The oat, sometimes called the common oat, is a species of cereal grain grown for its seed, known by the same name. While oats are suitable for human consumption as oatmeal and rolled oats, one of the most common uses is as livestock feed. Oats are a nutrient-rich food associated with lower blood cholesterol. Avenins present in oats can trigger celiac disease in a small proportion of people. Oat products are contaminated by other gluten-containing grains wheat and barley; the wild ancestor of Avena sativa and the related minor crop, A. byzantina, is the hexaploid wild oat, A. sterilis. Genetic evidence shows the ancestral forms of A. sterilis grew in the Fertile Crescent of the Near East. Oats are considered a secondary crop, i.e. derived from a weed of the primary cereal domesticates spreading westward into cooler, wetter areas favorable for oats leading to their domestication in regions of the Middle East and Europe. Oats are best grown in temperate regions, they have a lower summer heat requirement and greater tolerance of rain than other cereals, such as wheat, rye or barley, so they are important in areas with cool, wet summers, such as Northwest Europe and Iceland.
Oats are an annual plant, can be planted either in autumn or in the spring. In 2016, global production of oats was 23 million tonnes, led by the European Union with 35% of the world total, followed by Russia with 21% of the total, Canada with 13% of the total. Other substantial producers were Poland and Finland, each with over one million tonnes. Oats have numerous uses in foods. Oatmeal is chiefly eaten as porridge, but may be used in a variety of baked goods, such as oatcakes, oatmeal cookies and oat bread. Oats are an ingredient in many cold cereals, in particular muesli and granola. Historical attitudes towards oats have varied. Oat bread was first manufactured in Britain, where the first oat bread factory was established in 1899. In Scotland, they were, still are, held in high esteem, as a mainstay of the national diet. In Scotland, a dish was made by soaking the husks from oats for a week, so the fine, floury part of the meal remained as sediment to be strained off and eaten. Oats are widely used there as a thickener in soups, as barley or rice might be used in other countries.
Oats are commonly used as feed for horses when extra carbohydrates and the subsequent boost in energy are required. The oat hull may be crushed for the horse to more digest the grain, or may be fed whole, they may be given alone or as part of a blended food pellet. Cattle are fed oats, either whole or ground into a coarse flour using a roller mill, burr mill, or hammer mill. Oat forage is used to feed all kinds of ruminants, as pasture, hay or silage. Winter oats may be grown as an off-season groundcover and ploughed under in the spring as a green fertilizer, or harvested in early summer, they can be used for pasture. Oat straw is prized by cattle and horse producers as bedding, due to its soft dust-free, absorbent nature; the straw can be used for making corn dollies. Tied in a muslin bag, oat straw was used to soften bath water. Oats are occasionally used in several different drinks. In Britain, they are sometimes used for brewing beer. Oatmeal stout is one variety brewed using a percentage of oats for the wort.
The more used oat malt is produced by the Thomas Fawcett & Sons Maltings and was used in the Maclay Oat Malt Stout before Maclays Brewery ceased independent brewing operations. A cold, sweet drink called avena made of ground oats and milk is a popular refreshment throughout Latin America. Oatmeal caudle, made of ale and oatmeal with spices, was a traditional British drink and a favourite of Oliver Cromwell. Oat extracts can be used to soothe skin conditions, are popular for their emollient properties in cosmetics. Oat grass has been used traditionally for medicinal purposes, including to help balance the menstrual cycle, treat dysmenorrhoea and for osteoporosis and urinary tract infections. In China in western Inner Mongolia and Shanxi province, oat flour called youmian is processed into noodles or thin-walled rolls, is consumed as staple food. Oats are considered healthful due to their rich content of several essential nutrients. In a 100 gram serving, oats provide 389 kilocalories and are an excellent source of protein, dietary fiber, several B vitamins and numerous dietary minerals manganese.
