The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in Ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BCE to the 6th century CE. It is roughly divided into the Archaic period, Classical period, Hellenistic period, it is succeeded by medieval Greek. Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it resembled Attic Greek and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek. Prior to the Koine period, Greek of the classic and earlier periods included several regional dialects. Ancient Greek was the language of Homer and of fifth-century Athenian historians and philosophers, it has contributed many words to English vocabulary and has been a standard subject of study in educational institutions of the Western world since the Renaissance. This article contains information about the Epic and Classical periods of the language. Ancient Greek was a pluricentric language, divided into many dialects; the main dialect groups are Attic and Ionic, Aeolic and Doric, many of them with several subdivisions.
Some dialects are found in standardized literary forms used in literature, while others are attested only in inscriptions. There are several historical forms. Homeric Greek is a literary form of Archaic Greek used in the epic poems, the "Iliad" and "Odyssey", in poems by other authors. Homeric Greek had significant differences in grammar and pronunciation from Classical Attic and other Classical-era dialects; the origins, early form and development of the Hellenic language family are not well understood because of a lack of contemporaneous evidence. Several theories exist about what Hellenic dialect groups may have existed between the divergence of early Greek-like speech from the common Proto-Indo-European language and the Classical period, they differ in some of the detail. The only attested dialect from this period is Mycenaean Greek, but its relationship to the historical dialects and the historical circumstances of the times imply that the overall groups existed in some form. Scholars assume that major Ancient Greek period dialect groups developed not than 1120 BCE, at the time of the Dorian invasion—and that their first appearances as precise alphabetic writing began in the 8th century BCE.
The invasion would not be "Dorian" unless the invaders had some cultural relationship to the historical Dorians. The invasion is known to have displaced population to the Attic-Ionic regions, who regarded themselves as descendants of the population displaced by or contending with the Dorians; the Greeks of this period believed there were three major divisions of all Greek people—Dorians and Ionians, each with their own defining and distinctive dialects. Allowing for their oversight of Arcadian, an obscure mountain dialect, Cypriot, far from the center of Greek scholarship, this division of people and language is quite similar to the results of modern archaeological-linguistic investigation. One standard formulation for the dialects is: West vs. non-west Greek is the strongest marked and earliest division, with non-west in subsets of Ionic-Attic and Aeolic vs. Arcadocypriot, or Aeolic and Arcado-Cypriot vs. Ionic-Attic. Non-west is called East Greek. Arcadocypriot descended more from the Mycenaean Greek of the Bronze Age.
Boeotian had come under a strong Northwest Greek influence, can in some respects be considered a transitional dialect. Thessalian had come under Northwest Greek influence, though to a lesser degree. Pamphylian Greek, spoken in a small area on the southwestern coast of Anatolia and little preserved in inscriptions, may be either a fifth major dialect group, or it is Mycenaean Greek overlaid by Doric, with a non-Greek native influence. Most of the dialect sub-groups listed above had further subdivisions equivalent to a city-state and its surrounding territory, or to an island. Doric notably had several intermediate divisions as well, into Island Doric, Southern Peloponnesus Doric, Northern Peloponnesus Doric; the Lesbian dialect was Aeolic Greek. All the groups were represented by colonies beyond Greece proper as well, these colonies developed local characteristics under the influence of settlers or neighbors speaking different Greek dialects; the dialects outside the Ionic group are known from inscriptions, notable exceptions being: fragments of the works of the poet Sappho from the island of Lesbos, in Aeolian, the poems of the Boeotian poet Pindar and other lyric poets in Doric.
