Ndabaningi Sithole founded the Zimbabwe African National Union, a militant organisation that opposed the government of Rhodesia, in July 1963. A member of the Ndau ethnic group, he worked as a Methodist minister, he spent 10 years in prison after the government banned ZANU. A rift along tribal lines split ZANU in 1975, he lost the 1980 elections to Robert Mugabe. Sithole was born in Nyamandhlovu, Southern Rhodesia, on 31 July 1920, he studied teaching in the United States from 1955 to 1958, was ordained a Methodist minister in 1958. The publication of his book African Nationalism and its immediate prohibition by the minority government motivated his entry into politics. During his studies in the United States he studied at the Andover Newton Theological School and attended the First Church in Newton, founded in 1665, both located in Newton, Massachusetts, he founded and was chief architect of Zimbabwe African National Union party in August 1963 in conjunction with Herbert Chitepo, Robert Mugabe and Edgar Tekere in the Highfields House of Enos Nkala.
In 1964 there was a party Congress at Gwelo, where Sithole was elected president and appointed Robert Mugabe to be his secretary general. ZANU was banned in 1964 by Ian Smith's government, he spent 10 years in prison after being arrested on 22 June 1964 alongside Mugabe, Tekere and Takawira for his political activities. While in prison he authorised Chitepo to continue the struggle from abroad as a representative of ZANU. Sithole was convicted on a charge of plotting to assassinate Ian Smith and released from prison in 1974. On 18 March 1975 Chitepo was assassinated in Lusaka, with a car bomb. Mugabe, in Mozambique at the time, unilaterally assumed control of ZANU; that year there was a factional split, with many Ndebele following Joshua Nkomo into the militant ZAPU. Sithole founded the moderate ZANU-Ndonga party, which renounced violent struggle, while the Shona-dominated ZANU followed Mugabe with a more militant agenda. Sithole joined Abel Muzorewa's transitional government under the Internal Settlement on 31 July 1979.
In September 1979 he attended the Lancaster House Agreement, chaired by Lord Carrington, which paved the way for fresh elections, but his ZANU-Ndonga Party's supporters and their villages were targeted by Mugabe's ZANLA troops and it failed to win any seats in the 1980 elections. His exit from ZANU was claimed by Mugabe to have been caused by his neglecting the fighters in Zambia. Declaring that his life was in danger from political enemies, Sithole went into self-imposed exile first in the UK in the early 1980s and in Silver Spring, Maryland, U. S. A, around 1984, returning to Zimbabwe in January 1992, he was elected to parliament for his tribal stronghold of Chipinge in southeastern Zimbabwe in 1995, was a candidate in the 1996 presidential election. In December 1997 a court tried and convicted him of conspiring with Chimwenje to assassinate Mugabe and the government disqualified him from attending parliament. Sithole's small opposition group again won the Chipinge seat in the June 2000 elections.
He was granted the right to appeal, appeal was filed, but the case was never heard by the Supreme Court. He was allowed bail because of his deteriorating health, he died on 12 December 2000, in Philadelphia, United States. The author of three books on African politics, he is survived by his wife and five adult children, his farm, "Porta Farm" situated 25 kilometres from Harare on Bulawayo Road, was purchased in 1992 under "willing buyer – willing seller" arrangements. It was confiscated by Robert Mugabe's government, on the grounds that it harboured the "undesirables" of Harare; these were people, left homeless after being summarily evicted from shanties in Harare before the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting 1991. Sithole had felt compassion for them, what he felt was the breach of their human rights; this incensed the government, which carried out an eviction operation. This was co-ordinated by the Ministry of Local Government and National Housing as well as the City of Harare. Pre-dawn raids were carried out and, in the aftermath, Porta Farm was confiscated.