Oats are 66 % carbohydrates, including 4 % beta-glucans, 7 % fat and 17 % protein. The established property of their cholesterol-lowering effects has led to acceptance of oats as a health food. Oat bran is the outer casing of the oat, its daily consumption over weeks lowers LDL and total cholesterol reducing the risk of heart disease. One type of soluble fiber, beta-glucans, has been proven to lower cholesterol. After reports of research finding that dietary oats can help lower cholesterol, the United States Food and Drug Administration issued a final rule that allows food companies to make health claims on food labels of foods that contain soluble fiber from whole oats, noting that 3
Blueberries are perennial flowering plants with blue– or purple–colored berries. They are classified in the section Cyanococcus within the genus Vaccinium. Vaccinium includes cranberries and huckleberries. Commercial "blueberries" – including both wild and cultivated blueberries – are all native to North America; the highbush blueberry varieties were introduced into Europe during the 1930s. Blueberries are prostrate shrubs that can vary in size from 10 centimeters to 4 meters in height. In commercial production of blueberries, the species with small, pea–size berries growing on low–level bushes are known as "lowbush blueberries", while the species with larger berries growing on taller cultivated bushes are known as "highbush blueberries"; the leaves can be either deciduous or evergreen, ovate to lanceolate, 1–8 cm long and 0.5–3.5 cm broad. The flowers are bell-shaped, pale pink or red, sometimes tinged greenish; the fruit is a berry 5–16 millimeters in diameter with a flared crown at the end. They are covered in a protective coating of powdery epicuticular wax, colloquially known as the "bloom".
They have a sweet taste, with variable acidity. Blueberry bushes bear fruit in the middle of the growing season: fruiting times are affected by local conditions such as altitude and latitude, so the peak of the crop, in the northern hemisphere, can vary from May to August; the genus Vaccinium has a circumpolar distribution, with species being present in North America and Asia. Many commercially sold species with English common names including "blueberry" are from North America. Many North American native species of blueberries are grown commercially in the Southern Hemisphere in Australia, New Zealand and South American nations. Several other wild shrubs of the genus Vaccinium produce eaten blue berries, such as the predominantly European Vaccinium myrtillus and other bilberries, which in many languages have a name that translates to "blueberry" in English. See the Identification section for more information. Note: habitat and range summaries are from the Flora of New Brunswick, published in 1986 by Harold R. Hinds, Plants of the Pacific Northwest coast, published in 1994 by Pojar and MacKinnon.
Some other blue-fruited species of Vaccinium: Vaccinium koreanum Vaccinium myrtillus Vaccinium uliginosum Commercially offered blueberries are from species that occur only in eastern and north-central North America. Other sections in the genus, native to other parts of the world, including the Pacific Northwest and southern United States, South America and Asia, include other wild shrubs producing similar-looking edible berries, such as huckleberries and whortleberries and bilberries; these species are sometimes sold as blueberry jam or other products. The names of blueberries in languages other than English translate as "blueberry", e.g. Scots blaeberry and Norwegian blåbær. Blaeberry, blåbær and French myrtilles refer to the European native bilberry, while bleuets refers to the North American blueberry. Russian голубика does not refer to blueberries, which are non-native and nearly unknown in Russia, but rather to their close relatives, bog bilberries. Cyanococcus blueberries can be distinguished from the nearly identical-looking bilberries by their flesh color when cut in half.
Ripe blueberries have light green flesh, while bilberries and huckleberries are red or purple throughout. Blueberries are sold fresh or are processed as individually quick frozen fruit, purée, juice, or dried or infused berries; these may be used in a variety of consumer goods, such as jellies, blueberry pies, snack foods, or as an additive to breakfast cereals. Blueberry jam is made from blueberries, sugar and fruit pectin. Blueberry sauce is a sweet sauce prepared using blueberries as a primary ingredient. Blueberry wine is made from the flesh and skin of the berry, fermented and matured. Blueberries consist of 84 % water, they contain only negligible amounts of micronutrients, with moderate levels of the essential dietary mineral manganese, vitamin C, vitamin K and dietary fiber. Nutrient contents of blueberries are a low percentage of the DV. One serving provides a low caloric value of 57 kcal per 100 g serving and glycemic load score of 6 out of 100 per day. Blueberries contain anthocyanins, other polyphenols and various phytochemicals under preliminary research for their potential role in the human body.
