Baden-Württemberg is a state in southwest Germany, east of the Rhine, which forms the border with France. It is Germany's third-largest state, with an area of 11 million inhabitants. Baden-Württemberg is a parliamentary republic and sovereign, federated state, formed in 1952 by a merger of the states of Württemberg-Baden, Baden and Württemberg-Hohenzollern; the largest city in Baden-Württemberg is the state capital of Stuttgart, followed by Karlsruhe and Mannheim. Other cities are Freiburg im Breisgau, Heilbronn, Pforzheim and Ulm; the sobriquet Ländle is sometimes used as a synonym for Baden-Württemberg. Baden-Württemberg is formed from the historical territories of Baden, Prussian Hohenzollern, Württemberg, parts of Swabia. In 100 AD, the Roman Empire invaded and occupied Württemberg, constructing a limes along its northern borders. Over the course of the third century AD, the Alemanni forced the Romans to retreat west beyond the Rhine and Danube rivers. In 496 AD the Alemanni were defeated by a Frankish invasion led by Clovis I.
The Holy Roman Empire was established. The majority of people in this region continued to be Roman Catholics after the Protestant Reformation influenced populations in northern Germany. In the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries, numerous people emigrated from this rural area to the United States for economic reasons. After World War II, the Allies established three federal states in the territory of modern-day Baden-Württemberg: Württemberg-Hohenzollern, Württemberg-Baden. Baden and Württemberg-Hohenzollern were occupied by France, while Württemberg-Baden was occupied by the United States. In 1949, each state became a founding member of the Federal Republic of Germany, with Article 118 of the German constitution providing an accession procedure. On 16 December 1951, Württemberg-Baden, Württemberg-Hohenzollern and Baden voted via referendum in favor of a joint merger. Baden-Württemberg became a state in West Germany on 25 April 1952. Baden-Württemberg shares borders with the German states of Rhineland Palatinate and Bavaria, Switzerland.
Most of the major cities of Baden-Württemberg straddle the banks of the Neckar River, which runs downstream through the state past Tübingen, Heilbronn and Mannheim. The Rhine forms the western border as well as large portions of the southern border; the Black Forest, the main mountain range of the state, rises east of the Upper Rhine valley. The high plateau of the Swabian Alb, between the Neckar, the Black Forest, the Danube, is an important European watershed. Baden-Württemberg shares Lake Constance with Switzerland and Bavaria, the international borders within its waters not being defined, it shares the foothills of the Alps with Bavaria and the Austrian Vorarlberg, but Baden-Württemberg does not border Austria over land. The Danube River has its source in Baden-Württemberg near the town of Donaueschingen, in a place called Furtwangen in the Black Forest. Baden-Württemberg is divided into thirty-five districts and nine independent cities, both grouped into the four Administrative Districts of Freiburg, Stuttgart, Tübingen.
Map Baden-Württemberg contains nine additional independent cities not belonging to any district: The state parliament of Baden-Württemberg is the Landtag. The politics of Baden-Württemberg have traditionally been dominated by the conservative Christian Democratic Union of Germany, who until 2011 had led all but one government since the establishment of the state in 1952. In the Landtag elections held on 27 March 2011 voters replaced the Christian Democrats and centre-right Free Democrats coalition by a Greens-led alliance with the Social Democrats which secured a four-seat majority in the state parliament. From 1992 to 2001, the Republicans party held seats in the Landtag; the Baden-Württemberg General Auditing Office acts as an independent body to monitor the correct use of public funds by public offices. Although Baden-Württemberg has few natural resources compared to other regions of Germany, the state is among the most prosperous and wealthiest regions in Europe with a low unemployment rate historically.