Sithole is the author of The Polygamist, a novel published in 1972 by The Third Press/Joseph Okpaku Publishing Co. Inc. New York
John Greenwall known as Johann Theodore Wild was a German immigrant to New York City who became the last person to be hanged in New York State. He was hanged at Raymond Street Jail for shooting Lyman Smith Weeks dead during a burglary on March 15, 1887. A reward from the Mayor of Brooklyn was posted at $2,500, Greenwall was arrested on April 5 along with several associates. Two trials in 1888 sought to disentangle the conflicting accounts of Greenwalls associates, while his lawyer argued that hanging was not a suitable punishment given that the electric chair was not the preferred method of execution, the electric chair was not suitable given that the corresponding legislation had not been in place when the murder occurred. Greenwall was sentenced on December 5, 1889. "This information was at once conveyed to Greenwall. He had slept little on Wednesday night, occupying most of his time playing checkers and penuchle with one of his keepers, he fell asleep about 3 a.m. but awoke with a start about 8 o'clock.'I shall sleep no more', he said then.'I've only one day left, after that I'll sleep enough'" reported the New York Times.
The report continued that: "The condemned man had retained his unnatural calm until a second before the black cap was drawn over his eyes. His face grew white and his pinioned knees trembled. Father O'Hara placed a crucifix on Greenwall's lips, the latter kissed it passionately; the next instant "Joe" Atkinson had rapped on the wooden partition concealing the 552 pounds of weights, a crash was heard, Greenwall's body was jerked into the air."William Kemmler, the first to be executed in the electric chair, was killed in 1890, ending the use of the hangman's noose in New York State. List of individuals executed in New York Capital punishment in the United States
The 2019 Euro Beach Soccer League was the 22nd edition of the Euro Beach Soccer League, the annual, premier competition in European beach soccer contested between men's national teams. It was organised in a league and play-off format; this season, the competing teams continued to take part in two divisions: the top tier and the bottom tier. 12 teams continued to contest Division A. Division B accommodated a record 16 nations: 14 nations who did not gain promotion from last season, Finland who made their debut, the Netherlands who returned after an absence from competing in recent years. Due to the saturated 2019 international beach soccer calendar for European teams, this season was shortened compared to the usual program. A total of just two stages of fixtures were scheduled during the regular season; each team from Division A played in just one stage whilst each team in Division B played in one. At each stage the participating nations earned points for the overall league tables. At the end of the regular season, according to the league tables, the eight best teams in Division A advanced to the post-season event, the Superfinal, to compete to become the winners of this year's EBSL.
Meanwhile, the top seven teams in Division B and the team ranked bottom of Division A played in a different post-season event, the Promotion Final, to try to earn a spot in Division A next year. Azerbaijan, the defending Division A team in the Promotion Final, beat Kazakhstan in the final to win the event, therefore retaining their Division A status for next season. Italy were the defending champions but were knocked out of title-winning contention in the group stage of the Superfinal finishing fourth in the post-season event; the concluding match of the Superfinal was contested between Russia and Portugal, who were both looking to claim a record sixth European title. Portugal, on home sand, claim their sixth EBSL crown; the calendar below was revealed on 18 March 2019. To the 2008 and 2015 editions, this season's regular season schedule was truncated, down to just two stages, in order to accommodate the additional events taking up space in the international calendar, including Division A teams competing in just one stage each, compared to the usual two stages.
The following 28 teams entered this season, divided into divisions B as shown. The numbers in parentheses show the European ranking of each team prior to the start of the season, out of 36 nations. Matches are listed as local time in Nazaré, WEST All matches took place at the Estádio do Viveiro on Praia de Nazaré, in tandem with the hosting of the 2019 Women's Euro Beach Soccer Cup; the area has a capacity of 2,200. During this round, Georgia won their first matches in the EBSL leading to a first stage title, meanwhile Spain reached a milestone of winning their 25th stage title. Goalkeeper Valentin Jaeggy made his 300th appearance for Switzerland on day 3, marked with a commemorative jersey presented on-field by fellow players; the following were presented after the conclusion of the final day's matches. Individual awards apply to Division A only. Matches are listed as local time in Catania, CEST All matches took place at the Arena Beach Stadium on the "Spiaggia libera numero 1" section of Playa di Catania, with a capacity of 2,000.
