Malaysia is a country in Southeast Asia. The federal constitutional monarchy consists of 13 states and three federal territories, separated by the South China Sea into two sized regions, Peninsular Malaysia and East Malaysia. Peninsular Malaysia shares a land and maritime border with Thailand and maritime borders with Singapore and Indonesia. East Malaysia shares land and maritime borders with Brunei and Indonesia and a maritime border with the Philippines and Vietnam. Kuala Lumpur is the national capital and largest city while Putrajaya is the seat of federal government. With a population of over 30 million, Malaysia is the world's 44th most populous country; the southernmost point of continental Eurasia, Tanjung Piai, is in Malaysia. In the tropics, Malaysia is one of 17 megadiverse countries, with large numbers of endemic species. Malaysia has its origins in the Malay kingdoms which, from the 18th century, became subject to the British Empire, along with the British Straits Settlements protectorate.
Peninsular Malaysia was unified as the Malayan Union in 1946. Malaya was restructured as the Federation of Malaya in 1948, achieved independence on 31 August 1957. Malaya united with North Borneo and Singapore on 16 September 1963 to become Malaysia. In 1965, Singapore was expelled from the federation; the country is multi-cultural, which plays a large role in its politics. About half the population is ethnically Malay, with large minorities of Malaysian Chinese, Malaysian Indians, indigenous peoples. While recognising Islam as the country's established religion, the constitution grants freedom of religion to non-Muslims; the government system is modelled on the Westminster parliamentary system and the legal system is based on common law. The head of state is the king, known as the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, he is an elected monarch chosen from the hereditary rulers of the nine Malay states every five years. The head of government is the Prime Minister; the country's official language is a standard form of the Malay language.
English remains an active second language. Since independence, Malaysian GDP has grown at an average of 6.5% per annum for 50 years. The economy has traditionally been fuelled by its natural resources, but is expanding in the sectors of science, tourism and medical tourism. Today, Malaysia has a newly industrialised market economy, ranked fourth largest in Southeast Asia and 38th largest in the world, it is a founding member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the East Asia Summit and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, a member of Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Commonwealth of Nations, the Non-Aligned Movement. The name "Malaysia" is a combination of the word "Malay" and the Latin-Greek suffix "-sia"/-σία; the word "melayu" in Malay may derive from the Tamil words "malai" and "ur" meaning "mountain" and "city, land", respectively. "Malayadvipa" was the word used by ancient Indian traders. Whether or not it originated from these roots, the word "melayu" or "mlayu" may have been used in early Malay/Javanese to mean to accelerate or run.
This term was applied to describe the strong current of the river Melayu in Sumatra. The name was adopted by the Melayu Kingdom that existed in the seventh century on Sumatra. Before the onset of European colonisation, the Malay Peninsula was known natively as "Tanah Melayu". Under a racial classification created by a German scholar Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, the natives of maritime Southeast Asia were grouped into a single category, the Malay race. Following the expedition of French navigator Jules Dumont d'Urville to Oceania in 1826, he proposed the terms of "Malaysia", "Micronesia" and "Melanesia" to the Société de Géographie in 1831, distinguishing these Pacific cultures and island groups from the existing term "Polynesia". Dumont d'Urville described Malaysia as "an area known as the East Indies". In 1850, the English ethnologist George Samuel Windsor Earl, writing in the Journal of the Indian Archipelago and Eastern Asia, proposed naming the islands of Southeast Asia as "Melayunesia" or "Indunesia", favouring the former.