Most polyphenol studies have been conducted using the highbush cultivar of blueberries, while content of polyphenols and anthocyanins in lowbush blueberries exceeds values found in highbush cultivars. Blueberries may be cultivated. In North America, the most common cultivated species is V. corymbosum, the northern highbush blueberry. Hybrids of this with other Vaccinium species adapted to southern U. S. climates are known collectively as southern highbush blueberries. So-called "wild" blueberries, smaller than cultivated highbush ones, have intense color; the lowbush blueberry, V. angustifolium, is found from the Atlantic provinces westward to Quebec and southward to Michigan and West Virginia. In some areas, it produces natural
Game or quarry is any animal hunted for sport or for food, the meat of those animals. The type and range of animals hunted for food varies in different parts of the world. Game or quarry is any animal hunted for sport; the term game arises in medieval hunting terminology by the late 13th century and is particular to English, the word derived from the generic Old English gamen "joy, sport, merriment". Quarry in the generic meaning is early modern, in the more specific sense "bird targeted in falconry" late 14th and 15th centuries as quirre "entrails of deer placed on the hide and given to the hunting-dogs as a reward", from Old French cuiriee "spoil, quarry", but influenced by corée "viscera, entrails". Wild game meat is considered to be superior in nutrient density, has lower fat content, than meat procured through contemporary farming methods, while the cost in time and money to procure wild game is much higher. Small game includes small animals, such as rabbits, geese or ducks. Large game includes animals like deer and bear.
Big game is a term sometimes used interchangeably with large game although in other contexts it refers to large African, mammals which are hunted for trophies. The type and range of animals hunted for food varies in different parts of the world; this is influenced by climate, animal diversity, local taste and locally accepted views about what can or cannot be legitimately hunted. Sometimes a distinction is made between varieties and species of a particular animal, such as wild turkey and domestic turkey. Fish caught for sport are referred to as game fish; the flesh of the animal, when butchered for consumption is described as having a "gamey" flavour. This difference in taste can be attributed to the wild diet of the animal, which results in a lower fat content compared to domestic farm raised animals. In some countries, game is classified, including legal classification with respect to licences required, as either "small game" or "large game". A single small game licence may be subject to yearly bag limits.
Large game are subject to individual licensing where a separate licence is required for each individual animal taken. In some parts of Africa, wild animals hunted for their meat are called bushmeat. Animals hunted for bushmeat include, but are not limited to: Various species of antelope, including duikers Various species of primates like mandrills or gorillas Rodents like porcupines or cane ratsSome of these animals are endangered or otherwise protected, thus it is illegal to hunt them. In Africa, animals hunted for their pelts or ivory are sometimes referred to as the big game. See the legal definition of game in Swaziland. South Africa is a famous destination for game hunting, with its large biodiversity and therefore rather impressive variety of game species. Many creatures have returned to former areas from which they were once taken from as a result of being killed for big-game hunting. Species of creatures hunted include: South Africa has 62 species of gamebirds, including guineafowl, partridge, sandgrouse, geese, snipe and korhaan.
Some of these species are no longer hunted, of the 44 indigenous gamebirds that can be utilised in South Africa, only three, namely the yellow-throated sandgrouse, Delegorgue's pigeon and the African pygmy goose warrant special protection. Of the remaining 41 species, 24 have shown an increase in numbers and distribution range in the last 25 years or so; the status of 14 species appears unchanged, with insufficient information being available for the remaining three species. The gamebirds of South Africa where the population status in 2005 was secure or growing are listed below: In Australia, game includes: Game in New Zealand includes: Chamois Deer, multiple species Pig Tahr Duck, multiple species In the U. S. and Canada, white-tailed deer are the most hunted big game. Other game species include: In the PRC there is a special cuisine category called ye wei, which includes animals in the wild. In the UK game is defined in law by the Game Act 1831, it is illegal to shoot game at night. Other that are hunted for food in the UK are specified under the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981.