After the conquests of Alexander the Great in the late 4th century BCE, a new international dialect known as Koine or Common Greek developed based on Attic Greek, but with influence from other dialects. This dialect replaced most of the older dialects, although Doric dialect has survived in the Tsakonian language, spoken in the region of modern Sparta. Doric has passed down its aorist terminations into most verbs of Demotic Greek. By about the 6th century CE, the Koine had metamorphosized into Medieval Greek. Ancient Macedonian was an Indo-European language at least related to Greek, but its exact relationship is unclear because of insufficient data: a dialect of Greek; the Macedonian dialect (or l
Navsari Agricultural University
Navsari Agricultural University is an agricultural university at Navsari in the Indian state of Gujarat. It was part of Gujarat Agricultural University until May 2004. Faculty of Agriculture Faculty of Horticulture Faculty of Forestry Faculty of Veterinary Faculty of Agri-Business Management Faculty of Agriculture Enggeneering The following institutes are affiliated to the university: N. M. College of Agriculture Aspee College of Horticulture College of Forestry Aspee Agribusiness Management Institute Vanbandhu College of Veterinary Sci. and Animal Husb. College of Fisheries Science, Navsari College of Agriculture, Bharuch College of Agriculture, Waghai College of Agricultural Engineering Dediapada, Narmada Aspee Shakilam Biotechnology Institute, Surat Polytechnic in Agriculture Bharuch Polytechnic in Agriculture Vyara Polytechnic in Agriculture, Waghai Polytechnic in Horticulture - Navsari Polytechnic in Horticulture, Paria Polytechnic Agricultural Engineering Dediapada Narmada Polytechnic in Animal Husbandry, Navsari Official website
Dandi is a village in the Jalalpore taluka, Navsari District, India. It is located on the coast of the Arabian Sea near the city of Navsari, it shot into worldwide prominence in 1930 when Mahatma Gandhi selected it to be the destination for the Salt March. He marched from Sabarmati to Dandi with some of his followers to protest against the imposition of a tax on salt. Thousands of people participated; the Government of India initiated plans to develop the Sabarmati-Dandi stretch as a tourist hub. The government proposed building a memorial to commemorate the Salt March of the Indian Independence Movement. Indian independence movement
Savitaben Girdharlal Mayachand Shiroiya Senior Secondary School
Savitaben Girdharlal Mayachand Shiroiya Senior Secondary School is a school in Navsari in the Indian state of Gujarat. It was established in 1996; the current school Principal is Mr. Thaliyachira K. Joy, it is affiliated to C. B. S. E, it is an ISO 9000:2000 certified school and is situated in the Chhapra road area of Navsari near Chhapra Village. It has grade from Nursery to Std. 12 Commerce stream & Science stream. CBSE 10th and 12th Board examination are held annually for SSC and HSC students
Jeetan Shashi Patel is a former New Zealand international cricketer who played all forms of the game. A right arm off spin bowler, he plays county cricket for Warwickshire in England, represents the Wellington Firebirds in New Zealand. From 2005 to 2013, Patel played for the New Zealand Black Caps in all three formats, but in 2014 he made himself unavailable for international cricket, choosing to focus on county cricket instead, he has twice been named the most valuable player by England's Professional Cricketers' Association, in 2015 Wisden named him one of its five cricketers of the year. He was unexpectedly brought back into the national team in 2016, replacing the injured Mark Craig during the tour to India, where he exhibited a far better batting technique, he announced his retirement from international cricket on 21 June 2017 Jeetan Patel was brought up in Wellington and has roots in Navsari, Gujarat. Patel was earmarked as a promising player early in his career, he played age group cricket in Wellington at under 15, under 17, under 19 levels.
He played for the New Zealand Cricket Academy in a one-day match against England A in 1999, debuted for Wellington early the next year with a five wicket bag in a loss to Auckland. In the 2004 English Season, he represented Buckingham Town Cricket Club, making a big impact in the 1st Team as well as progressing youngsters in local development schemes. Patel became the first player in twenty years to take 50 league wickets during his spell at the Bourton Road club and first player to go on to play international cricket. Back in New Zealand, Patel showed steady improvement as a bowler during the 2004–05 season, taking 26 first class wickets at an average of 32.84. He played two one-dayers against South Africa A on the 2004–05 New Zealand A tour of South Africa, represented the North Island in the 2004–05 State of Origin match, played for the New Zealand Academy in the 2005 Cricket Australia Emerging Players Tournament. In the season he toured Sri Lanka with New Zealand A, playing in a Triangular A Team Tournament.