In modern terminology, "Malay" remains the name of an ethnoreligious group of Austronesian people predominantly inhabiting the Malay Peninsula and portions of the adjacent islands of Southeast Asia, including the east coast of Sumatra, the coast of Borneo, smaller islands that lie between these areas. The state that gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1957 took the name the "Federation of Malaya", chosen in preference to other potential names such as "Langkasuka", after the historic kingdom located at the upper section of the Malay Peninsula in the first millennium CE; the name "Malaysia" was adopted in 1963 when the existing states of the Federation of Malaya, plus Singapore, North Borneo and Sarawak formed a new federation. One theory posits the name was chosen so that "si" represented the inclusion of Singapore, North Borneo, Sarawak to Malaya in 1963. Politicians in the Philippines contemplated renaming their state "Malaysia" before the modern country took the name. Evidence of modern human habitation in Malaysia dates back 40,000 years.
In the Malay Peninsula, the first inhabitants are thought to be Negritos. Traders and settlers from India and China arrived as early as the first century AD, establishing trading ports and coastal towns in the second and third centuries, their presence resulted in strong Indian and Chinese influences on the local cultures, the people of the Malay Peninsula adopted the religions of Hinduism and Buddhism. Sanskrit inscriptions appear as early as the fifth century; the Kingdom of
Japanese occupation of Malaya
Malaya was occupied by the Japanese between 8 December 1941 and the Allied surrender at Singapore on 16 February 1942. The Japanese remained in occupation until their surrender to the Allies in 1945; the first Japanese garrison in Malaya to lay down their arms was in Penang on 2 September 1945 aboard HMS Nelson. The concept of a unified East Asia took form based on an Imperial Japanese Army concept that originated with General Hachirō Arita, an army ideologist who served as Minister for Foreign Affairs from 1936 to 1940; the Japanese Army said the new Japanese empire was an Asian equivalent of the Monroe Doctrine with the Roosevelt Corollary. The regions of Asia, it was argued, were as essential to Japan as Latin America was to the U. S; the Japanese Foreign Minister Yōsuke Matsuoka formally announced the idea of the Co-Prosperity Sphere on 1 August 1940, in a press interview, but it had existed in other forms for many years. Leaders in Japan had long had an interest in the idea; the outbreak of World War II fighting in Europe had given the Japanese an opportunity to demand the withdrawal of support from China in the name of "Asia for Asiatics", with the European powers unable to retaliate.
Many of the other nations within the boundaries of the sphere were under colonial rule and elements of their population were sympathetic to Japan, occupied by Japan in the early phases of the war and reformed under puppet governments, or under Japan's control at the outset. These factors helped make the formation of the sphere, while lacking any real authority or joint power, come together without much difficulty; the sphere would, according to imperial propaganda, establish a new international order seeking "co prosperity" for Asian countries which would share prosperity and peace, free from Western colonialism and domination under the umbrella of a benevolent Japan. Japanese Military Affairs Bureau Unit 82 was formed in 1939 or 1940 and based in Taiwan to bring this about. In its final planning stages, the unit was under the then-Colonel Yoshihide Hayashi. Intelligence on Malaya was gathered through a network of agents which included Japanese embassy staff. Japanese spies, which included a British intelligence officer, Captain Patrick Stanley Vaughan Heenan and Lord Sempill provided intelligence and assistance.
Heenan's intelligence enabled the Japanese to destroy much of the Allied air forces on the ground. Prior to hostilities Japanese intelligence officers like Iwaichi Fujiwara had established covert intelligence offices that linked up with the Malay and Indian pro-independence organisations such as Kesatuan Melayu Muda in Malaya and the Indian Independence League; the Japanese gave these movements financial support in return for their members providing intelligence and assistance in determining Allied troop movements and dispositions prior to the invasion. By 1941 the Japanese had been engaged for four years in trying to subjugate China, they were reliant on imported materials for their military forces oil from the United States. From 1940 to 1941, the United States, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands imposed embargoes on supplying oil and war materials to Japan; the object of the embargoes was to assist the Chinese and encourage the Japanese to halt military action in China. The Japanese considered that pulling out of China would result in a loss of face and decided instead to take military action against US, British and Dutch territories in South East Asia.
