Calgary is a city in the Canadian province of Alberta. It is situated at the confluence of the Bow River and the Elbow River in the south of the province, in an area of foothills and prairie, about 80 km east of the front ranges of the Canadian Rockies; the city anchors the south end of what Statistics Canada defines as the "Calgary–Edmonton Corridor". The city had a population of 1,267,344 in 2018, making it Alberta's largest city and Canada's third-largest municipality. In 2016, Calgary had a metropolitan population of 1,392,609, making it the fourth-largest census metropolitan area in Canada; the economy of Calgary includes activity in the energy, financial services and television, transportation and logistics, manufacturing, aerospace and wellness, tourism sectors. The Calgary CMA is home to the second-highest number of corporate head offices in Canada among the country's 800 largest corporations. In 2015, Calgary had the highest number of millionaires per capita of any major city in Canada.
In 1988, Calgary became the first Canadian city to host the Winter Olympic Games. Calgary has been recognized for its high quality of life. In 2018, The Economist magazine ranked Calgary the fourth-most liveable city in the world in their Global Liveability Ranking. Calgary is classed as a Beta global city. Calgary was named after Calgary on the Isle of Scotland. In turn, the name originates from a compound of kald and gart, similar Old Norse words, meaning "cold" and "garden" used when named by the Vikings who inhabited the Inner Hebrides. Alternatively, the name might be Gaelic Cala ghearraidh, meaning "beach of the meadow", or Gaelic for either "clear running water" or "bay farm"; the indigenous peoples of Southern Alberta referred to the Calgary area as "elbow", in reference to the sharp bend made by the Bow River and the Elbow River. In some cases, the area was named after the reeds that grew along the riverbanks, which were used to fashion bows. In the Blackfoot language, the area was known as Mohkínstsis akápiyoyis, meaning "elbow many houses", reflecting its strong settler presence.
The shorter form of the Blackfoot name, Mohkínstsis meaning "elbow", has been the popular Indigenous term for the Calgary area. In the Nakoda language, the area is known as Wincheesh-pah or Wenchi Ispase, both meaning "elbow". In the Nehiyaw Language, the area was known as Otoskwanik meaning "house at the elbow" or Otoskwunee meaning "elbow". In the Tsuut'ina language, the area is known as Kootsisáw meaning "elbow". In the Slavey language, the area was known as Klincho-tinay-indihay meaning "many horse town", referring to the Calgary Stampede and the city's settler heritage. There have been several attempts to revive the indigenous names of Calgary. In response to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, local post-secondary institutions have adopted "official acknowledgements" of indigenous territory using the Blackfoot name of the City, Mohkínstsis. In 2017, the Stoney Nakoda sent an application to the Government of Alberta, to rename Calgary as Wichispa Oyade meaning "elbow town", however this has been challenged by the Piikani Blackfoot.
The Calgary area was inhabited by pre-Clovis people whose presence has been traced back at least 11,000 years. The area has been inhabited by the Niitsitapi, îyârhe Nakoda, the Tsuut'ina First Nations peoples and Métis Nation, Region 3; as Mayor Naheed Nenshi describes, "There have always been people here. In Biblical times there were people here. For generations beyond number, people have come here to this land, drawn here by the water, they come here to fish. He was the first recorded European to visit the area. John Glenn was the first documented European settler in the Calgary area, in 1873. In 1875, the site became a post of the North-West Mounted Police; the NWMP detachment was assigned to protect the western plains from US whisky traders, to protect the fur trade. Named Fort Brisebois, after NWMP officer Éphrem-A. Brisebois, it was renamed Fort Calgary in 1876 by Colonel James Macleod; when the Canadian Pacific Railway reached the area in 1883, a rail station was constructed, Calgary began to grow into an important commercial and agricultural centre.
Over a century the Canadian Pacific Railway headquarters moved to Calgary from Montreal in 1996. Calgary was incorporated as a town in 1884, elected its first mayor, George Murdoch. In 1894, it was incorporated as "The City of Calgary" in what was the North-West Territories; the Calgary Police Service was established in 1885 and assumed municipal, local duties from the NWMP. The Calgary Fire of 1886 occurred on November 7, 1886. Fourteen buildings were destroyed with losses estimated at $103,200. Although no one was killed or injured, city officials drafted a law requiring all large downtown buildings to be built with Paskapoo sandstone, to prevent this from happening again. After the arrival of the railway, the Dominion Government started leasing grazing land at minimal cost; as a result of this policy, large ranching operations were established in the outlying country near Calgary. A transportation and distribution hub, Calgary became the centre of Canada's cattle marketing and meatpacking industries.