Finland made their EBSL debut during this stage. The following were presented after the conclusion of the final day's matches. Individual awards apply to Division A only. At end of regular season Ranking & tie-breaking criteria: Division A – 1. Points earned 2. Highest group placement 3. Goal difference 4. Goals scored / Division B – 1. Highest group placement 2. Points earned 3. Goal difference 4. Goals scored 5. Least yellow cards Matches are listed as local time in Figueira da Foz, WEST. All matches took place at a purpose built stadium constructed between 12 August and 3 September at the Beach Sports Complex on Praia de Buarcos, with a capacity of 2,500; the top seven teams from Division B and the team bottom of Division A, as per the end of regular season league tables, played in the Promotion Final. The teams in bold qualified as Division B regular season group winners; the team in green attempted to retain their position in Division A, having finished bottom of the regular season table. Azerbaijan won the event to retain their Division A status for the 2020 EBSL season.
No Division B team earned promotion to the top division and no Division A team was relegated this year. Matches are listed as local time in Figueira da Foz, WEST. All matches took place at a purpose built stadium constructed between 12 August and 3 September at the Beach Sports Complex on Praia de Buarcos, with a capacity of 2,500; the winners of the Superfinal are crowned 2019 EBSL champions. No teams made their debut in the Superfinal, however Turkey made their first appearance in 17 years; the top eight teams from Division A, as per the end of regular season league table, qualified for the Super
Salem, Robertstown is an Independent chapel in Bridge Street, Aberdare, Wales. The history of Salem can be traced back to 1835, when Joseph Harrison, minister of Ebenezer, Trecynon broke away from that church because he was prepared to administer baptism by total immersion to those who wished; this was contrary to the beliefs of Independent church members. Meetings were held in houses and in the long room of the White Lion Inn. Although this was disapproved of by a number of members who were teetotal it was far from unusual for the chapels of the valley to have their early origins in meetings in public houses; this difficulty was addressed by building a wooden hut in 1836, known as Ty Planca. Soon it became too small and the congregation proceed to build Salem in 1841, at a cost of £550, on land leased from Dr James Lewis Roberts. Joseph Harrison was minister until his death in 1851. Harrison was succeeded by Joshua Thomas, he served as minister for many years and was presented with a testimonial of £140 in April 1875.
The gift was presented by the oldest deacon and son of the founder of the chapel. Speakers on this occasion included Michael D. Jones of Bala, Thomas Rees of Swansea and local ministers William Edwards of Ebenezer and William Williams of Nebo, Hirwaun. During this period members from Salem established Bethel, Gadlys. Membership reached 65 in 1841 but by the following year had fallen to 25. Salem remained open until the twenty-first century. Jones, Alan Vernon. Chapels of the Cynon Valley. Cynon Valley Historical Society. ISBN 0953107612. Rees, Thomas. Hanes Eglwysi Annibynnol Cymru, Vol.2. "Glamorgan Chapel Database". Genuki. Retrieved 25 July 2014
Char siu is a popular way to flavor and prepare barbecued pork in Cantonese cuisine. It is classified as a type of Cantonese roasted meat. Pork cuts used for char siu can vary, but a few main cuts are common: Pork loin Pork belly – produces juicy and fatter char siu Pork butt – produces leaner char siu Pork fat Pork neck end – marbled Char siu means "fork roasted" after the traditional cooking method for the dish: long strips of seasoned boneless pork are skewered with long forks and placed in a covered oven or over a fire. In ancient times, wild boar and other available meats were used to make char siu. However, in modern times, the meat is a shoulder cut of domestic pork, seasoned with a mixture of honey, five-spice powder, red fermented bean curd, dark soy sauce, hoisin sauce, red food colouring, sherry or rice wine; these seasonings turn the exterior layer of the meat dark red, similar to the "smoke ring" of American barbecues. Maltose may be used to give char siu its characteristic shiny glaze.
