied" Jessica Corcoran – Producer Ian Shaw – Producer Andy Levine – Engineer Adam Jones – Artwork Brian RoseMastering