By the late 19th century, the Hud
Supreme Court of Canada
The Supreme Court of Canada is the highest court of Canada, the final court of appeals in the Canadian justice system. The court grants permission to between 40 and 75 litigants each year to appeal decisions rendered by provincial and federal appellate courts, its decisions are the ultimate expression and application of Canadian law and binding upon all lower courts of Canada, except to the extent that they are overridden or otherwise made ineffective by an Act of Parliament or the Act of a provincial legislative assembly pursuant to section 33 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. The creation of the Supreme Court of Canada was provided for by the British North America Act, 1867, renamed in 1982 the Constitution Act, 1867; the first bills for the creation of a federal supreme court, introduced in the Parliament of Canada in 1869 and in 1870, were withdrawn. It was not until 8 April 1875 that a bill was passed providing for the creation of a Supreme Court of Canada. However, prior to 1949, the Supreme Court did not constitute the court of last resort: litigants could appeal to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in London.
As well, some cases could bypass the court and go directly to the Judicial Committee from the provincial courts of appeal. The Supreme Court formally became the court of last resort for criminal appeals in 1933 and for all other appeals in 1949; the last decisions of the Judicial Committee on cases from Canada were made in the mid-1950s, as a result of their being heard in a court of first instance prior to 1949. The increase in the importance of the Court was mirrored by the numbers of its members; the Court was established first with six judges, these were augmented by an additional member in 1927. In 1949, the bench reached its current composition of nine justices. Prior to 1949, most of the appointees to the Court owed their position to political patronage; each judge had strong ties to the party in power at the time of their appointment. In 1973, the appointment of a constitutional law professor Bora Laskin as chief justice represented a major turning point for the Court. In this period, appointees either came from academic backgrounds or were well-respected practitioners with several years experience in appellate courts.
Laskin's federalist and liberal views were shared by Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau, who recommended Laskin's appointment to the Court. The Constitution Act, 1982 expanded the role of the Court in Canadian society by the addition of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, which broadened the scope of judicial review; the evolution from the Dickson court through to the Lamer court witnessed a continuing vigour in the protection of civil liberties. Lamer's criminal law background proved an influence on the number of criminal cases heard by the Court during his time as chief justice. Nonetheless, the Lamer court was more conservative with Charter rights, with only about a 1% success rate for Charter claimants. Lamer was succeeded as chief justice by Beverly McLachlin in January 2000, she is the first woman to hold that position. McLachlin's appointment resulted in a more centrist and unified Court. Dissenting and concurring opinions were fewer than during the Lamer Courts. With the 2005 appointments of Justices Louise Charron and Rosalie Abella, the court became the world's most gender-balanced national high court, four of its nine members being female.
Justice Marie Deschamps' retirement on 7 August 2012 caused the number to fall to three, however the appointment of Suzanne Côté on 1 December 2014 restored the number to four. After serving on the Court for 28 years, 259 days, McLachlin retired in December 2017, her successor as chief justice is Richard Wagner. The structure of the Canadian court system is pyramidal, a broad base being formed by the various provincial and territorial courts whose judges are appointed by the provincial or territorial governments. At the next level are the provinces' and territories' superior courts, where judges are appointed by the federal government. Judgments from the superior courts may be appealed to a still higher level, the provincial or territorial courts of appeal. Several federal courts exist: the Tax Court of Canada, the Federal Court, the Federal Court of Appeal, the Court Martial Appeal Court of Canada. Unlike the provincial superior courts, which exercise inherent or general jurisdiction, the federal courts' jurisdiction is limited by statute.
In all, there are over 1,000 federally appointed judges at various levels across Canada. The Supreme Court of Canada rests at the apex of the judicial pyramid; this institution hears appeals from the provincial courts of last resort the provincial or territorial courts of appeal, the Federal Court of Appeal, although in some matters appeals come straight from the trial courts, as in the case of publication bans and other orders that are otherwise not appealable. In most cases, permission to appeal must first be obtained from the court. Motions for leave to appeal to the Court are heard by a panel of three judges of the Court and a simple majority is determinative. By convention, this panel never explains why it grants or refuses leave in any particular case, but the Court hears cases of national importance or where the case allows the Court to settle an important issue of law. Leave is granted, meaning that for most litigants, provincial courts of appeal are courts of last resort, but leave to appeal is not required for some cases criminal cases and appeals from provincial references.