A number of well-known enterprises are headquartered in the state, for example Daimler AG, Robert Bosch GmbH, Carl Zeiss AG, SAP SE and Heidelberger Druckmaschinen. In spite of this, Baden-Württemberg's economy is dominated by medium-sized enterprises. Although poor in workable natural resources and still rural in many areas, the region is industrialised. In 2003, there were 8,800 manufacturing enterprises with more than 20 employees, but only 384 with more than 500; the latter category accounts for 43% of the 1.2 million persons employed in industry. The Mittelstand or mid-sized company is the backbone of the Baden-Württemberg economy. Medium-sized businesses and a tradition of branching out into different industrial sectors have ensured specialization over a wide range. A fifth of the "old" Federal Republic's industrial gross value added is generated by Baden-Württemberg. Turnover for manufacturing in 2003 e
Kaufland is a German hypermarket chain, part of the Schwarz Gruppe which owns Lidl and Handelshof. It opened its first store in 1984 in Neckarsulm and expanded to become a leader in what was East Germany; the chain operates over 1,200 stores in Germany, the Czech Republic, Poland, Romania and Croatia. Kaufland plans to open stores in Australia, Moldova; the history of Kaufland began when Joseph Schwarz entered the Südfrüchte Großhandlung Lidl & Co. at Heilbronn as a shareholder in 1930, renamed Lidl & Schwarz KG. In subsequent years it was the aim of the company to become a food wholesaler. After the Second World War, the company was rebuilt: in 1954 it entered the A & O-chain. With Handels- und Fruchthof Heilbronn GmbH the first regional warehouse was opened in northern Wurttemberg. In 1964 the company expanded its range of products by opening a meat department. In 1968 the first Handelshof discount store was opened in Backnang, in 1977 at the same place a hypermarket of the same name was established.
After the death of Joseph Schwarz in 1977 his son Dieter Schwarz took over the management of the company. In 1984 the first Kaufland hypermarket was opened in Neckarsulm, the town being the seat of the company's headquarters since 1972. After the reunification of Germany the Kaufland chain expanded into the Eastern German states and opened numerous markets; the first East German Kaufland store was opened in Meissen in 1990, the first Kaufmarkt SB Warenhaus opened in 1994 in Zwickau. The first department store outside of Germany was established in 1998 in Ostrava, Czech Republic. In subsequent years, the company established branches in Slovakia, Poland, Romania and Moldova. In 2006 and 2007, other store openings followed in Germany and Kaufland took over shares of competitors. In February 2009 the corporation claimed to have 73,000 employees in Germany. In December 2009, Kaufland announced the building of a new meat processing plant in Heiligenstadt, Thuringia for a total of € 85 million until 2013.
About 400 local employees will deliver 45,000 tons of meat per year to around 600 stores of the corporation. In January 2010, it was announced that Karl Lupus Co.. KG was cleared by antitrust authorities to sell their 12 stores of the famila Handels-Betriebe GmbH & Co. KG Rhein-Neckar and the Cash-&-Carry-Markt Lupus Food Service with 1,400 employees to Kaufland. On 1 January 2010, the Kaufland group had purchased all five Schleckerland drug stores in Ehingen, Tempe, Neu-Ulm, Schwäbisch Gmünd and all but the Neu-Ulm store had been converted to the Kaufland brand by then; the local Schleckerland was closed down because Kaufland was present in Neu-Ulm. From 2011, all Handelshof stores will be converted to the Kaufland brand and will be rebuilt and enlarged. Kaufland Germany Kaufland Bulgaria Kaufland Croatia Kaufland Czech Republic Kaufland Poland Kaufland Romania Kaufland Slovakia Kaufland Australia Kaufland Moldova EBRD supports Kaufland’s expansion in eastern Europe
Renewable energy is energy, collected from renewable resources, which are replenished on a human timescale, such as sunlight, rain, tides and geothermal heat. Renewable energy provides energy in four important areas: electricity generation and water heating/cooling and rural energy services. Based on REN21's 2017 report, renewables contributed 19.3% to humans' global energy consumption and 24.5% to their generation of electricity in 2015 and 2016, respectively. This energy consumption is divided as 8.9% coming from traditional biomass, 4.2% as heat energy, 3.9% from hydroelectricity and the remaining 2.2% is electricity from wind, solar and other forms of biomass. Worldwide investments in renewable technologies amounted to more than US$286 billion in 2015. Globally, there are an estimated 7.7 million jobs associated with the renewable energy industries, with solar photovoltaics being the largest renewable employer. Renewable energy systems are becoming more efficient and cheaper and their share of total energy consumption is increasing.
