Nellie Bly

Elizabeth Cochran Seaman, better known by her pen name Nellie Bly, was an American journalist, industrialist and charity worker, known for her record-breaking trip around the world in 72 days, in emulation of Jules Verne's fictional character Phileas Fogg, an exposé in which she worked undercover to report on a mental institution from within. She was a pioneer in her field, launched a new kind of investigative journalism. At birth she was named Elizabeth Mary Jane Cochran, she was born in "Cochran's Mills", now part of the Pittsburgh suburb of Burrell Township, Armstrong County, Pennsylvania. Her father, Michael Cochran, born about 1810, started out as a laborer and mill worker before buying the local mill and most of the land surrounding his family farmhouse, he became a merchant and associate justice at Cochran's Mills in Pennsylvania. Michael married twice, he had 10 children with his first wife, Catherine Murphy, 5 more children, including Elizabeth, with his second wife, Mary Jane Kennedy.

Michael Cochran's father had immigrated from Ireland, in the 1790s. As a young girl Elizabeth was called "Pinky" because she so wore that color; as she became a teenager she wanted to portray herself as more sophisticated, so dropped the nickname and changed her surname to "Cochrane". She attended boarding school for one term, but after her father's death in 1870 or 1871, was forced to drop out due to lack of funds. In 1880, Cochrane's mother moved her family to Pittsburgh. A newspaper column entitled "What Girls Are Good For" in the Pittsburgh Dispatch that reported that girls were principally for birthing children and keeping house prompted Elizabeth to write a response under the pseudonym "Lonely Orphan Girl"; the editor, George Madden, was impressed with her passion and ran an advertisement asking the author to identify herself. When Cochrane introduced herself to the editor, he offered her the opportunity to write a piece for the newspaper, again under the pseudonym "Lonely Orphan Girl".

Her first article for the Dispatch, entitled "The Girl Puzzle", was about how divorce affected women. In it, she argued for reform of divorce laws. Madden offered her a full-time job, it was customary for women. The editor chose "Nellie Bly", after the African-American title character in the popular song "Nelly Bly" by Stephen Foster. Cochran intended that her pseudonym be "Nelly Bly", but her editor wrote "Nellie" by mistake, the error stuck; as a writer Nellie Bly focused her early work for the Pittsburgh Dispatch on the lives of working women, writing a series of investigative articles on women factory workers. However, the newspaper soon received complaints from factory owners about her writing, she was reassigned to women's pages to cover fashion and gardening, the usual role for women journalists, she became dissatisfied, she traveled to Mexico to serve as a foreign correspondent. Still only 21, she was determined "to do something no girl has done before." She soon left for Mexico, spending nearly half a year reporting the lives and customs of the Mexican people.

In one report, she protested the imprisonment of a local journalist for criticizing the Mexican government a dictatorship under Porfirio Díaz. When Mexican authorities learned of Bly's report, they threatened her with arrest, prompting her to flee the country. Safely home, she accused Díaz of being a tyrannical czar suppressing the Mexican people and controlling the press. Burdened again with theater and arts reporting, Bly left the Pittsburgh Dispatch in 1887 for New York City. Penniless after four months, she talked her way into the offices of Joseph Pulitzer's newspaper the New York World, took an undercover assignment for which she agreed to feign insanity to investigate reports of brutality and neglect at the Women's Lunatic Asylum on Blackwell's Island, it was not an easy task for Bly to be admitted to the Asylum: She first decided to check herself into a boarding house called Temporary Homes for Females. She stayed up all night to give herself the wide-eyed look of a disturbed woman, began making accusations that the other boarders were insane.

Bly told the assistant matron "There are so many crazy people about, one can never tell what they will do." She refused to go to bed, scared so many of the other boarders that the police were called to take her to the nearby courthouse. Once examined by a police officer, a judge, a doctor, Bly was taken to Blackwell's Island. Committed to the asylum, Bly experienced the deplorable conditions firsthand. After ten days, the asylum released Bly at The World's behest, her report published in book form as Ten Days in a Mad-House, caused a sensation, prompted the asylum to implement reforms, brought her lasting fame. In 1888 Bly suggested to her editor at the New York World that she take a trip around the world, attempting to turn the fictional Around the World in Eighty Days into fact for the first time. A year at 9:40 a.m. on November 14, 1889, with two days' notice, she boarded the Augusta Victoria, a steamer of the Hamburg America Line, began her 40,070 kilometer journey. She took with her the dress she was wearing, a sturdy overcoat, several changes of underwear, a small travel bag carrying her toiletry essentials.