A final source of cases is the referral power of the federa
Suffrage, political franchise, or franchise is the right to vote in public, political elections. In some languages, in English, the right to vote is called active suffrage, as distinct from passive suffrage, the right to stand for election; the combination of active and passive suffrage is sometimes called full suffrage. Suffrage is conceived in terms of elections for representatives. However, suffrage applies to referenda and initiatives. Suffrage describes not only the legal right to vote, but the practical question of whether a question will be put to a vote; the utility of suffrage is reduced when important questions are decided unilaterally without extensive, full disclosure and public review. In most democracies, eligible voters can vote in elections of representatives. Voting on issues by referendum may be available. For example, in Switzerland this is permitted at all levels of government. In the United States, some states such as California and Washington have exercised their shared sovereignty to offer citizens the opportunity to write and vote on referendums and initiatives.
Referendums in the United Kingdom are rare. Suffrage is granted to qualifying citizens. What constitutes a qualifying citizen depends on the government's decision. Resident non-citizens can vote in some countries, which may be restricted to citizens of linked countries or to certain offices or questions; the word suffrage comes from Latin suffragium, meaning "vote", "political support", the right to vote. The etymology of the Latin word is uncertain, with some sources citing Latin suffragari "lend support, vote for someone", from sub "under" + fragor "crash, shouts", related to frangere "to break". Other sources say; some etymologists think the word may be related to suffrago and may have meant an ankle bone or knuckle bone. Universal suffrage consists of the right to vote without restriction due to sex, social status, education level, or wealth, it does not extend the right to vote to all residents of a region. The short-lived Corsican Republic was the first country to grant limited universal suffrage to all citizens over the age of 25.
In 1819 60-80,000 men and women from 30 miles around Manchester assembled in the city's St. Peter's Square to protest their lack of any representation in the Houses of Parliament. Historian Robert Poole has called the Peterloo Massacre one of the defining moments of its age.. The film Peterloo featured; this was followed by other experiments in the Paris Commune of 1871 and the island republic of Franceville. The 1840 constitution of the Kingdom of Hawai'i granted universal suffrage to all male and female adults. In 1893, when the Kingdom of Hawai'i was overthrown in a coup, New Zealand became the only independent country to practice universal suffrage, the Freedom in the World index lists New Zealand as the only free country in the world in 1893. Women's suffrage is, by definition, the right of women to vote; this was the goal of the suffragists, who believed in using legal means and the suffragettes, who used extremist measures. Short-lived suffrage equity was drafted into provisions of the State of New Jersey's first, 1776 Constitution, which extended the Right to Vote to unwed female landholders & black land owners.
"IV. That all inhabitants of this Colony, of full age, who are worth fifty pounds proclamation money, clear estate in the same, have resided within the county in which they claim a vote for twelve months preceding the election, shall be entitled to vote for Representatives in Council and Assembly. New Jersey 1776 However, the document did not specify an Amendment procedure, the provision was subsequently replaced in 1844 by the adoption of the succeeding constitution, which reverted to "all white male" suffrage restrictions. Although the Kingdom of Hawai'i granted female suffrage in 1840, the right was rescinded in 1852. Limited voting rights were gained by some women in Sweden and some western U. S. states in the 1860s. In 1893, the British colony of New Zealand became the first self-governing nation to extend the right to vote to all adult women. In 1894 the women of South Australia achieved the right to both stand for Parliament; the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland in the Russian Empire was the first nation to allow all women to both vote and run for parliament.
Those against the women's suffrage movement made public organizations to put down the political movement, with the main argument being that a woman's place was in the home, not polls. Political cartoons and public outrage over women's rights increased as the opposition to suffrage worked day and night to organize legitimate groups campaigning against women's voting rights; the Massachusetts Association Opposed to the Further Extension of Suffrage to Women was one organization that came out of the 1880's to put down the voting efforts. Many anti-suffrage propaganda poked fun at the idea of women in politics. Political cartoons displayed the most sentiment by portraying the issue of women's suffrage to be swapped with men's lives; some mocked the popular suf
Chatsworth is a township in south-western Ontario, Canada, in Grey County, located at the headwaters of the Styx River, the Saugeen River, the Sauble River, the Bighead River, the Spey River, the old Sydenham River. The current township was formed in late year 2000 with the amalgamation of Holland Township, Sullivan Township, the village of Chatsworth; the first white settlers arrived in this area in the early 19th century and a significant amount of settlement was underway in mid-to-late 1800s. The township is led by a municipal government containing a Mayor, a Deputy Mayor and three Council Members; the current government is Bob Pringle as Mayor. The next municipal election is October 2018 as part of the 2018 Ontario Municipal Elections. Canadian suffragette and activist Nellie McClung was born in the town of Chatsworth; the Sullivan Township area has a large Amish population. In addition to the town of Chatsworth itself, the township comprises the communities of Arnott, Desboro, Glascott, Harkaway, Hemstock Mill, Holland Centre, Keward, Lily Oak, Lueck Mill, Massie, Mount Pleasant, Scone, Walters Falls, Williams Lake, Williamsford.
