Naturalism is a literary movement beginning in the late nineteenth century, similar to literary realism in its rejection of Romanticism, but distinct in its embrace of determinism, scientific objectivism, social commentary. The movement traces to the theories of French author Émile Zola. Literary Naturalism traces back most directly to Émile Zola's "The Experimental Novel", which details Zola's concept of a naturalistic novel, which traces philosophically to Auguste Comte's positivism, but to physiologist Claude Bernard and historian Hippolyte Taine. Comte had proposed a scientific method that “went beyond empiricism, beyond the passive and detached observation of phenomena”; the application of this method “called for a scientist to conduct controlled experiments that would either prove or disprove hypotheses regarding those phenomena”. Zola took this scientific method and argued that naturalism in literature should be like controlled experiments in which the characters function as the phenomena.
Naturalism began as a branch of literary realism, realism had favored fact and impersonality over the imaginative and supernatural. Frank Norris, an American journalist and novelist, whose work was predominantly in the naturalist genre, “placed realism and naturalism in a dialectic, in which realism and romanticism were opposing forces”, naturalism was a mixture of the two. Norris's idea of naturalism differs from Zola's in that “it does not mention materialistic determinism or any other philosophic idea”. Apart from Zola and Norris’ views on the movement, there are various literary critics who have their own separate views on the matter; as said by Paul Civello, these critics can be grouped into four broad, overlapping, groups: early theorists, history-of-idea critics, European influence critics, recent theorists. The early theorists saw naturalism thematically and in terms of literary technique; the history-of-idea critics understood it as an expression of the central ideas to an era. The European influence critics viewed it in much the same way as Zola.
For example, according to theorist Kornelije Kvas, naturalism presents "forms of human experience not spoken of before – the physiological aspect of human behavior, poverty – as literary topics worthy of being dealt with." And recent theorists have either re-conceptualized naturalism as a narrative form, or denied its existence entirely. Some say that naturalism is dead, or that it “may have never lived at all: in the works of Émile Zola”, its founder. “In 1900 an obituary entitled “The Passing of Naturalism” in The Outlook declared the literary movement deceased”, that Zola's attempt to create a scientific literature was a failure. This wasn't the first time Zola's novel had been criticized however. After his novel Thérèse Raquin had been criticized for both contents and language, in a foreword for its second edition, in a mixture of pride and defiance, he wrote: "Le groupe d'écrivains naturalistes auquel j'ai l'honneur d'appartenir a assez de courage et d'activité pour produire des oeuvres fortes, portant en elles leur défense", which translates as: "The group of naturalist writers I have the honor to belong to have enough courage and activity to produce strong works, carrying within them their defense."
Naturalism in American literature traces to Frank Norris, whose theories were markedly different from Zola's to the status of naturalism within the loci of realism and Romanticism. To Link, while American naturalism had trends, its definition had no unified critical consensus. Link's examples include Stephen Crane, Jack London, Theodore Dreiser, Frank Norris, with William Dean Howells and Henry James being clear markers on the other side of the naturalist/realist divide; the center of Crane's naturalism is recognized as The Open Boat, which portrayed a naturalistic view of man with his depiction of a group of survivors adrift in a boat. The humans with their creation confronted the world of nature. In the experiences of these men, Crane articulated the illusion of gods and the realization of the universe's indifference. William Faulkner's A Rose for Emily, a story about a woman who killed her lover, is considered an example of a narrative within the naturalism category; this story, which used Gothic elements, presented a tale that highlighted the extraordinary and excessive features in human nature and the social environment that influences them.
The protagonist, Miss Emily, was forced to lead an isolated life, that - combined with her mental illness - made insanity her inevitable fate. The environment in the forms of a class structure based on slavery and social change, together with heredity, represented the forces beyond her control. Naturalism Naturalism Philosophical naturalism Sociological naturalism Naturalism in 19th-century French literature Realism in the visual arts
The Van Tassell and Kearney Horse Auction Mart is located in New York, New York. The building was constructed in 1903-04 to the designs of Jardine, Kent & Jardine in the Beaux-Arts Style, it served as a horse auction mart that catered to New York's elite families, including the Vanderbilts and Delanos. Each Tuesday and Friday, Van Tassell & Kearney held auctions in the building. Though carriages remained an important part of the business, most advertisements and newspaper stories about the mart concerned the sale of horses high-priced ribbon winners, polo ponies and thoroughbreds. Other sales were devoted to breeding stock and coach horses, including a large group of horses co-owned by Alfred W. Vanderbilt and Robert L. Gerry in 1906; as automobiles and other forms of public transit became much more common after World War I, the practical need for horses and stables decreased. The auction mart ceased functioning in the 13th Street building, it served as an assembly-line training center for women during World War II.
From 1978 to 2005, artist Frank Stella used it as his studio. His nearly 30-year stewardship of the building resulted in the facade being restored. In 2006, after discovering plans of a new owner to demolish the building and replace it with a condo development, the Greenwich Village Society for Historic Preservation asked the NYC Landmarks Preservation Commission to hold an emergency hearing on the structure. There was significant support including City Councilmember Rosie Mendez. Playing on the history of the building as an assembly line training center for women during World War II, GVSHP used the iconic "We Can Do It!" Image on stickers, T-shirts emblazoned with the slogan "We Can Save It! Landmark 128 East 13th Street" as part of the campaign to secure landmark designation for the building; the NYC Landmarks Preservation Commission held a public hearing and halted demolition plans, but did not designate the building. On November 29, 2007, the building was listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
GVSHP and other advocates continued to push for designation. In May 2012, after a 6-year campaign, the Landmarks Preservation Commission voted unanimously to designate the former Van Tassell & Kearney Horse Auction Mart an official City landmark. In January 2010 after an extensive renovation, Peridance Capezio Center opened here at its new location. National Register of Historic Places listings in Manhattan below 14th Street
The Parish of Goulburn is a parish of Argyle County which includes most of the city of Goulburn, New South Wales. It is bounded by the Wollondilly River to the north; the central area of Goulburn is in the parish, however some outlying suburbs are not, such as Bradfordville and Kenmore which are in Narrangarril, North Goulburn, in Towrang parish. Mulwarree ponds is the eastern boundary near Goulburn, although the parish includes some land to the east of this river further south, including the airport; some land to the south and west of the city is included in the parish, including Brisbane Grove and Tirrannaville. The junction of the Goulburn-Yass and Goulburn-Canberra railway lines is located in this parish, as is the Goulburn railway station; the western boundary is near Coles Lane. The Federal Highway and the Hume Highway, intersection near the southern boundary of the parish, south of Goulburn; the parish is the seat of both Anglican and Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Canberra and Goulburn.
The area was first inhabited by the Gundungurra people, by the mid 1840s the NSW colonial government had granted numerous land grants in area, beginning white settlement. "Goulburn Parish". Geographical Names Register of NSW. Geographical Names Board of New South Wales. New South Wales Parish maps preservation project