The Japanese forces for the invasion were assembled in 1941 on Hainan Island and in French Indochina. The troop build-up in Indo-China and Hainan was noticed by the Allies and, when asked, the Japanese advised that it related to its operations in China; the occupation commenced with Imperial Japanese Army landings at Padang Pak Amat beach Kota Bharu just after midnight on 8 December 1941, triggering a ferocious battle with the British Indian Army an hour before the attack on Pearl Harbor. This battle marked the official start of the Pacific War and the start of the Japanese occupation of Malaya. Kota Bharu airport was occupied in the morning. Sungai Patani and Alor Star airports were captured on 9 December 1941. Japanese soldiers landing at Kota Bharu divided into two separate forces, with one moving down the east coast towards Kuantan, the other southwards towards the Perak River. On 11 December 1941, the Japanese started bombing Penang. Jitra and Alor Star fell into Japanese hands on 12 December 1941.
The British had to retreat to the south. On 16 December 1941, the British left Penang to the Japanese; the Japanese continued capturing Ipoh on 26 December. Fierce resistance to Japanese progress in the Battle of Kampar lasted three days and three nights between 30 December 1941 and 2 January 1942, before the British had to retreat once again. On 7 January 1942, two brigades of the 11th Indian Infantry Division were defeated in the Battle of Slim River, giving the Japanese army easy passage to Kuala Lumpur, the capital of Malaya. On 9 January, the British position was becoming more desperate and the ABDACOM Supreme Commander, General Wavell, decided to withdraw all the British and Commonwealth forces south to Johor, thus abandoning Kuala Lumpur; the British defensive line was established in north Johor, from Muar in the west, through Segamat, to Mersing in the east. The 45th Indian Infantry Brigade were placed along the western part of the line between Muar and Segamat; the Australian Imperial F
The Semai are a semi sedentary ethnic group living in the center of the Malay Peninsula in Southeast Asia, known for their nonviolence. They speak Semai, an Austroasiatic language related to Temiar, spoken by Temiars nearby; the Semai belong to the Senoi group and are one of the largest indigenous ethnic group in the Peninsula and the largest of the Senoi group. The population dynamics of the Semai people in Malaysia:- It is thought that the Semai are the remnants of the original and widespread population of Southeast Asia. According to Keene State College's Orang Asli Archive, in 1991 there were 26,627 and according to the Center for Orang Asli Concern in 2000 there were 34,248 Semai living on the Malay Peninsula; this number has increased in recent years with the advent of better nutrition as well as improved sanitation and healthcare practices. These numbers, however, do not include other peoples of Semai or mixed descent, most of whom have assimilated into other cultures and have abandoned their ancestral tribal lands in order to seek better employment and education opportunities in the larger cities.
A genetic study conducted in 1995 by a team of biologists from the National University of Singapore has shown a close relationship between the Semai and the Khmer of Cambodia. This is in line with the linguistic situation of the Semai, whose language belongs to the Mon-Khmer family. Furthermore, the Semai seem to be more related to the Javanese than to their Malay neighbours on the peninsula; the Semai are horticulturalists. They are among the indigenous peoples of Malaysia who have been pushed into the hills and mountains by more technologically powerful incoming peoples, they no government per se. According to Dentan, adults appear to be controlled by public opinion; the Semai themselves say "There is no authority here but embarrassment." Although popular and verbally facile individuals are influential in public affairs, the Semai have no formal leaders. Disputes in the Semai community are resolved by holding a becharaa, or public assembly, at the headman's house; this assembly may last for days and involves thorough discussion of the causes and resolution of the dispute by disputants and the whole community, ending with the headman charging either or both of the disputants not to repeat their behavior lest it endanger the community.