Char siu is consumed with a staple, whether inside a bun, with noodles, or with rice in fast food establishments, or served alone as a centerpiece or main dish in traditional family dining establishments. If it is purchased outside of a restaurant, it is taken home and used as one ingredient in various complex entrees consumed at family meals. In Hong Kong, char siu is purchased from a siu mei establishment, which specialises in meat dishes—char siu, soy sauce chicken, white cut chicken, roasted goose, roasted pork, etc; these shops display the merchandise by hanging them in the window. As a result, char siu is consumed alongside one of these other meat dishes, as an independent lunch item on a per-person basis in a "rice box" meal. More it is purchased whole or sliced and wrapped and taken home to be used in family meals either by itself or cooked into one of many vegetable or meat dishes which use it as an ingredient. In Malaysia, Indonesia and Vietnam, char siew rice is found in many Chinese shāolà stalls along with roast duck and roast pork.
The dish consists of slices of char siu, white rice and is drenched in sweet gravy or drizzled with dark soy sauce. Char siu rice is a popular food within the Chinese community in Medan, where it is more called char sio. Char siew rice can be found in Hainanese chicken rice stalls, where customers have a choice of having their char siu rice served with plain white rice or chicken-flavoured rice, choose from garlic and soy sauces. Char siu is called mu daeng in Thailand. In the Philippines, it is known as Chinese Asado and eaten with cold cuts or served stuffed in siopao. In Flanders and Holland it is known by the Indonesian name'babi panggang'. Vegetarian char siu exists made from wheat gluten, it can be found in vegetarian stalls in South East Asian Chinese communities. Japanese culture has adapted 叉燒 as chāshū. Unlike its Chinese variant, it is prepared by rolling the meat into a log and braising it at a low temperature; the Japanese adaptation is seasoned with soy sauce, sake and sugar or other sweetener, without the red food colouring, or five-spice powder.
It is a typical ingredient for toppings in rāmen. As a means of exceptional flavor and preparation, char siu applications extend beyond pork. In Hawaii, various meats are cooked char siu style; the term char siu refers to meats which have been marinated in char siu seasoning prepared either from scratch or from store-bought char siu seasoning packages roasted in an oven or over a fire. Ingredients in marinades for cha siu are similar to those found in China, except that red food colouring is used in place of the red bean curd for convenience. Char siu is used to marinate and prepare a variety of meats which can either be cooked in a conventional or convection oven, on a standard barbecue, or in an underground Hawaiian imu. In Hawaii, char siu chicken is as common as char siu pork, various wild birds, mountain goat, wild boar are often cooked char siu style, as are many sausages and skewers. Asado Cookbook:Cha Shao List of pork dishes Red cooking Spare ribs China portal Food portal
Mă Duānlín was a Chinese historical writer and encyclopaedist. In 1317 he published the comprehensive Chinese encyclopedia Wenxian Tongkao in 348 volumes, he was born to the family of Southern Song Minister of the East Ma Tingluan, who had an extensive collection of historical documents. From 1273, Ma Duanlin started the compilation of the Wenxian Tongkao using his father's collection and advice. After the death of his father, Ma Duanlin was called to serve the Yuan dynasty and played an important role in reviving the educational system of China. Ma Duanlin describes Chi Tu, Pan Pan, the Khmer Empire and the Kediri Kingdom, he describes Jayavarman VII's campaign against Champa for their 1177 invasion, stating "he decided to wreak terrible vengeance on his enemies, which succeeded in doing after eighteen years of patient dissimulation." Wenxian Tongkao "Comprehensive Studies in Administration" — Chinaknowledge.de. Tötösy de Zepetnek and Jennifer W. Jay, East Asian Cultural and Historical Perspectives: Histories and Society--culture and Literatures.
University of Alberta Research Institute for Comparative Literature and Cross-Cultural Studies, 1997. ISBN 0-921490-09-7, ISBN 978-0-921490-09-8 Всего страниц: 383 с. 66 Joseph Peter McDermott State and Court Ritual in China стр. 257 Jay, Jennifer W. Ma Duanlin in A Global Encyclopedia of Historical Writing ed. by Daniel R. Woolf Dong, Enlin, et al.. Historical Literature and Cultural Studies. Wuhan: Hubei Dictionary Press. ISBN 7-5403-0512-6 Xu Guanglie. "Wenxian Tongkao". Encyclopedia of China, 1st ed