UK law defines game as including: Black grouse Red grouse Brown hare Ptarmigan Grey partridge and red-legged partridge Common pheasantDeer are not included in the definition, but similar controls provided to those in the Game Act apply to deer. Deer hunted in the UK are: Red deer Roe deer Fallow deer Sika deer Muntjac deer Chinese water deer and hybrids of these deerOther animals which are hunted in the UK include: Duck, including mallard, tufted duck, teal and pochard Goose, including greylag goose, Canada goose, pink-footed goose and in England and Wales white-fronted goose Woodpigeon Woodcock Snipe Rabbit Golden ploverCapercaillie are not hunted in the UK because of a recent decline in numbers and conservation projects towards their recovery; the ban is considered voluntary on private lands, few birds live away from RSPB or Forestry Commission land allegedly. In Iceland game includes: Reindeer Ptarmigan, a popular Christmas dish in Iceland Puffin Auk Goos
Tragacanth is a natural gum obtained from the dried sap of several species of Middle Eastern legumes of the genus Astragalus, including A. adscendens, A. gummifer, A. brachycalyx, A. tragacantha. Some of these species are known collectively under the common names "goat's thorn" and "locoweed"; the gum is sometimes called Shiraz gum, gum elect or gum dragon. The name derives from akantha. Iran is the biggest producer of this gum. Gum tragacanth is a viscous, tasteless, water-soluble mixture of polysaccharides obtained from sap, drained from the root of the plant and dried; the gum seeps from the plant in twisted flakes that can be powdered. It absorbs water to become a gel; the major fractions are known as tragacanthin water soluble as a mucilaginous colloid, the chemically related bassorin, far less soluble but swells in water to form a gel. The gum is used in vegetable-tanned leatherworking as an edge slicking and burnishing compound, is used as a stiffener in textiles; the gum has been used as a herbal remedy for such conditions as cough and diarrhea.
Powders using tragacanth as a basis were sometimes called diatragacanth. As a mucilage or paste, it has been used as a topical treatment for burns, it is used in pharmaceuticals and foods as an emulsifier, thickener and texturant additive. It is the traditional binder used in the making of artists' pastels, as it does not adhere to itself the same way other gums do when dry. Gum tragacanth is used to make a paste used in floral sugarcraft to create lifelike flowers on wires used as decorations for cakes, which air-dries brittle and can take colorings, it enables users to get a fine, delicate finish to their work. It has traditionally been used as an adhesive in the cigar-rolling process used to secure the cap or "flag" leaf to the finished cigar body. Gum tragacanth is used in incense-making as a binder to hold all the powdered herbs together, its water solubility is ideal for ease of working and an spread, it is one of the stronger gums for holding particles in suspension. Only half as much is needed, compared to gum arabic or something similar
Agar or agar-agar is a jelly-like substance, obtained from red algae. Agar is a mixture of two components: the linear polysaccharide agarose, a heterogeneous mixture of smaller molecules called agaropectin, it forms the supporting structure in the cell walls of certain species of algae, is released on boiling. These algae are known as agarophytes, belong to the Rhodophyta phylum. Agar has been used as an ingredient in desserts throughout Asia, as a solid substrate to contain culture media for microbiological work. Agar can be used as a laxative, an appetite suppressant, a vegetarian substitute for gelatin, a thickener for soups, in fruit preserves, ice cream, other desserts, as a clarifying agent in brewing, for sizing paper and fabrics; the gelling agent in agar is an unbranched polysaccharide obtained from the cell walls of some species of red algae from tengusa and ogonori. For commercial purposes, it is derived from ogonori. In chemical terms, agar is a polymer made up of subunits of the sugar galactose.
Agar may have been discovered in Japan in 1658 by Mino Tarōzaemon, an innkeeper in current Fushimi-ku, Kyoto who, according to legend, was said to have discarded surplus seaweed soup and noticed that it gelled after a winter night's freezing. Over the following centuries, agar became a common gelling agent in several Southeast Asian cuisines. Agar was first subjected to chemical analysis in 1859 by the French chemist Anselme Payen, who had obtained agar from the marine algae Gelidium corneum. Beginning in the late 19th century, agar began to be used as a solid medium for growing various microbes. Agar was first described for use in microbiology in 1882 by the German microbiologist Walther Hesse, an assistant working in Robert Koch's laboratory, on the suggestion of his wife Fannie Hesse. Agar supplanted gelatin as the base of microbiological media, due to its higher melting temperature, allowing microbes to be grown at higher temperatures without the media liquefying. With its newfound use in microbiology, agar production increased.