The Semai have a saying that "there are more reasons to fear a dispute than a tiger."Semai children are never punished or forced against their will. If a parent asks a child to do something and the child says "I don't want to," the matter is ended. However, Semai parents use fear of strangers and violence in nature such as thunderstorms and lightning to control children's behavior if it becomes necessary. A concept similar to karma is prevalent where children are told stories of sprites and forest spirits who will take retribution if their sanctity is violated. Children appear to be taught to fear their own aggressive impulses; the concept of mengalah or giving in is most cherished where children since young are taught to'give way' to others so as to preserve the peace and harmony of the village. The games Semai children play are non-competitive; these games include forms of sports that encourage physical activity and exertions so that the body becomes tired and are therefore made ready for sleep and the subsequent dreaming.
One game involves hitting at other children with sticks. Modern games are played but with significant modifications. A game of badminton for example uses no partition keeps no score; the shuttlecock is deliberately hit so that it could be intercepted by the other player and passed back, so forth. The objective seems to be purely for exercise. With regards to space and dominion, there appears to be no distinction between the public and private realms, thus, "the Western concept of privacy, domestic or otherwise, is not to be found"; this concept is shared by the rural Malays, of whom, many are descended from mixed marriages with the Semais and other Orang Asli people. They carry with them the wisdom and lore of the Semais, including their non-violent and pacifist tendencies, harmonized with other prevailing religions of their adoption; the Semais live in villages and most of the structures are built with wood, bamboo with weaved walls and thatched roofs using palm leaves. Semai houses have no visible bedrooms for the children, as they all sleep in the main hall.
The only separation seems to be in the form of wooden-beaded curtains for the parents' chambers. This form of separation is adopted by the coastal Malays, who use instead curtains made of seashells, deutero-Malays, who use the batik cloth to form the curtains. There are no locks or otherwise, usual devices used to preventing an unwanted entry into any of these rooms. A simple way of telling that an entry is unwanted is by drawing down the curtains. To allow entry, the curtain is tied to form an opening. Expressed permission must be requested in cases. An entry without permission entails some sort of natural retribution; the Semai people is known for their traditional Sewang dance, where it is performed in events such as celebrating birth, circumcision ceremony, healing of sicknesses and for other superstitions. The animist traditions of the Semai include. A small eyeless snake is called Thunder's hea
Vehicle registration plates of Malaysia
Malaysian registration plates are displayed at the front and rear of all private and commercial motorised vehicles in Malaysia, as required by law. The issuing of the number plates is regulated and administered by the Malaysian Road Transport Department or JPJ. Latest number plate being issued can be checked; the following are examples of the formats used. Number plates are issued and are formatted for any motorised vehicle that runs on rubber tyres, including most road-legal private and industrial vehicles, emergency vehicles, selected heavy equipment. With the exception of those issued for taxis, vehicle dealers and diplomats, all vehicle number plates in Malaysia have white characters on black background for both front and rear plates, regardless of the vehicle type. Standards for number plate designs have been defined by the Road Transport Department but are only practiced to an extent. Character size and colour use are more enforced for accurate identification and optimum visibility. However, the dimensions of the plates displaying the license number are more loosely enforced.
While many vehicles display plates in regulation dimensions or are housed in dealer plate frames with standardised dimensions, some license plates are outlined to fit into vastly larger recessed spaces holding the rear license plates, or appear with reduced or custom dimensions where no proper alcoves exist, as practiced on the front fenders and fairings of most motorcycles and the front of sports cars. A compact version of Arial Bold is the typeface preferred by the Road Transport Department and is thus the most used, but other easy-to-read typefaces are acceptable. Common alternative choices include Charles Wright, used on Singaporean, Hong Kongese, British plates, FE-Schrift, used on German plates and is thus popular among Malaysian owners of cars with European marques German brands and models. More obscure custom typefaces have been known to be used on grey import vehicles and aftermarket licence plates. Early Malaysian number plates were made of pressed metal, but were superseded by plastic plates since the 1970s, with characters either printed on or molded in plastic pieces.
