Dino Paul Crocetti, known famously as Dean Martin, was an American actor and singer. One of the most popular and enduring American entertainers of the mid-20th century, Martin was nicknamed "The King of Cool" for his effortless charisma and self-assurance, he and Jerry Lewis formed the immensely popular comedy duo Martin and Lewis, with Martin serving as the straight man to Lewis' slapstick hijinks. A member of the "Rat Pack", Martin went on to become a star of concert stages, audio recordings, motion pictures and television. Martin was the host of the variety programs The Dean Martin Show and The Dean Martin Celebrity Roasts, his relaxed, crooning voice earned him dozens of hit singles, including his signature songs "Memories Are Made of This", "That's Amore", "Everybody Loves Somebody", "You're Nobody Till Somebody Loves You", "Sway", "Ain't That a Kick in the Head?", "Volare". Martin was born Dino Paul Crocetti on June 7, 1917, in Steubenville, the son of Italian father Gaetano Alfonso Crocetti and Italian-American mother Angela Crocetti.
His parents were married in 1914. His father, a barber, was from Montesilvano and his mother's origins are believed to be from Abruzzo, although they are not known. Martin had an older brother named William Alfonso Crocetti, his first language was Italian and he did not speak English until he started school at the age of five. He attended Grant Elementary School in Steubenville; as a teenager, he played the drums as a hobby. He dropped out of Steubenville High School in the tenth grade because he thought he was smarter than his teachers, he bootlegged liquor, worked in a steel mill, served as a croupier at a speakeasy and a blackjack dealer, was a welterweight boxer. At 15, he was a boxer who billed himself as "Kid Crochet", his prizefighting earned him a broken nose, a scarred lip, many broken knuckles, a bruised body. Of his 12 bouts, he said that he "won all but 11". For a time, he shared a New York City apartment with Sonny King, starting in show business and had little money; the two charged people to watch them bare-knuckle box each other in their apartment, fighting until one was knocked out.
Martin knocked out King in the first round of an amateur boxing match. Martin gave up boxing to work as a roulette stickman and croupier in an illegal casino behind a tobacco shop, where he had started as a stock boy. At the same time, he sang with local bands, calling himself "Dino Martini", he got his break working for the Ernie McKay Orchestra. He sang among others. In the early 1940s, he started singing for bandleader Sammy Watkins, who suggested he change his name to Dean Martin. In October 1941, Martin married Elizabeth "Betty" Anne McDonald in Cleveland and the couple had an apartment in Cleveland Heights for a while, they had four children before the marriage ended in 1949. Martin worked for various bands throughout the early 1940s on looks and personality until he developed his own singing style, he flopped at the Riobamba nightclub in New York, when he followed Frank Sinatra in 1943. Martin attracted the attention of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and Columbia Pictures, but a Hollywood contract was not forthcoming.
He met comic Jerry Lewis at the Glass Hat Club in New York. Martin and Lewis formed a fast friendship which led to their participation in each other's acts and the formation of a music-comedy team. Martin and Lewis's debut together occurred at Atlantic City's 500 Club on July 24, 1946, they were not well received; the owner, Skinny D'Amato, warned them that if they did not come up with a better act for their second show that night, they would be fired. Huddling in the alley behind the club and Martin agreed to "go for broke", they divided their act between songs, ad-libbed material. Martin sang and Lewis dressed as a busboy, dropping plates and making a shambles of Martin's performance and the club's decorum until Lewis was chased from the room as Martin pelted him with breadrolls, they did slapstick, reeled off old vaudeville jokes, did whatever else popped into their heads. The audience laughed; this success led to a series of well-paying engagements on the Eastern seaboard, culminating in a run at New York's Copacabana.
The act consisted of Lewis interrupting and heckling Martin while he was trying to sing, with the two chasing each other around the stage. The secret, both said, is that they played to each other; the team made its TV debut on the first broadcast of CBS-TV network's The Ed Sullivan Show on June 20, 1948, with composers Rodgers and Hammerstein appearing. Hoping to improve their act, the two hired young comedy writers Norman Lear and Ed Simmons to write their bits. With the assistance of both Lear and Simmons, the two would take their act beyond nightclubs. A radio series began in 1949, the year Martin and Lewis signed with Paramount producer Hal B. Wallis as comedy relief for the movie My Friend Irma, their agent, Abby Greshler, negotiated one of Hollywood's best deals: although they received only $75,000 between them for their films with Wallis and Lewis were free to do one outside film a year, which they would co-produce through their own York Productions. They controlled their club, record and television appearances, through these they earned millions of dollars.