As of 2015 worldwide, more than half of all new electricity capacity installed was renewable. Growth in consumption of coal and oil could end by 2020 due to increased uptake of renewables and natural gas. At the national level, at least 30 nations around the world have renewable energy contributing more than 20 percent of energy supply. National renewable energy markets are projected to continue to grow in the coming decade and beyond; some places and at least two countries and Norway, generate all their electricity using renewable energy and many other countries have the set a goal to reach 100% renewable energy in the future. At least 47 nations around the world have over 50 percent of electricity from renewable resources. Renewable energy resources exist over wide geographical areas, in contrast to fossil fuels, which are concentrated in a limited number of countries. Rapid deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies is resulting in significant energy security, climate change mitigation, economic benefits.
In international public opinion surveys there is strong support for promoting renewable sources such as solar power and wind power. While many renewable energy projects are large-scale, renewable technologies are suited to rural and remote areas and developing countries, where energy is crucial in human development; as most of renewable energy technologies provide electricity, renewable energy deployment is applied in conjunction with further electrification, which has several benefits: electricity can be converted to heat, can be converted into mechanical energy with high efficiency, is clean at the point of consumption. In addition, electrification with renewable energy is more efficient and therefore leads to significant reductions in primary energy requirements, because most renewable energy technologies do not need a thermodynamic cycle with high losses. Renewable energy flows involve natural phenomena such as sunlight, tides, plant growth, geothermal heat, as the International Energy Agency explains: Renewable energy is derived from natural processes that are replenished constantly.
In its various forms, it derives directly from the sun, or from heat generated deep within the earth. Included in the definition is electricity and heat generated from solar, ocean, biomass, geothermal resources, biofuels and hydrogen derived from renewable resources. Renewable energy resources and significant opportunities for energy efficiency exist over wide geographical areas, in contrast to other energy sources, which are concentrated in a limited number of countries. Rapid deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency, technological diversification of energy sources, would result in significant energy security and economic benefits, it would reduce environmental pollution such as air pollution caused by burning of fossil fuels and improve public health, reduce premature mortalities due to pollution and save associated health costs that amount to several hundred billion dollars annually only in the United States. Renewable energy sources, that derive their energy from the sun, either directly or indirectly, such as hydro and wind, are expected to be capable of supplying humanity energy for another 1 billion years, at which point the predicted increase in heat from the sun is expected to make the surface of the earth too hot for liquid water to exist.
Climate change and global warming concerns, coupled with high oil prices, peak oil, increasing government support, are driving increasing renewable energy legislation and commercialization. New government spending and policies helped the industry weather the global financial crisis better than many other sectors. According to a 2011 projection by the International Energy Agency, solar power generators may produce most of the world's electricity within 50 years, reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases that harm the environment; as of 2011, small solar PV systems provide electricity to a few million households, micro-hydro configured into mini-grids serves many more. Over 44 million households use biogas made in household-scale digesters for lighting and/or cooking, more than 166 million households rely on a new generation of more-efficient biomass cookstoves. United Nations' Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon has said that renewable energy has the ability to lift the poorest nations to new levels of prosperity.
At the national level, at least 30 nations around the world have renewable energy contributing more than 20% of energy supply. Na
The Sulm is a river in the Heilbronn district of Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It is an unnavigable right tributary of the Neckar, it rises in the Löwenstein Mountains and after 26.3 kilometres distance and 315 metres elevation drop flows into the Neckar at Bad Friedrichshall, near Untereisesheim and Neckarsulm. Its valley together with its tributary valleys is known as the Weinsberg Valley, after Weinsberg, located there; the medieval region of Sulmgau, as well as the city of Neckarsulm, were named for it. The upper valley of the Sulm is a protected area; the Sulm rises south of Löwenstein at the edge of the Löwenstein Mountains. It originates in several brooks, which brook constitutes the source is subject to interpretation. One such brook which has three points of origin and sometimes termed the Sauklinge is marked as the source by a sign. One of the tributaries of the stream while it is still small is fed by an artificial lake called the Bleichsee; this is maintained by dams. The name Sulm is indisputably attached to the river that proceeds from the confluence near State Road 1111 of the Sauklinge and the brook flowing from the Bleichsee.
