Natural philosophy

Natural philosophy or philosophy of nature was the philosophical study of nature and the physical universe, dominant before the development of modern science. It is considered to be the precursor of natural science. From the ancient world, starting with Aristotle, to the 19th century, natural philosophy was the common term for the practice of studying nature, it was in the 19th century that the concept of "science" received its modern shape with new titles emerging such as "biology" and "biologist", "physics" and "physicist" among other technical fields and titles. Isaac Newton's book Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica, whose title translates to "Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy", reflects the then-current use of the words "natural philosophy", akin to "systematic study of nature". In the 19th century, a treatise by Lord Kelvin and Peter Guthrie Tait, which helped define much of modern physics, was titled Treatise on Natural Philosophy. In the German tradition, Naturphilosophie persisted into the 18th and 19th century as an attempt to achieve a speculative unity of nature and spirit.

Some of the greatest names in German philosophy are associated with this movement, including Goethe and Schelling. Naturphilosophie was associated with Romanticism and a view that regarded the natural world as a kind of giant organism, as opposed to the philosophical approach of figures such as John Locke and Isaac Newton who espoused a more mechanical view of the world, regarding it as being like a machine; the term natural philosophy preceded current usage of natural science. Empirical science developed out of philosophy or, more natural philosophy. Natural philosophy was distinguished from the other precursor of modern science, natural history, in that natural philosophy involved reasoning and explanations about nature, whereas natural history was qualitative and descriptive. In the 14th and 15th centuries, natural philosophy was one of many branches of philosophy, but was not a specialized field of study; the first person appointed as a specialist in Natural Philosophy per se was Jacopo Zabarella, at the University of Padua in 1577.

Modern meanings of the terms science and scientists date only to the 19th century. Before that, science was a synonym for study, in keeping with its Latin origin; the term gained its modern meaning when experimental science and the scientific method became a specialized branch of study apart from natural philosophy. From the mid-19th century, when it became unusual for scientists to contribute to both physics and chemistry, "natural philosophy" came to mean just physics, the word is still used in that sense in degree titles at the University of Oxford. In general, chairs of Natural Philosophy established long ago at the oldest universities are nowadays occupied by physics professors. Isaac Newton's book Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica, whose title translates to "Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy", reflects the then-current use of the words "natural philosophy", akin to "systematic study of nature". In the 19th century, a treatise by Lord Kelvin and Peter Guthrie Tait, which helped define much of modern physics, was titled Treatise on Natural Philosophy.

Greek philosophers defined it as the combination of beings living in the universe, ignoring things made by humans. The other definition refers to human nature. In Plato's earliest known dialogue, Charmides distinguishes between science or bodies of knowledge that produce a physical result, those that do not. Natural philosophy has been categorized as a theoretical rather than a practical branch of philosophy. Sciences that guide arts and draw on the philosophical knowledge of nature may produce practical results, but these subsidiary sciences go beyond natural philosophy; the study of natural philosophy seeks to explore the cosmos by any means necessary to understand the universe. Some ideas presuppose. Although this may seem obvious, there have been some philosophers who have denied the concept of metamorphosis, such as Plato's predecessor Parmenides and Greek philosopher Sextus Empiricus, some Eastern philosophers. George Santayana, in his Scepticism and Animal Faith, attempted to show that the reality of change cannot be proven.

If his reasoning is sound, it follows that to be a physicist, one must restrain one's skepticism enough to trust one's senses, or else rely on anti-realism. René Descartes' metaphysical system of mind–body dualism describes two kinds of substance: matter and mind. According to this system, everything, "matter" is deterministic and natural—and so belongs to natural philosophy—and everything, "mind" is volitional and non-natural, falls outside the domain of philosophy of nature. Major branches of natural philosophy include astronomy and cosmology, the study of nature on the grand scale. Humankind's mental engagement with nature predates ci

China at the 2014 Winter Olympics

China competed at the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi, Russia from 7–23 February 2014. According to the quota allocation released on January 20, 2014, China has two athletes in qualification position. Based on their performance at the 2012 and 2013 Biathlon World Championships China qualified 1 man and 4 women. According to the quota allocation released on January 20, 2014, China has qualified a total quota of four athletes. DistanceSprint Based on results from 2012 World Men's Curling Championship and the 2013 World Men's Curling Championship, China has qualified their men's team as one of the seven highest ranked nations; the Women's team managed to qualify by winning the last chance qualifying event in December 2013. The men's team will consist of Xu Xiaoming, Ba Dexin, Zang Jialiang and Zou Dejia; the women's team will consist of the defending bronze medalists Wang Bingyu, Liu Yin, Yue Qingshuang, Zhou Yan and new alternate Jiang Yilun. Final round robin standings Round-robinChina has a bye in draws 2, 6 and 10.

Final round robin standings Round-robinChina has a bye in draws 2, 6 and 10. China has achieved the following quota places: The team consists of eight athletes; the team has qualified for the team trophy. Team trophy China has qualified nine quota spots for the following events; the full list of Chinese freestyle skiing team was announced on January 26, 2014. AerialsMoguls China qualified five skaters of each gender for the Olympics during World Cup 3 & 4 in November 2013, they qualified the maximum number of starting places with 3 for each gender in each distance and both a men's and women's relay team. China was hot favorites to win most of the gold medals from the women in the short-track speed skating, including in the 500m, 1000m & 3000m women's relay; however reigning three-time Olympic gold medalist from Vancouver Wang Meng, broke her ankle during a crash during ice training on January 15, 2014 and did not compete at the Olympics. Creating a big blow to the medal chances for China, an emotional impact on the team with only a month remaining before Sochi.