In Dean & Me, Lewis calls Mar
Nat King Cole
Nathaniel Adams Coles, known professionally as Nat King Cole, was an American jazz pianist and vocalist. He recorded over one hundred songs, his trio was the model for small jazz ensembles. Cole acted in films and on television and performed on Broadway, he was the first African American man to host an American television series. Nathaniel Adams Coles was born in Montgomery, Alabama, on March 17, 1919, he had three brothers: Eddie and Freddy, a half-sister, Joyce Coles. Each of the Cole brothers pursued careers in music; when Nat King Cole was four years old, the family moved to Chicago, where his father, Edward Coles, became a Baptist minister. Cole learned to play the organ from Perlina Coles, the church organist, his first performance was "Yes! We Have No Bananas" at the age of four, he began formal lessons at 12, learning jazz and classical music on piano "from Johann Sebastian Bach to Sergei Rachmaninoff."The Cole family moved to the Bronzeville neighborhood of Chicago, where he attended Wendell Phillips Academy High School, the school Sam Cooke attended a few years later.
He participated in Walter Dyett's music program at DuSable High School. He would sneak out of the house to visit clubs, sitting outside to hear Louis Armstrong, Earl Hines, Jimmie Noone; when he was fifteen, Cole dropped out of high school to pursue a music career. After his brother Eddie, a bassist, came home from touring with Noble Sissle, they formed a sextet and recorded two singles for Decca in 1936 as Eddie Cole's Swingsters, they performed in a revival of the musical Shuffle Along. Nat Cole went on tour with the musical. In 1937, he married Nadine Robinson, a member of the cast. After the show ended in Los Angeles and Nadine settled there while he looked for work, he led a big band found work playing piano in nightclubs. When a club owner asked him to form a band, he hired bassist Wesley Prince and guitarist Oscar Moore, they called themselves the King Cole Swingsters after the nursery rhyme in which "Old King Cole was a merry old soul." They changed their name to the King Cole Trio before making radio transcriptions and recording for small labels.
Cole recorded "Sweet Lorraine" in 1940, it became his first hit. According to legend, his career as a vocalist started when a drunken bar patron demanded that he sing the song. Cole said that this fabricated story sounded good, so he didn't argue with it. In fact there was a customer one night who demanded that he sing, but because it was a song Cole didn't know, he sang "Sweet Lorraine" instead; as people heard Cole's vocal talent, they requested more vocal songs, he obliged. In 1941 the trio recorded "That Ain't Right" for Decca, followed the next year by "All for You" for Excelsior, they recorded "I'm Lost", a song written by Otis René, the owner of Excelsior. During the late 1930s the trio recorded radio transcriptions for Capitol, they performed on the radio programs Swing Soiree, Old Gold, The Chesterfield Supper Club, Kraft Music Hall, The Orson Welles Almanac. Cole appeared in the first Jazz at the Philharmonic concerts in 1944, he was credited on Mercury as "Shorty Nadine", a derivative of his wife's name, because he had an exclusive contract with Capitol since signing with the label the year before.
He recorded with Lester Young. In 1946 the trio broadcast a fifteen-minute radio program; this was the first radio program to be sponsored by a black musician. Cole began recording and performing pop-oriented material in which he was accompanied by a string orchestra, his stature as a popular star was cemented during this period by hits such as "All for You", "The Christmas Song", " Route 66", " For Sentimental Reasons", "There! I've Said It Again", "Nature Boy", "Frosty The Snowman", "Mona Lisa", "Orange Colored Sky", "Too Young",On November 5, 1956, The Nat'King' Cole Show debuted on NBC; the variety program was one of the first hosted by an African American, The program started at a length of fifteen-minutes but was increased to a half-hour in July 1957. Rheingold Beer was a regional sponsor; the show was in trouble financially despite efforts by NBC, Harry Belafonte, Tony Bennett, Ella Fitzgerald, Eartha Kitt, Frankie Laine, Peggy Lee, Mel Tormé. Cole decided to end the program; the last episode aired on December 17, 1957.
Commenting on the lack of sponsorship, Cole said shortly after its demise, "Madison Avenue is afraid of the dark."Throughout the 1950s, Cole continued to record hits that sold millions throughout the world, such as "Smile", "Pretend", "A Blossom Fell", "If I May". His pop hits were collaborations with Nelson Riddle, Gordon Jenkins, Ralph Carmichael. Riddle arranged several of Cole's 1950s albums, including Nat King Cole Sings for Two in Love, his first 10-inch LP. In 1955, "Darling, Je Vous Aime Beaucoup" reached number 7 on the Billboard chart. Love Is the Thing went to number one in April 1957 remained his only number one album. In 1959 he received a Grammy Award for Best Performance By a "Top 40" Artist for "Midnight Flyer". In 1958 Cole went to Havana, Cuba, to record Cole Español, an album sung in Spanish, it was so popular in Latin America and the U. S. that it was followed by two more Spanish-language albums: A Mis Amigos and More Cole Español. After the change in musical tastes, Cole's ballads appealed little to young listeners, despite a successful attempt at rock and roll with "Send for Me", which peaked at number 6 on the pop chart.