From that point it flows north on the edge of the Teusserbad section of Löwenstein and past Castle Lautereck, built in 1623. It turns east and flows past the Rittelhof section of Löwenstein. South of Bundestraße 39 it feeds a mill pond at the Seemühle, the last of what were 3 mills serving Löwenstein. After passing under the B39, at an altitude of 222 metres, it is dammed to form the Breitenauer See, an artificial lake or detention basin 40 hectares in area, created in 1975–80 for flood control; the majority of this lake lies within the territory of Obersulm. Northwest of the Weiler section of Obersulm, the former bed of the Sulm is now fed only by springs and drainage discharge pipes, while the river flows under the dam in a culvert to a point north of the Weiler–Affaltrach road, where it flows into the old mill stream of the Affaltrach mill and after a few dozen metres into the Schlierbach, a tributary via which it rejoins the original riverbed a few metres further on; the Sulm turns west-northwest, flowing through the Affaltrach and Willsbach sections of Obersulm.
Willsbach is situated in the Sülzbach valley on its right bank. The Sulm flows along the north-east edge of Ellhofen, under the Hohenlohe Railway, directly north-west through the territory of Weinsberg, although it does not pass through the town itself. At Weinsberg it is channelled through the Weinsberg motorway interchange, where the A 6 and A 81 cross; until 1971, this was the location of a mill, removed when the interchange was built. Below the confluence of the Weißenhofbach, within the territory of Erlenbach but to the east of the town itself, there is a flood-control basin; the river continues its flow northwest toward Neckarsulm, passing on its right bank Erlenbach and the Binswangen section of that town. The valley bottom is half a kilometer wide at this point and is spanned by the dam of a further flood control basin. Leaving the town, the bed of the Sulm has been straightened where it passes through the Sulmtalpark, created in 1975. Within the territory of Neckarsulm, there were mills along its course.
At this point the Sulm flowed in a wide curve to the north and the west through the grounds of the NSU Motorenwerke plant. It now flows underground for more than 2.6 kilometres and at the border between Neckarsulm and Bad Friedrichshall at the Neckar Canal, this section of, completed in 1925, is piped under the canal. A little upstream of the canal, the Sulm can be seen in a maintenance channel several metres below. On the west side of the Neckar Canal, the river re-emerges on the'island' between the canal and the former channel of the Neckar and flows for 250 metres through Bad Friedrichshall territory north of the border with Untereisesheim before emptying into the Neckar across from the southern part of Untereisesheim, at an altitude of 148 metres; the watershed of the Sulm comprises 111 square kilometres and is bordered by the watersheds of the Brettach to the north and east, the Schozach to the southwest and the Murr to the southeast. Its major tributaries are on the right: the Schlierbach, the Michelbach, the Seebächle, the Sülzbach, the Weißenhofbach.
The earliest archaeological traces of settlement in the Sulm valley are from the Neolithic. Numerous finds in the Willsbach section of Obersulm suggest a permanent settlement. A Roman settlement has been shown to have existed in Weinsberg, a Roman road ran through the Sulm valley connecting the forts on the limes at
Obereisesheim transmitter is a facility of SWR used for mediumwave broadcasting on 711 kHz with a power of 5 kilowatts. It is located near Germany. Obereisesheim transmitter, situated at 49°11'28" N and 9°11'47" E, uses as aerial a 74 metre tall ground-fed, insulated mast radiator, a lattice steel mast with triangular cross section and guyed in 3 levels. Obereisesheim transmitter works on the same frequency as Ulm-Jungingen transmitter. Obereisesheim Transmission Tower at Structurae https://maps.google.com/maps?ie=UTF8&t=h&om=1&z=18&ll=49.191051,9.196812&spn=0.00149,0.003616
The Neckar is a 362-kilometre-long river in Germany flowing through the southwestern state of Baden-Württemberg, with a short section through Hesse. The Neckar is a major right tributary of the Rhine. Rising in the Black Forest near Villingen-Schwenningen in the Schwenninger Moos conservation area at a height of 706 m above sea level, it passes through Rottweil, Rottenburg am Neckar, Kilchberg, Tübingen, Wernau, Nürtingen, Esslingen, Ludwigsburg, Marbach and Heidelberg, before discharging into the Rhine at Mannheim, at 95 m above sea level. From Plochingen to Stuttgart the Neckar valley is densely populated and industrialised, with several well-known companies, e.g. Daimler AG and Mahle GmbH being located there. Between Stuttgart and Lauffen the Neckar cuts a scenic, in many places steep-sided, valley into fossiliferous Triassic limestones and Pleistocene travertine. Along the Neckar's valley in the Odenwald hills many castles can be found, including Hornberg Castle and Guttenberg Castle in Haßmersheim.