This production centered on Japan, which produced most of the world's agar until World War II. However, with the outbreak of World War II, many nations were forced to establish domestic agar industries in order to continue microbiological research. Around the time of World War II 2,500 tons of agar were produced annually. By the mid-1970s, production worldwide had increased to 10,000 tons each year. Since production of agar has fluctuated due to unstable and sometimes over-utilized seaweed populations; the word "agar" comes from the Malay name for red algae from which the jelly is produced. It is known as Kanten, Japanese isinglass, Ceylon moss or Jaffna moss. Gracilaria lichenoides is referred to as agal-agal or Ceylon agar. Agar consists of a mixture of two polysaccharides: agarose and agaropectin, with agarose making up about 70% of the mixture. Agarose is a linear polymer, made up of repeating units of agarobiose, a disaccharide made up of D-galactose and 3,6-anhydro-L-galactopyranose. Agaropectin is a heterogeneous mixture of smaller molecules that occur in lesser amounts, is made up of alternating units of D-galactose and L-galactose modified with acidic side-groups, such as sulfate and pyruvate.
Agar exhibits hysteresis, melting at 85 °C and solidifying from 32–40 °C. This property lends a suitable balance between easy melting and good gel stability at high temperatures. Since many scientific applications require incubation at temperatures close to human body temperature, agar is more appropriate than other solidifying agents that melt at this temperature, such as gelatin. Agar-agar is a natural vegetable gelatin counterpart. White and semi-translucent, it is sold in powdered form, it can be used to make jellies and custards. For making jelly, it is boiled in water. Sweetener, colouring, fruit or vegetables are added and the liquid is poured into molds to be served as desserts and vegetable aspics, or incorporated with other desserts, such as a jelly layer in a cake. Agar-agar is 80% fiber, so it can serve as an intestinal regulator, its bulking quality has been behind fad diets for example the kanten diet. Once ingested, kanten triples in size and absorbs water; this results in the consumers feeling fuller.
This diet has received some press coverage in the United States as well. The diet has shown promise in obesity studies. One use of agar in Japanese cuisine is anmitsu, a dessert made of small cubes of agar jelly and served in a bowl with various fruits or other ingredients, it is the main ingredient in mizu yōkan, another popular Japanese food. In Philippine cuisine, it is used to make the jelly bars in the various gulaman refreshments or desserts such as sago gulaman, buko pandan, agar flan, halo-halo, the black and red gulaman used in various fruit salads. In Vietnamese cuisine, jellies made of flavored layers of agar agar, called thạch, are a popular dessert, are made in ornate molds for special occasions. In Indian cuisine, agar agar is used for making desserts. In Burmese cuisine, a sweet jelly known as kyauk kyaw is made from agar. In Russia, it is used in addition or as a replacement to pectin in jams and marmalades, as a substitute to gelatin for its superior gelling properties, as a strengthening ingredie
Anogeissus latifolia is a species of small to medium-sized tree native to the India, Nepal and Sri Lanka. Its common names are axlewood, dhau, dhawra, or dhaora, takhian-nu, raam, it is one of the most useful trees in India. Its leaves contain large amounts of gallotannins, are used in India for tanning; the tree is the source of Indian gum known as ghatti gum, used for calico printing among other uses. The leaves are fed on by the Antheraea paphia moth which produces the tassar silk, a form of wild silk of commercial importance. "Anogeissus latifolia", AgroForestry Tree Database. Accessed April 20, 2008
Non-timber forest product
Non-timber forest products known as non-wood forest products, minor forest produce, minor and secondary forest products, are useful substances, materials and/or commodities obtained from forests which do not require harvesting trees. They include game animals, fur-bearers, seeds, mushrooms, foliage, medicinal plants, mast, fish and forage. Research on NTFPs has focused on their ability to be produced as commodities for rural incomes and markets, as an expression of traditional knowledge or as a livelihood option for rural household needs, as a key component of sustainable forest management and conservation strategies. All research promotes forest products as valuable commodities and tools that can promote the conservation of forests; the wide variety of NTFPs includes mushrooms, ferns, seed cones, piñon seeds, tree nuts, maple syrup, cinnamon, wild pigs, tree oils and resins, ginseng. The United Kingdom's Forestry Commission defines NTFPs as "any biological resources found in woodlands except timber", Forest Harvest, part of the Reforesting Scotland project, defines them as "materials supplied by woodlands - except the conventional harvest of timber".