In June 2018, he was awarded a contract with Wellington for the 2018–19 season. He was the joint-leading wicket-taker for Wellington in the 2018–19 Super Smash, with eleven dismissals in nine matches. Patel was a member of the 2005 New Zealand tour of Zimbabwe, making his debut as a supersub for New Zealand in the fourth ODI. Under the experimental rules at the time, that meant Patel was a full member of the team despite not batting in the XI that scored 238 in the first innings, he replaced Craig McMillan for Zimbabwe's innings and took 1/47. He returned to the New Zealand squad for the short-form leg of its 2005 tour of South Africa. Making his international Twenty20 debut, he was named Man of the Match, he played as a supersub in the first ODI against the Proteas, returning figures of 2/48 off 8. Patel's first home international was the fourth ODI of Sri Lanka's 2005–06 tour of New Zealand, in which he was named Man of the Match. Playing as a supersub, his figures of 2/23 off 10 were the most economical in the match.
His Test debut came against South Africa in the second Test of New Zealand's 2006 tour of South Africa. New Zealand's coach John Bracewell described him as a "long term investment". Although a regular member of New Zealand's Test squad following his debut, Patel didn't make the XI for another match until 2008. Daniel Vettori was captain and first-choice spinner at the time, the selectors declined to choose two spinners, he was a regular member of the ODI and Twenty20 sides, 2007 was his busiest year of international cricket, with 20 appearances. By the end of 2008, his New Zealand career had peaked; that year he made 13 international appearances and toured Australia with New Zealand A. His last Twenty20 match, he never played for his country as again. He's having the joint record for taking the most number of catches by a substitute fielder in a T20I innings. Along with Jonathan Carter, Eoin Morgan, Hashim Amla, Johnson Charles and Chamu Chibhabha.. He was the first substitute fielder to take 2 catches in a single T20I in 2007.
His return was credited to several factors – most his good season with Warwickshire and an injury to Daniel Vettori, but what the New Zealand Herald called "the dearth of decent spinners on the first-class scene in New Zealand". He was selected ahead of second spinner Tarun Nethula for both test losses, taking seven wickets in the series. Patel remained a member of the team for two tests in Sri Lanka in November, two in South Africa in January 2013, his final test appearance was in Port Elizabeth. The New Zealand team's tour to India in 2016 saw Mark Craig, one of three frontline spinners in the squad, injured in the first test. Patel, who according to captain Kane Williamson "wasn't initially" considered by the selectors for the tour, was named as Craig's replacement. With only one test remaining in the tour, Patel called it "a moment that could be my last one". Patel's recall coincided with Williamson's omission from the playing side due to being stricken with fever. On 31 December 2016, Patel and Matt Henry were named as a replacements for Trent Boult and Lockie Ferguson.
In 2017, Patel along with Mitchell Santner shared the honour for becoming the first pair of spinners to kick off an ODI by opening the bowling, when they opened the bowling in the first innings of the 4th ODI v South Africa. This was the first instance happened only in the ODI history. In April 2017, Patel was announced in New Zealand's squad for the 2017 Champions Trophy. In 2009, Patel joined English co
The Salt March known as the Dandi March and the Dandi Satyagraha, was an act of nonviolent civil disobedience in colonial India led by Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi to produce salt from the seawater in the coastal village of Dandi, as was the practice of the local populace until British officials introduced taxation on salt production, deemed their sea-salt reclamation activities illegal, repeatedly used force to stop it. The 24-day march lasted from 12 March 1930 to 6 April 1930 as a direct action campaign of tax resistance and nonviolent protest against the British salt monopoly, it gained worldwide attention which gave impetus to the Indian independence movement and started the nationwide Civil Disobedience Movement. Mahatma Gandhi started this march with 78 of his trusted volunteers. Walking ten miles a day for 24 days, the march spanned over 240 miles; the march was the most significant organised challenge to British authority since the Non-cooperation movement of 1920–22, directly followed the Purna Swaraj declaration of sovereignty and self-rule by the Indian National Congress on 26 January 1930.