Arnott's first post office opened on January 4, 1868. Arnott's location has not been shown on road maps since 1976 when Highway 10 was surveyed and rerouted. Arnott had a population of 70 in 1864; the hamlet was called "Murray's Corner" but was renamed "Arnott" after a Francis Arnott, given a grant to settle the area. The post office in Berkeley was established in 1853 when the settlement was called "Holland", it was renamed "Berkeley" in 1857. The post office housed the general store which operated under various proprietors until 1974 when it was phased out of operation. Inside the township of Chatsworth sits the village of Chatsworth, Ontario where Highways 6 and 10 meet and continue together to Owen Sound. Chatsworth was settled in 1842. Chatsworth had a weekly newspaper called "Chatsworth News" which ran from 1885 to 1935, it had a competitor called "Chatsworth Banner", weekly and ran from 1896 to 1907. Chatsworth featured a hockey arena which closed on 30 September 2017; the half-century-old Chatsworth Community Centre closed for good on 30 September 2017 Chatsworth Township Mayor Bob Pringle said the costs to deal with the building's structural issues, which were outlined in an April 2017 report by GM BluePlan engineers, to bring the arena up to today's standards are not financially feasible for the township.
He said. "The engineer's report pointed out some deficiencies. And council with staff had to find some costs and come to some hard decisions and recommendations; the decision was made. It is home to the local Chatsworth Rebels; the village of Desboro saw its first building in 1856. It was a log school house; the area was called Brown's Corners. At some point its name was changed to Donnybrook and to Desborough after a village in central England; the first house and store were built in 1866 by George Smith. The Desboro hotel was built in 1869 and was one of the only rural taverns still operating in the township before it closed in 2011; the town hall was built in 1875 and enlarged to a two-storey building in 1950. Desboro is about 13 kilometres west of Williamsford. Desboro features a modern hockey arena, built in 1956 and has since been renovated; the community grounds contains two baseball diamonds. The village of Dornoch was settled by Bartholomew Griffin in 1841 when he encountered a crossroads that appealed to him.
The area was called "Griffin's Corners" after Griffin started the first general store. In the late 1850s the village was served by a stage coach, running between Durham and Chatsworth. Around the turn of the century, the name was changed to Dornoch after the village in northern Scotland; the community centre still serves Dornoch. Dornoch is situated between Williamsford and Durham on Highway 6 and is 33 kilometers south of Owen Sound; the Harkaway post office was established on May 1, 1875. It was closed in 1913 after rural mail delivery started in the area. Harkaway is 10 kilometres east of Holland Centre. In the 1870s, local farmers got together under the leadership of Alfred Williams and got a railway station built. Williams built a general store. With well-travelled roads and a railway station, Holland Centre was well established as a lumber town, it was named'Williamsford' after the prominent resident, but with another village bearing the same name only a few miles away, it was changed to'Holland Centre' because of its location at the centre of Holland Township.
The village is about 10 kilometres southeast of Chatsworth. Holland Centre features a baseball diamond; the diamond is home to the Hawks, men's and ladies' Slow pitch. There is a hardball-like diamond on the other side; the Holland Center Hall is just beside the diamond. Keady saw its first settlers in the 1850s; the original general store was built in the late 1860s and operated for 100 years before being converted into a residence. Keady is well known in the region for its popular farmers market. Lily Oak is a farming community; the post office was closed in 1914 when rural mail deli
Emily Murphy was a Canadian women's rights activist and author. In 1916, she became the first female magistrate in Canada, in the British Empire, she is best known for her contributions to Canadian feminism to the question of whether women were "persons" under Canadian law. Murphy is known as one of "The Famous Five" —a group of Canadian women's rights activists that included Henrietta Muir Edwards, Nellie McClung, Louise McKinney and Irene Parlby. In 1927, the women launched the "Persons Case," contending that women could be "qualified persons" eligible to sit in the Senate; the Supreme Court of Canada ruled. However, upon appeal to the Judicial Committee of the British Privy Council, the court of last resort for Canada at that time, the women won their case. However, there has been some criticism of her work for her role in the Sexual Sterilization Act of Alberta and her allegations that a ring of immigrants from other countries China, would corrupt the white race by getting Canadians hooked on drugs.