Reason for usage of plastics plates are cost metal theft are rampant in Malaysia. However, the biggest disadvantage of using plastic plates are fragile, easy to reproduce which giving advantages to criminals such as car cloning syndicates, missing letters due to adhesive no longer able to stick on the background plate which causing the vehicle unable to identified by law enforcers. Standardised number plates are being discussed by JPJ from 2016 to include RFID chip and made from pressed metal. With the exception of Kuala Lumpur and Langkawi plates, taxis, vehicle dealers and diplomats, all Peninsular Malaysian number plates for private and commercial type motor vehicles with the exceptions of those used by taxis, vehicle dealers and diplomats follow a Sxx #### algorithm. S - The state or territory prefix. X - The alphabetical sequences. # - The number sequence. The exceptions in the algorithm are as follows: There can be no leading zeroes in the number sequence; the letters I and O are omitted from the alphabetical sequences due to their similarities with the numbers 1 and 0.
The letters Z is reserved for use on Malaysian military vehicles. The algorithm started with a state prefix and a number sequence which ranged from 1 to 9999. For example, P 1 would be the first registration plate of Penang. Once P 9999 was achieved, an alphabetical sequence was added to the right of the state prefix; when PA 9999 was reached, the number sequence was reset and the alphabetical sequence progressed. After PY 9999 was achieved, a second alphabetical sequence was added to the right of the first alphabetical sequence; when PAY 9999 was reached, the second alphabetical sequence was reset and the first alphabetical sequence progressed. As the most registered number plate series in the country, the W series' traditional 7-character format became the first in Peninsular Malaysia to be exhausted when WYY 9999 was reached on 26 September 2013. To allow further W plates, the algorithm was altered to feature an alphabetical suffix behind the number sequence, resetting at W 1 A; when W 9999 Y was achieved, the second alphabetical sequence emerged between the state prefix and number sequence, leading to WA 1 A.
When WA 9999 Y is met, the first alphabetical sequence will reset and the second alphabetical sequence will advance, giving WB 1 A. When WY 9999 Y is reached, a third new alphabetical sequence will be spliced into the algorithm, between the second alphabetical sequence and number sequence, resulting in WAA 1 A; the series will end. The new format would theoretically allow a vastly larger number of registered plates, better addressing the risk of exhaustion of numbers, but is subject of conflicts with a certain series of Singaporean number plates On 18 May 2016, less than three years into the implementation of the extended W series, the Transport Ministry, on the request of
Vehicle registration plate
A vehicle registration plate known as a number plate or a license plate, is a metal or plastic plate attached to a motor vehicle or trailer for official identification purposes. All countries require registration plates for road vehicles such as cars and motorcycles. Whether they are required for other vehicles, such as bicycles, boats, or tractors, may vary by jurisdiction; the registration identifier is a numeric or alphanumeric ID that uniquely identifies the vehicle owner within the issuing region's vehicle register. In some countries, the identifier is unique within the entire country, while in others it is unique within a state or province. Whether the identifier is associated with a vehicle or a person varies by issuing agency. There are electronic license plates. Most governments require a registration plate to be attached to both the front and rear of a vehicle, although certain jurisdictions or vehicle types, such as motorboats, require only one plate, attached to the rear of the vehicle.
National databases relate this number to other information describing the vehicle, such as the make, colour, year of manufacture, engine size, type of fuel used, mileage recorded, vehicle identification number, the name and address of the vehicle's registered owner or keeper. In the vast majority of jurisdictions, the government holds a monopoly on the manufacturing of vehicle registration plates for that jurisdiction. Either a government agency or a private company with express contractual authorization from the government makes plates as needed, which are mailed to, delivered to, or picked up by the vehicle owners. Thus, it is illegal for private citizens to make and affix their own plates, because such unauthorized private manufacturing is equivalent to forging an official document. Alternatively, the government will assign plate numbers, it is the vehicle owner's responsibility to find an approved private supplier to make a plate with that number. In some jurisdictions, plates will be permanently assigned to that particular vehicle for its lifetime.