Gandhi led the Dandi March from his base, Sabarmati Ashram, 240 miles to the coastal village of Dandi, at a small town called Navsari to produce salt without paying the tax, growing numbers of Indians joined them along the way. When Gandhi broke the salt laws at 6:30 am on 6 April 1930, it sparked large scale acts of civil disobedience against the British Raj salt laws by millions of Indians; the campaign had a significant effect on changing world and British attitudes towards Indian sovereignty and self-rule and caused large numbers of Indians to join the fight for the first time. After making salt at Dandi, Gandhi continued southward along the coast, making salt and addressing meetings on the way; the Congress Party planned to stage a satyagraha at the Dharasana Salt Works, 25 miles south of Dandi. However, Gandhi was arrested on the midnight of 4–5 May 1930, just days before the planned action at Dharasana; the Dandi March and the ensuing Dharasana Satyagraha drew worldwide attention to the Indian independence movement through extensive newspaper and newsreel coverage.
The satyagraha against the salt tax continued for a year, ending with Gandhi's release from jail and negotiations with Viceroy Lord Irwin at the Second Round Table Conference. Over 60,000 Indians were jailed as a result of the Salt Satyagraha. However, it failed to result in major concessions from the British; the Salt Satyagraha campaign was based upon Gandhi's principles of non-violent protest called satyagraha, which he loosely translated as "truth-force". It is formed from the Sanskrit words satya, "truth", agraha, "insistence". In early 1930 the Indian National Congress chose satyagraha as their main tactic for winning Indian sovereignty and self-rule from British rule and appointed Gandhi to organise the campaign. Gandhi chose the 1882 British Salt Act as the first target of satyagraha; the Salt March to Dandi, the beating by British police of hundreds of nonviolent protesters in Dharasana, which received worldwide news coverage, demonstrated the effective use of civil disobedience as a technique for fighting social and political injustice.
The satyagraha teachings of Gandhi and the March to Dandi had a significant influence on American activists Martin Luther King Jr. James Bevel, others during the Civil Rights Movement for civil rights for African Americans and other minority groups in the 1960s. At midnight on 31 December 1929, the Indian National Congress raised the tricolour flag of India on the banks of the Ravi at Lahore; the Indian National Congress, led by Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru, publicly issued the Declaration of sovereignty and self-rule, or Purna Swaraj, on 26 January 1930. The declaration included the readiness to withhold taxes, the statement: We believe that it is the inalienable right of the Indian people, as of any other people, to have freedom and to enjoy the fruits of their toil and have the necessities of life, so that they may have full opportunities of growth. We believe that if any government deprives a people of these rights and oppresses them the people have a further right to alter it or abolish it.
The British government in India has not only deprived the Indian people of their freedom but has based itself on the exploitation of the masses, has ruined India economically, politically and spiritually. We believe therefore, that India must sever the British connection and attain Purna Swaraji or complete sovereignty and self-rule; the Congress Working Committee gave Gandhi the responsibility for organising the first act of civil disobedience, with Congress itself ready to take charge after Gandhi's expected arrest. Gandhi's plan was to begin civil disobedience with a satyagraha aimed at the British salt tax; the 1882 Salt Act gave the British a monopoly on the collection and manufacture of salt, limiting its handling to government salt depots and levying a salt tax. Violation of the Salt Act was a criminal offence. Though salt was available to those living on the coast, Indians were forced to buy it from the colonial government. Gandhi's choice of the salt tax was met with incredulity by the Working Committee of the Congress, Jawaharlal Nehru and Dibyalochan Sahoo were ambivalent.
The Statesman, a prominent newspaper, wrote about the choice: "It is difficult not to laugh, we imagine that will be the mood of most thinking Indians."The British establishment too was not disturbed by these plans of resistance against the salt tax. The Vicero
Delhi the National Capital Territory of Delhi, is a city and a union territory of India containing New Delhi, the capital of India. It is bordered by Haryana by Uttar Pradesh to the east; the NCT covers an area of 1,484 square kilometres. According to the 2011 census, Delhi's city proper population was over 11 million, the second-highest in India after Mumbai, while the whole NCT's population was about 16.8 million. Delhi's urban area is now considered to extend beyond the NCT boundaries and include the neighboring satellite cities of Faridabad, Gurgaon and Noida in an area now called Central National Capital Region and had an estimated 2016 population of over 26 million people, making it the world's second-largest urban area according to United Nations; as of 2016, recent estimates of the metro economy of its urban area have ranked Delhi either the most or second-most productive metro area of India. Delhi is the second-wealthiest city in India after Mumbai, with a total private wealth of $450 billion and is home to 18 billionaires and 23,000 millionaires.