After passing Heidelberg, the Neckar discharges on average 145 m3/s of water into the Rhine, making the Neckar its 4th largest tributary, the 10th largest river in Germany. From about 1100 Black Forest timber was rafted downstream as far for use in shipyards; the name Neckar might be derived from Nicarus and Neccarus from Celtic Nikros, meaning wild water or wild fellow. The grammatical gender of the name in German is masculine. During the 19th century, traditional horse-drawn boats were replaced by steam-powered chain boats that used a 155 km long chain in the river to haul themselves upstream towing barges. After 1899 a railway made it possible to transport timber to the port of Heilbronn, limiting timber rafting to the lower part of the Neckar. Due to the construction of 11 locks, ships up to 1500 t could travel to Heilbronn in 1935. By 1968 the last of 27 locks, at Deizisau, was completed, making the Neckar navigable for cargo ships about 200 kilometres upstream from Mannheim to the river port of Plochingen, at the confluence with the Fils, where the Neckar bends, taking a northwesterly instead of a northeasterly course.
Other important ports include Heilbronn. The river's course provides a popular route for cyclists during the summer months, its steep valley sides are used for vineyards for the cultivation of Trollinger, Kerner, Müller-Thurgau amongst other locally grown grape varieties.. The name "Neckar" was given to the world's first motorboat made during the summer of 1886 by Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach when their Standuhr petrol engine was tested on the river near Bad Cannstatt. From its source to its confluence with the Rhine: Villingen-Schwenningen Rottweil Oberndorf am Neckar Sulz am Neckar Horb am Neckar Rottenburg am Neckar Kilchberg Tübingen Nürtingen Wendlingen Wernau Plochingen Esslingen am Neckar Stuttgart Remseck Ludwigsburg Marbach am Neckar Benningen am Neckar Freiberg am Neckar Besigheim Lauffen am Neckar Heilbronn Neckarsulm Bad Wimpfen Mosbach Eberbach Neckarsteinach Heidelberg Mannheim Eschach Ammer * Lauter Fils Körsch Nesenbach Rems Murr Enz Zaber Sulm Kocher Jagst Elz Neckar Valley Bridge Weitingen, near the town Horb am Neckar.
Old Bridge, in Heidelberg The Neckar is mentioned prominently in Gustav Mahler's "Rheinlegendchen", composed in August 1893. "Rheinlegendchen" was first published in 1899 in a cycle of 12 songs under the title Humoresken.
NSU Motorenwerke AG, or NSU, was a German manufacturer of automobiles and pedal cycles, founded in 1873. Acquired by Volkswagen Group in 1969, VW merged NSU with Auto Union, creating Audi NSU Auto Union AG Audi; the name NSU originated as the city where NSU was located. NSU originated as the "Mechanische Werkstätte zur Herstellung von Strickmaschinen", a knitting machine manufacturer established in 1873 by Christian Schmidt, a technically astute entrepreneur, in the town of Riedlingen on the Danube; the business relocated in 1880 to Neckarsulm. There followed a period of rapid growth and in 1886, the company began to produce bicycles, the first of them a'high wheeler' or'Penny-farthing' branded as the "Germania". By 1892, bicycle manufacturing had replaced knitting machine production. At about this time, the name NSU appeared as a brand name; the first NSU motorcycle appeared in 1901, followed by the first NSU car in 1905. In 1932, under pressure from their bank, NSU recognised the failure of their attempt to break into volume automobile production, their built car factory in Heilbronn was sold to Fiat, who used the plant to assemble Fiat models for the German market.