If the vehicle is either destroyed or exported to a different country, the plate number is retired or reissued. China requires the re-registration of any vehicle that crosses its borders from another country, such as for overland tourist visits, regardless of the length of time it is due to remain there. Other jurisdictions follow a "plate-to-owner" policy, meaning that when a vehicle is sold the seller removes the current plate from the vehicle. Buyers must either obtain new plates or attach plates they hold, as well as register their vehicles under the buyer's name and plate number. A person who sells a car and purchases a new one can apply to have the old plates put onto the new car. One who sells a car and does not buy a new one may, depending on the local laws involved, have to turn the old plates in or destroy them, or may be permitted to keep them; some jurisdictions permit the registration of the vehicle with "personal" plates. In some jurisdictions, plates require periodic replacement associated with a design change of the plate itself.
Vehicle owners may or may not have the option to keep their original plate number, may have to pay a fee to exercise this option. Alternately, or additionally, vehicle owners have to replace a small decal on the plate or use a decal on the windshield to indicate the expiration date of the vehicle registration, periodic safety and/or emissions inspections or vehicle taxation. Other jurisdictions have replaced the decal requirement through the use of computerization: a central database maintains records of which plate numbers are associated with expired registrations, communicating with automated number plate readers to enable law-enforcement to identify expired registrations in the field. Plates are fixed directly to a vehicle or to a plate frame, fixed to the vehicle. Sometimes, the plate frames contain advertisements inserted by the vehicle service centre or the dealership from which the vehicle was purchased. Vehicle owners can purchase customized frames to replace the original frames. In some jurisdictions registration plate frames have design restrictions.
For example, many states, like Texas, allow plate frames but prohibit plate frames from covering the name of the state, district, Native American tribe or country that issued of license plate. Plates are designed to conform to standards with regard to being read by eye in day or at night, or by electronic equipment; some drivers purchase clear, smoke-colored or tinted covers that go over the registration plate to prevent electronic equipment from scanning the registration plate. Legality of these covers varies; some cameras incorporate filter systems that make such avoidance attempts unworkable with infra-red filters. Vehicles pulling trailers, such as caravans and semi-trailer trucks, are required to display a third registration plate on the rear of the trailer. An engineering study by the University of Illinois published in 1960 recommended that the state of Illinois adopt a numbering system and plate design "composed of combinations of characters which can be perceived and are legible at a distance of 125 feet under daylight conditions, are adapted to filing and administrative procedures".
It recommended that a standard plate size of 6 inches by 14 inches be adopte
Nilai is a town located in Seremban District, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. Due to its proximity, connection through the KTM to Kuala Lumpur and Kuala Lumpur International Airport, it is a growing town. Development projects can be seen as one drives around Nilai; some of Malaysia's most well-known colleges and two universities are located in Nilai: Nilai University, INTI International University, Manipal International University, Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia and Islamic University College of Malaysia. As a result, the town is occupied by students from all over the world. Students from over 30 countries can be seen in Nilai. Nilai has become a popular shopping town with the establishment of several major shopping malls such as Nilai 3 Wholesale Centre, Nilai Square, AEON Mall, Giant Hypermarket and Tesco Hypermarket. A new shopping mall was completed and opened on 29 June 2017, Mesamall; the word Nilai means value in Malay. Nilai has history. Nilai was under luak Sungai Ujong, administered by waris di Darat or waris di Air.