Delhi has been continuously inhabited since the 6th century BCE. Through most of its history, Delhi has served as a capital of various empires, it has been captured and rebuilt several times during the medieval period, modern Delhi is a cluster of a number of cities spread across the metropolitan region. A union territory, the political administration of the NCT of Delhi today more resembles that of a state of India, with its own legislature, high court and an executive council of ministers headed by a Chief Minister. New Delhi is jointly administered by the federal government of India and the local government of Delhi, serves as the capital of the nation as well as the NCT of Delhi. Delhi hosted the first and ninth Asian Games in 1951 and 1982 1983 NAM Summit, 2010 Men's Hockey World Cup, 2010 Commonwealth Games, 2012 BRICS Summit and was one of the major host cities of the 2011 Cricket World Cup. Delhi is the centre of the National Capital Region, a unique'interstate regional planning' area created by the National Capital Region Planning Board Act of 1985.
There are a number of legends associated with the origin of the name Delhi. One of them is derived from Dhillu or Dilu, a king who built a city at this location in 50 BCE and named it after himself. Another legend holds that the name of the city is based on the Hindi/Prakrit word dhili and that it was used by the Tomaras to refer to the city because the iron pillar of Delhi had a weak foundation and had to be moved; the coins in circulation in the region under the Tomaras were called dehliwal. According to the Bhavishya Purana, King Prithiviraja of Indraprastha built a new fort in the modern-day Purana Qila area for the convenience of all four castes in his kingdom, he ordered the construction of a gateway to the fort and named the fort dehali. Some historians believe that Dhilli or Dhillika is the original name for the city while others believe the name could be a corruption of the Hindustani words dehleez or dehali—both terms meaning'threshold' or'gateway'—and symbolic of the city as a gateway to the Gangetic Plain.
The people of Delhi are referred to as Dilliwalas. The city is referenced in various idioms of the Northern Indo-Aryan languages. Examples include: Abhi Dilli door hai or its Persian version, Hanuz Dehli dur ast meaning Delhi is still far away, generically said about a task or journey still far from completion. Dilli dilwalon ka shehr or Dilli Dilwalon ki meaning Delhi belongs to the large-hearted/daring. Aas-paas barse, Dilli pani tarse meaning it pours all around, while Delhi lies parched. An allusion to the sometimes semi-arid climate of Delhi, it idiomatically refers to situations of deprivation when one is surrounded by plenty; the area around Delhi was inhabited before the second millennium BCE and there is evidence of continuous inhabitation since at least the 6th century BCE. The city is believed to be the site of Indraprastha, the legendary capital of the Pandavas in the Indian epic Mahabharata. According to the Mahabharata, this land was a huge mass of forests called'Khandavaprastha', burnt down to build the city of Indraprastha.
The earliest architectural relics date back to the Maurya period. Remains of eight major cities have been discovered in Delhi; the first five cities were in the southern part of present-day Delhi. King Anang Pal of the Tomara dynasty founded the city of Lal Kot in 736 CE. Prithviraj Chauhan renamed it Qila Rai Pithora; the king Prithviraj Chauhan was defeated in 1192 by Muhammad Ghori, a Muslim invader from Afghanistan, who made a concerted effort to conquer northern India. By 1200, native Hindu resistance had begun to crumble, the Muslims were victorious; the newfound dominance of foreign Turkic Muslim dynasties in north India would last for the next five centuries. The slave general of Ghori, Qutb-ud-din Aibak, was given the responsibility of governing the conquered territories of India until Ghori returned to his capital, Ghor; when Ghori died without a heir in 1206 CE, his territories fractured, with various generals claiming sovereignty over different areas. Qutb-ud-din assumed control of Ghori's Indian possessions, laid the foundation of the Delhi Sultanate and the Mamluk dynasty.
He began construction of the Qutb Minar and Quwwat-al-Islam mosque, the earlie