China was handed another blow with disqualification from the women's 3000m relay final at Sochi, after impeding on the last lap giving arch rival Korea the gold medal. Korea was handed the same disqualification in Vancouver that gave China the gold medal four years earlier. Fan Kexin was set to win the 500m after Wang Meng's injury; however again fell during the semi's. However China picked up to win surprise win's in the 500m from Li Jianrou, 1500m from Zhou Yang; the men came away with un-predicted medals. MenWomenQualification legend: ADV – Advanced due to being impeded by another skater. Jing was selected to ride the women's 500 m. Deputy Secretary General of the delegation is studying, going to replace her. MenWomen China at the 2014 Summer Youth Olympics China at the 2014 Winter Paralympics China at the 2014 Winter Olympics at the Wayback Machine China at the 2014 Winter Olympics at SR/Olympics

Michael Kilroy

Michael Kilroy was an Irish politician and guerrilla leader. He was an Irish Republican Army officer in his native County Mayo during the Irish War of Independence and Irish Civil War. Subsequently, he was a Sinn Féin and Fianna Fáil Teachta Dála for Mayo South. Michael Kilroy was born in Derrylahan townland, County Mayo on 14 September 1884, he was one of ten in the family. He was a carpenter and coachbuilder and learned his trade in Claremorris when he was 16 years and lodged with the Stratford Family in Mount Street, Claremorris, he was married to Ann Leonard of Crossmolina and they had eight in family. As a child he was raised with his maternal grandmother, Kilroy in the townland of Carrickaneady and went to school in Culmore in the 1890s where he was influenced by the nationalistically minded Martin Casey, the Head Master. Mr. Casey instilled in his pupils a great love of Irish history that would remain with Kilroy all his life. A booklet on the life of Michael Kilroy was published in 2008, Michael Kilroy – A Life 1884 – 1962 and is available in Mayo County Libraries.

The IRA in West Mayo was quiet until January 1921, when Michael Kilroy, described as, "a puritanical and ascetic blacksmith" took over command of the brigade after the previous leader Thomas Derrig was arrested by the British. There were four Battalions in the West Mayo Brigade, The First Battalion was in Castlebar, the Second Battalion was in Newport, the Third Battalion was in Westport and the Fourth Battalion was in Louisburgh. In his earlier career with the Movement for Independence, Kilroy had been an organiser for the IRB in the west and had been one of the founder members of the Volunteer Company in Newport in February 1914 and was the O/C and Quarter Master of the Mayo Brigade of the Irish Volunteers. Kilroy formed a flying column of 40 -- 50 men. On 6 May 1921, they suffered a reverse at Islandeady, when a British patrol came upon the IRA men cutting a road, 3 IRA members were killed and 2 captured. Another setback was to follow. One Royal Irish Constabulary and one Black and Tans policemen were killed in the action.

After the ambush at Kilmeena the column retreated to the hill country of Skirdagh to the north east of Newport where they were forced to retreat when a patrol from Newport came into the village the gallant men of the West Mayo Brigade held them off and the wounded were got away to safety. This was on 23 May 1921 and the column was hidden in the hills of the Nephin range and in the Glenisland area until the RIC, Tans and the Border regiment lifted the cordon. One volunteer Jim Browne from Drumgarve, Kilmeena was killed at Skirdagh and a number of the RIC including a District Inspector was killed, it was a crucial week in the survival of the column because they were attacked from the rear at Kilmeena and could have been wiped out during this action. The Crown forces burned houses including the home of Michael Kilroy on 20 May 1921 and the same would happen after the Carrowkennedy Ambush in June 1921; the south west Mayo area suffered during these months of 1921 due to the ambushes. On 2 June 1921 in an action at Carrowkennedy, they killed 8 Tans and captured 16 members of the RIC along with a Lewis Machine gun and rifles and ammunition.

The ambush began after the convoy or patrol left Darby Hastings pub at Carrowkennedy and one of the column fired early hitting the driver of the first vehicle and after a protracted period of firing in which a number of Tans were killed, an explosion in one of the lorries brought an end to the firing. Two of the wounded Tans died later; the 16 RIC referred to earlier surrendered in a nearby cottage. The Column went on the run for the next six weeks until the Truce; the first casualty in the ambush was District Inspector Stevenson. He opposed the Anglo-Irish Treaty in 1922 and sided with the Anti-Treaty IRA during the Civil War with the Irish Free State forces in 1922–23, he served on the Army Executive of the IRA in this period. In October 1922 he was appointed O/C of the 4th Western Division and the Western Command in September 1922, the 4th Western Division covered North Mayo, West Mayo and West Connemara. In the early months of the Civil War, he and his men dominated the West Mayo area and ambushed Free State Army troops on several occasions.

The Government forces had to evacuate their garrison at Newport and carried out a successful attack on Clifden, capturing the Army post there on 29 October 1922. They captured Ballina in September 1922, they fought a battle at Glenamoy on 16 September 1922 where 6 Free State Troops were killed and five wounded, one Republican Officer was wounded. However the Free State sent an expedition to the North Mayo/Connemara area, which succeeded after some fighting, in capturing Michael Kilroy and many of his men at Carrowbeg House on 23 November 1922. Kilroy was badly wounded and interned at Athlone and Mountjoy where he went on Hunger Strike and would escape in late 1923 when the Civil War was over. Kilroy entered politics in August 1923 while still in jail, he was elected for the Republicans for South Mayo but due to the Oath of Allegiance he did not take his seat. Michael Kilroy was elected for Fianna Fáil in South Mayo in June 1927 and would be TD for South Mayo until 1937 when he lost his seat when contesting the General election in North Mayo.

He did not take his seat in the 4th Dáil due to Sinn Féin's abstentionist policy. He was the Chairman of Mayo County Council from 1934 to 1945, the longest-serving member in this position in the history of the Council, he retired from politics in 1945. From 1945 unti