From 1957, NSU-Fiat cars assumed the brand name Neckar. During World War II NSU produced the Kettenkrad, the NSU HK101, a half-tracked motorcycle with the engine of the Opel Olympia, they made the 251 OSL motorcycle during the war. In December 1946, Das Auto reported the company had resumed the manufacture of bicycles and motor-bicycles at Neckarsulm. For Germany, this was a time of new beginnings, in July 1946, a new board was appointed, headed by General Director Walter Egon Niegtsch, who earlier in his career had spent 17 years with Opel. NSU motorbike production restarted, in a destroyed plant, with prewar designs like the Quick, OSL, Konsul motorbikes; the first postwar model was the NSU Fox in 1949, available in 4-stroke versions. In 1953, the NSU Max followed, a 250 cc motorbike with a unique overhead camdrive driven by reciprocating rods. All these new models had an innovative monocoque frame of pressed steel and a central rear suspension unit. Albert Roder, the chief engineer behind the success story, made it possible that in 1955, NSU became the biggest motorcycle producer in the world.
NSU holds four world records for speed: 1951, 1953, 1954, 1955. In August 1956, Wilhelm Herz at the Bonneville Salt Flats, became the first man to ride a motorcycle faster than 200 mph. In 1957, NSU re-entered the car market with the new Prinz, a small car with a doubled NSU Max engine, an air-cooled two-cylinder engine of 600 cc and 20 hp. Motorbike production continued until 1968. NSU's last production motorcycle was the Quick 50. In 1964, NSU offered the world's first Wankel engined car: the Wankelspider. In development of the project, NSU built the Sport Prinz, with a 129 hp 995 cc 2-rotor. In the same year Prinz 1000 and derivatives like the TT and TT/S followed; the Typ 110 was launched in 1965 as a family car with a more spacious body design. The last NSU cars with a conventional four-stroke engine had the air-cooled OHC four-cylinder engine in common; the car was marketed in the U. K. as "NSU TYP 110", Karobes, a major supplier of car accessories, provided a head rest specially for this car: "A new one which can be fitted without a screw, may be adjusted forwards and backwards."Also in 1964, NSU partnered with Citroën to develop the Wankel engine via the Comotor subsidiary, which resulted in the abortive 1973 Citroën GS Birotor production car.
In 1967, the four-door NSU Ro 80, with a 115 hp version of the same 2-rotor, was presented to the public. Weighing 1,200 kg, it had a Cd of 0.36, disc brakes, independent suspension, front wheel drive by Fichtel & Sachs Saxomatic three-speed transmission. It soon gained several design awards such as "car of the year 1967", while drivers liked its performance. All the world's major motor manufacturers purchased licenses from NSU to develop and produce the rotary engine, with the notable exception of BMW. Despite its public acclaim, sales of the Ro 80 were disappointing; the transmission drew complaints and the engine suffered numerous failures at low mileage. Competitor automakers, apart from Mazda, held back from taking a lead in developing and marketing the Wankel technology, anticipated income associated with those royalty deals failed to materialize; the development of the rotary engine was cost-intensive for the small company. Problems with the apex seals of the engine rotor damaged the brand's reputation amongst consumers.
In 1969, the company was taken over by Volkswagenwerk AG, which merged NSU with Auto Union, the owners of the Audi brand which Volkswagen had acquired five years earlier. The new company was called Audi NSU Auto Union AG and represented the effective end of the NSU marque with all future production to bear the Audi badge; the management of the new combine was based at the Neckarsulm plant, however when the small rear-engined NSU models were phased out in 1973, the Ro 80 was the last car still in production carrying the NSU badge. Audi never made. In 1985, the company name was shortened to Audi AG and management moved back to Audi's headquarters in Ingolstadt; as production of the Ro 80 continued in the Neckarsulm plant, production of larger Audi models like 100 and 200 was