In her book The Black Candle, she wrote: "It is hardly credible that the average Chinese peddler has any definite idea in his mind of bringing about the downfall of the white race, his swaying motive being that of greed, but in the hands of his superiors, he may become a powerful instrument to that end." Emily Murphy was born in Cookstown, the third child of Isaac and Emily Ferguson. Isaac Ferguson was a successful property owner; as a child, Murphy joined her two older brothers Thomas and Gowan in their adventures. Murphy grew up under the influence of her maternal grandfather, Ogle R. Gowan, a politician who founded a local branch of the Orange Order in 1830, two uncles, one a Supreme Court justice and the other a senator, her brother became a lawyer and another member of the Supreme Court. Another uncle was Thomas Roberts Ferguson, an MP, she was related to James Robert Gowan, a lawyer and senator. Murphy benefited from parents, she attended Bishop Strachan School, an exclusive Anglican private school for girls in Toronto where, through a friend, she met her future husband Arthur Murphy, 11 years her senior.
In 1887, they married, subsequently had four daughters: Madeleine, Evelyn and Kathleen. Doris died. After Doris' death, the family decided to try a new setting and moved west to Swan River, Manitoba, in 1903 and to Edmonton, Alberta, in 1907. While Arthur was working as an Anglican priest, Murphy explored her new surroundings and became aware of the poverty that existed. At the age of 40, when her children became independent and began their separate lives, Murphy began to organize women's groups where the isolated housewives could meet and discuss ideas and plan group projects. In addition to these organizations, Murphy began to speak and frankly about the disadvantaged and the poor living conditions that surrounded their society, her strong interest in the rights and protection of women and children intensified when she was made aware of an unjust experience of an Albertan woman whose husband sold the family farm. At that time, property laws did not leave the wife with any legal recourse; this case motivated Murphy to create a campaign.
With the support of many rural women, Murphy began to pressure the Alberta government to allow women to retain the rights of their land. In 1916, Murphy persuaded the Alberta legislature to pass the Dower Act that would allow a woman legal rights to one third of her husband's property. Murphy's reputation as a women's rights activist was established by this first political victory. Murphy's success in the fight for the Dower Act, along with her work through the Local Council of Women and her increasing awareness of women's rights, influenced her request for a female magistrate in the women's court. In 1916, along with a group of women, attempted to observe a trial for women who were labelled prostitutes and were arrested for "questionable" circumstances; the women were asked to leave the courtroom on the claims that the statement was not "fit for mixed company". This outcome was unacceptable to Murphy and she protested to the provincial Attorney General. "If the evidence is not fit to be heard in mixed company," she argued, "then the government must set up a special court presided over by women, to try other women".
Murphy's request was approved and she became the first woman police magistrate for the British Empire. Her appointment as a judge, became the cause for her greatest adversity concerning women within the law. In her first case in Alberta on July 1, 1916, she found the prisoner guilty; the prisoner's lawyer called into question her right to pass sentence since she was not a person. The Provincial Supreme Court denied the appeal. In 1917, she headed the battle to have women declared as "persons" in Canada, qualified to serve in the Senate. Lawyer, Eardley Jackson, challenged her position as judge because women were not considered "persons" under the British North America Act 1867; this understanding was based on a British common law ruling of 1876, which stated, "women were eligible for pains and penalties, but not rights and privileges."In 1919, she presided over the inaugural conference of the Federated Women's Institutes of Canada, which passed a resolution calling for a female sen
Manitou is an unincorporated urban community in the Municipality of Pembina within the Canadian province of Manitoba that held town status prior to January 1, 2015. The Boundary Trail Railway is based in Manitou, it had a population of 775 at the time of the 2001 census. Manitou has the Western Canadian; the community's motto is "More Than A Small Town". The community is shaped like a right-angle triangle with PTH 3 forming the base, PR 244 forming the vertical part, Front Avenue forming the hypotenuse. Manitou is surrounded by Mennonite communities and is right next to the St. Leon Wind Farm, the largest wind farm in Manitoba and one of the largest in Canada. In 2007, Winnipeg folk musician Christine Fellows recorded parts of her album Nevertheless in the Manitou Opera House, a local heritage landmark known for its unique acoustics. Manitou is known for having been the home of social activist Nellie McClung. Two houses Nellie lived in were renovated and relocated to the town in 2017. Robert Ironside operated businesses in the community starting in the 1880s.
Thelma Forbes, a politician, was raised in Manitou. Town of Manitou Community Profile Map of Manitou at Statcan