Under Dato’ Johan from waris di Darat there are three Dato’ Lingkungan that control lead the 3 corak suku Batu Hampar that are concentrated in a few villages. Other lines including those from Bentan that are not based on suku, but are based on the village where they live; as a Lembaga waris Perut Hulu, Waris Telaga Undang Dato’ Johan is not a titian balai because Dato’ Andika is more senior. However the power endowed by Dato’ Kelana Putera to collect tax until the year 1894 shows that the Dato’ Johan position with respect to balai Undang is important; the third Dato’ Johan, Dato’ Maamor is the Dato’ Kelana Putra, the 8th Undang Luak Sungai Ujong. While being appointed as Pesaka Dato' Kelana Putera, Dato’ Maamor is still a child. At that time, Pesaka Dato' Kelana Putera position is left vacant since 1887 when Dato' Mohd Yusof, the Undang Luak Sungai Ujong is relieved from duty; because waris Perut Hulu does not have a son to hold the pesaka, so the anak-anak buah unanimously appointed Dato’ Maamor, still a child to hold the pesaka Dato' Johan and titled Dato’ Kelana.
The jurisdiction of Dato’ Johan covers Lenggeng Mukim which includes Mendum Village, Lenggeng Village, Sungai Jai Village, Hulu Beranang Village and Dacing Village. All these villages have their own ketua adat called ‘Tua Waris’. There are suku of Minangkabau people that are concentrated on other luak in Negeri Sembilan before settling in Lenggeng Village. To ensure their welfare in Luak Sungai Ujong, all suku were given ‘Tua Waris’ to be their representative in matters relating to tradition and administration in Balai Undang Luak. Nilai was under Seremban District Council, upgraded to Nilai Municipal Council in 2002; the Köppen-Geiger climate classification system classifies its climate as tropical rainforest. Chinese make up the majority of the population at 46%, followed by the Malays at 31%, Indians at 22%. An initiative by the state government to turn Negeri Sembilan into an educational hub has borne fruit as several foreign and local institutions of higher education have agreed to set up operations here.
Among them are Britain’s Epsom College which has acquired land in Bandar Enstek to set up its first institute outside England, Epsom College in Malaysia and the City University College of Science and Technology which signed an agreement to acquire a 40 ha parcel of land here recently. The state would benefit from the construction of the RM1.2 bil Education Ministry complex which would, among others, house the Aminuddin Baki Institute, Institut Pendidikan Guru Kampus Pendidikan Teknik, English Language Institute, Tunku Kurshiah College and Nilai Polytechnic as well as the International Islamic University Malaysia’s medical faculty and the International University College of Nursing. Several institutions of higher learning that have been built in the area include Nilai University, INTI International University and Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia. PLUS Expressway exit 214 serves Nilai. Nilai is the southern end of ELITE which connects it to Shah Alam, the capital of Selangor. Motorists from western Selangor are thus able to get to Negeri Sembilan, Malacca or Johor while bypassing Kuala Lumpur.
KTM Komuter has two stations serving Nilai constituency: KB10 Nilai. Buses are available from Nilai Komuter station to KLIA. Bus service will be provided to INTI International University students for free to different destinations according to the timetable provided by the university. Students can go to Tesco or KTM station by referring to the timetable. Nilai is part of the Seremban constituency of the Dewan Rakyat of the Malaysian Parliament represented by Anthony Loke Siew Fook of the Democratic Action Party. On the provincial level, Nilai is represented in the Negeri Sembilan State Legislative Assembly by Arul Kumar a/l Jambunathan from the DAP
Malacca dubbed "The Historic State", is a state in Malaysia located in the southern region of the Malay Peninsula, next to the Strait of Malacca. The state is bordered by Negeri Sembilan to Johor to the south; the exclave of Cape Rachado borders Negeri Sembilan to the north. Its capital is Malacca City, 148 kilometres south east of Malaysia's capital city Kuala Lumpur, 235 kilometres north west of Johor's largest city Johor Bahru, 95 km north west of Johor's second largest city, Batu Pahat; this historical city centre has been listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 7 July 2008. Although it was the location of one of the earliest Malay sultanates, the local monarchy was abolished when the Portuguese conquered it in 1511; the head of state is Governor, rather than a Sultan. Various ethnic customs and traditions blended in Malacca. Peaceful life of the people of Malacca races due to the life that gave birth to the Malay, Indian and Nyonya, Portuguese and Eurasian. Before the arrival of the first Sultan, Malacca was a fishing village inhabited by local inhabitants known as Orang Laut.