She carried most of her money in a bag tied around her neck. The New York newspaper Cosmopolitan sponsored its own reporter, Elizabeth Bisland, to beat the time of both Phileas Fogg and Bly. Bisland wo


Bruchstedt is a municipality in the Unstrut-Hainich-Kreis district of Thuringia, Germany. At the beginning of the 9th century Bruchstedt was first mentioned in a directory of the Patrimony of the Archbishop Lullus, Hersfeld Abbey as Brutstede in context with Tennstedt. Bruchstedt was affected in 1663 by the witch-hunt. Anna Maria Lorenzen got into a witch-hunt and was punished with banishment.1816 came Bruchstedt due to the Congress of Vienna to the Kreis Langensalza of the Prussian Province of Saxony. On the night of 23 May to 24 May 1950, due to a severe weather a flash flood devastated the place. Water heights height up to 3.50 meters have been achieved. Eight citizens and most of the livestock were victims of the disaster. In a state-organized effort the place was re-built by 3000 workers within 50 days. Of the disaster night remembers a memorial stone with the names of the eight victims; every year a party takes place in memory of the unique solidarity action

Military career of George Washington

The military career of George Washington spanned over forty years of service. Washington's service can be broken into three periods and Indian War, American Revolutionary War, the Quasi-War with France, with service in three different armed forces; because of Washington's importance in the early history of the United States of America, he was granted a posthumous promotion to General of the Armies of the United States, legislatively defined to be the highest possible rank in the US Army, more than 175 years after his death. Virginia's Royal Governor, Robert Dinwiddie, appointed Washington a major in the provincial militia in February 1753. In that year the French began expanding their military control into the "Ohio Country", a territory claimed by the British colonies of Virginia and Pennsylvania; these competing claims led to a world war Washington was at the center of its beginning. The Ohio Company was one vehicle through which British investors planned to expand into the territory, opening new settlements and building trading posts for the Indian trade.

Governor Dinwiddie received orders from the British government to warn the French of British claims, sent Major Washington in late 1753 to deliver a letter informing the French of those claims and asking them to leave. Washington met with Tanacharison and other Iroquois leaders allied to Virginia at Logstown to secure their support in case of conflict with the French. Washington delivered the letter to the local French commander. Governor Dinwiddie sent Washington back to the Ohio Country to protect an Ohio Company group building a fort at present-day Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Before he reached the area, a French force drove out the company's crew and began construction of Fort Duquesne. With Mingo allies led by Tanacharison and some of his militia unit ambushed a French scouting party of some 30 men, led by Joseph Coulon de Jumonville; the French responded by attacking and capturing Washington at Fort Necessity in July 1754. He was allowed to return with his troops to Virginia; the experience demonstrated Washington's bravery, initiative and impetuosity.

These events had international consequences. Both France and Britain responded by sending troops to North America in 1755, although war was not formally declared until 1756. In 1755, Washington was the senior Colonial aide to British General Edward Braddock on the ill-fated Braddock Expedition; this was at the time the largest British military expedition ventured into the colonies, was intended to expel the French from the Ohio Country. The French and their Indian allies ambushed the expedition, mowing down over 900 casualties including the mortally wounded Braddock. During what became known as the Battle of the Monongahela, British troops retreated in disarray but Washington rode back and forth across the battlefield, rallying the remnants of the British and Virginian forces to an organized retreat. Governor Dinwiddie rewarded Washington in 1755 with a commission as "Colonel of the Virginia Regiment and Commander in Chief of all forces now raised in the defense of His Majesty's Colony" and gave him the task of defending Virginia's frontier.

The Virginia Regiment was the first full-time American military unit in the colonies. Washington was ordered to "act offensively" as he thought best. In command of a thousand soldiers, Washington was a disciplinarian, he led his men in brutal campaigns against the Indians in the west. Washington's strenuous efforts meant that Virginia's frontier population suffered less than that of other colonies. In 1758, Washington participated in the Forbes Expedition to capture Fort Duquesne, he was embarrassed by a friendly fire episode in which his unit and another British unit thought the other was the French enemy and opened fire, with 14 dead and 26 wounded in the mishap. In the end there was no real fighting for the French abandoned the fort and the British scored a major strategic victory, gaining control of the Ohio Valley. Upon his return to Virginia, Washington resigned his commission in December 1758, did not return to military life until the outbreak of the revolution in 1775. Although Washington never gained the commission in the British army he yearned for, in these years he gained valuable military and leadership skills, received significant public exposure in the colonies and abroad.

He observed British military tactics, gaining a keen insight into their strengths and weaknesses that proved invaluable during the Revolution. He demonstrated his toughness and courage in the most difficult situations, including disasters and retreats, he developed a command presence—given his size, strength and bravery in battle, he appeared to soldiers to be a natural leader and they followed him without question. Washington learned to organize and drill, discipline his companies and regiments. From his observations and conversations with professional officers, he learned the basics of battlefield tactics, as well as a good understanding of problems of organization and logistics