These definitions include wild and managed game and insects. NTFPs are grouped into categories such as floral greens, medicinal plants, foods and fragrances, saps and resins. Other terms similar to NTFPs include special, non-wood, minor and secondary forest products. NTFPs in particular highlight forest products which are of value to local people and communities, but have been overlooked in the wake of forest management priorities. In recent decades, interest has grown in using NTFPs as alternatives or supplements to forest management practices. In some forest types, under the right political and social conditions, forests can be managed to increase NTFP diversity, to increase biodiversity and economic diversity. Black truffle cultivation in the Mediterranean area is a good example of a high profitability when well managed; the harvest of NTFPs remains widespread throughout the world. People from a wide range of socioeconomic and cultural contexts harvest NTFPs for a number of purposes, including household subsistence, maintenance of cultural and familial traditions, spiritual fulfillment and emotional well-being, house heating and cooking, animal feeding, indigenous medicine and healing, scientific learning, income.
Other terms synonymous with harvesting include wild-crafting, gathering and foraging. NTFPs serve as raw materials for industries ranging from large-scale floral greens suppliers and pharmaceutical companies to microenterprises centered upon a wide variety of activities. Estimate the contribution of NTFPs to national or regional economies is difficult, broad-based systems for tracking the combined value of the hundreds of products that make up various NTFP industries are lacking. One exception to this is the maple syrup industry, which in 2002 in the US alone yielded 1.4 million US gallons worth US$D38.3 million. In temperate forests such as in the US, wild edible mushrooms such as matsutake, medicinal plants such as ginseng, floral greens such as salal and sword fern are multimillion-dollar industries. While these high-value species may attract the most attention, a diversity of NTFPs can be found in most forests of the world. In tropical forests, for example, NTFPs can be an important source of income that can supplement farming and/or other activities.
A value analysis of the Amazon rainforest in Peru found that exploitation of NTFPs could yield higher net revenue per hectare than would timber harvest of the same area, while still conserving vital ecological services. Their economic and ecological values, when considered in aggregate, make managing NTFPs an important component of sustainable forest management and the conservation of biological and cultural diversity. NTFPs of plant originEdible plant products Medicinal plants Aromatic plants Gums and resin exuding plants Dyes and colour-yielding plants Fiber and floss-yielding plants Jam-yielding plants Bamboos Canes Fodder and forage Fuelwood Charcoal briquettes Leaves for plates Minority people in Vietnam and Laos are living away from the mainstream settlements; the hill tribes and many other minority groups are associated with forests for centuries. Much of their household subsistence and part of the income is generated from the sale of a variety of NTFP products. In the highlands of Vietnam, NTFPs production is spread throughout the year, so provides a sustained income for the ethnic minority people.
From June to August is the wild berry called uoi collection that provides the bulk of household income. Every family sends several people into the forest on a regular basis during this period where they stay for 2–3 days during which 5–6 kg of berries are collected. A kilogram of dried berries is sold for $1.50. The next comes bamboo shoots and vegetable collection that goes through to February; the minority people in Sa Pa area depends on a variety of NTFPs for their livelihoods. Among the products collected are fruits, leaves, fish, bees honey, bamboo shoots, wild orchids and the list goes on; the Friday market is full of orchids and other wild plants put forward by these people for the tourists, both domestic and international, that flock there. Between 10-15% of the total household inc