Malacca was founded by Parameswara known as Iskandar Shah. He found his way to Malacca around 1402 where he found a good port—it was accessible in all seasons and on the strategically located narrowest point of the Malacca Straits. According to a popular legend, Parameswara was resting under a tree near a river during a hunt, when one of his dogs cornered a mouse deer. In self-defence, the mouse deer pushed the dog into the river. Impressed by the courage of the deer, taking it as a propitious omen of the weak overcoming the powerful, Parameswara decided and there to found an empire on that spot, he named it the Malacca tree. In collaboration with allies from the sea-people, the wandering proto-Malay privateers of the Straits, he established Malacca as an international port by compelling passing ships to call there, establishing fair and reliable facilities for warehousing and trade. In Malacca during the early 15th century, Ming China sought to develop a commercial hub and a base of operation for their treasure voyages into the Indian Ocean.
Malacca had been a insignificant region, not qualifying as a polity prior to the voyages according to both Ma Huan and Fei Xin, was a vassal region of Siam. In 1405, the Ming court dispatched Admiral Zheng He with a stone tablet enfeoffing the Western Mountain of Malacca as well as an imperial order elevating the status of the port to a country; the Chinese established a government depot as a fortified cantonment for their soldiers. Ma Huan reported; the rulers of Malacca, such as Parameswara in 1411, would pay tribute to the Chinese emperor in person. In 1431, when a Malaccan representative complained that Siam was obstructing tribute missions to the Ming court, the Xuande Emperor dispatched Zheng He carrying a threatening message for the Siamese king saying "You, king should respect my orders, develop good relations with your neighbours and instruct your subordinates and not act recklessly or aggressively."Because of its strategic location, Malacca was an important stopping point for Zheng He's fleet.
To enhance relations, Hang Li Po, according to local folklore, a daughter of the Ming Emperor of China, arrived in Malacca, accompanied by 500 attendants, to marry Sultan Manshur Shah who reigned from 1456 until 1477. Her attendants married locals and settled in Bukit Cina. "In the 9th month of the year 1481 envoys arrived with the Malacca again sent envoys to China in 1481 to inform the Chinese that, while Malaccan envoys were returning to Malacca from China in 1469, the Vietnamese attacked the Malaccans, killing some of them while castrating the young and enslaving them. The Malaccans reported that Vietnam was in control of Champa and sought to conquer Malacca, but the Malaccans did not fight back, because they did not want to fight against another state, a tributary to China without permission from the Chinese, they requested to confront the Vietnamese delegation to China, in China at the time, but the Chinese informed them since the incident was years old, they could do nothing about it, the Emperor sent a letter to the Vietnamese ruler reproaching him for the incident.
The Chinese Emperor ordered the Malaccans to raise soldiers and fight back with violent force if the Vietnamese attacked them again. In April 1511, Alfonso de Albuquerque set sail from Goa to Malacca with a force of some 1200 men and seventeen or eighteen ships, they conquered the city on 24 August 1511. After seizing the city Afonso de Albuquerque spared the Hindu and Burmese inhabitants but had the Muslim inhabitants massacred or sold into slavery, it soon became clear that Portuguese control of Malacca did not mean they controlled Asian trade centred there. Their Malaccan rule was hampered by administrative and economic difficulties. Rather than achieving their ambition of dominating Asian trade, the Portuguese had disrupted the organisation of the network; the centralised port of exchange of Asian wealth had now gone, as was a Malay state to police the Straits of Malacca that made it safe for commercial traffic. Trade was now scattered over a number of ports among bitter warfare in the Straits.
The Jesuit missionary Francis Xavier spent several months in Malacca in 1545, 1546, 1549. The Dutch launched several attacks on the Portuguese colony during