Like Dean Martin, Frank Sinatra, Tony Bennet
Alton Glenn Miller was an American big-band trombonist, arranger and bandleader in the swing era. He was the best-selling recording artist from leading one of the best-known big bands. Miller's recordings include "In the Mood", "Moonlight Serenade", "Pennsylvania 6-5000", "Chattanooga Choo Choo", "A String of Pearls", "At Last", " Kalamazoo", "American Patrol", "Tuxedo Junction", "Elmer's Tune", "Little Brown Jug". In just four years Glenn Miller scored 16 number-one records and 69 top ten hits—more than Elvis Presley and the Beatles did in their careers. While he was traveling to entertain U. S. troops in France during World War II, Miller's aircraft disappeared in bad weather over the English Channel. The son of Mattie Lou and Lewis Elmer Miller, Glenn Miller was born in Iowa, he attended grade school in North Platte in western Nebraska. In 1915, his family moved to Missouri. Around this time, he had made enough money from milking cows to buy his first trombone and played in the town orchestra.
He played cornet and mandolin, but he switched to trombone by 1916. In 1918 the Miller family moved again, this time to Fort Morgan, where he went to high school. In the fall of 1919 he joined the high-school football team, which won the Northern Colorado American Football Conference in 1920, he was named Best Left End in Colorado. During his senior year he became interested in "dance band music", he was so taken. By the time he graduated from high school in 1921 he had decided to become a professional musician. In 1923 Miller entered the University of Colorado in Boulder, he spent most of his time away from school, attending auditions and playing any gigs he could get, including with Boyd Senter's band in Denver. After failing three out of five classes, he dropped out of school to pursue a career in music, he studied the Schillinger System with Joseph Schillinger, under whose tutelage he composed what became his signature theme, "Moonlight Serenade". In 1926 Miller toured with several groups, landing a good spot in Ben Pollack's group in Los Angeles.
He played for Victor Young, which allowed him to be mentored by other professional musicians. In the beginning he was the main trombone soloist of the band, but when Jack Teagarden joined Pollack's band in 1928, Miller found that his solos were cut drastically. He realized that his future was in composing, he had a songbook published in Chicago in 1928 entitled Glenn Miller's 125 Jazz Breaks for Trombone by the Melrose Brothers. During his time with Pollack, he wrote several arrangements, he wrote his first composition, "Room 1411", with Benny Goodman, Brunswick Records released it as a 78 under the name "Benny Goodman's Boys". In 1928, when the band arrived in New York City, he sent for and married his college sweetheart, Helen Burger, he was a member of Red Nichols's orchestra in 1930, because of Nichols, he played in the pit bands of two Broadway shows, Strike Up the Band and Girl Crazy. The band included Gene Krupa. During the late 1920s and early 1930s Miller worked as a freelance trombonist in several bands.
On a March 21, 1928 Victor Records session he played alongside Tommy Dorsey, Benny Goodman, Joe Venuti in the All-Star Orchestra directed by Nat Shilkret. He arranged and played trombone on several significant Dorsey Brothers sessions for OKeh Records, including "The Spell of the Blues", "Let's Do It", "My Kinda Love", all with Bing Crosby on vocals. On November 14, 1929, vocalist Red McKenzie hired Miller to play on two records: "Hello, Lola" and "If I Could Be With You One Hour Tonight". Beside Miller were saxophonist Coleman Hawkins, clarinetist Pee Wee Russell, guitarist Eddie Condon, drummer Gene Krupa. In the early-to-mid-1930s, Miller worked as a trombonist and composer for The Dorsey Brothers, first when they were a Brunswick studio group and when they formed an ill-fated orchestra. Miller composed the songs "Annie's Cousin Fanny", "Dese Dem Dose", "Harlem Chapel Chimes", "Tomorrow's Another Day" for the Dorsey Brothers Band in 1934 and 1935. In 1935, he assembled an American orchestra for British bandleader Ray Noble, developing the arrangement of lead clarinet over four saxophones that became a characteristic of his big band.
Members of the Noble band included Claude Thornhill, Bud Freeman, Charlie Spivak. Miller made his first movie appearance in The Big Broadcast of 1936 as a member of the Ray Noble Orchestra performing "Why Stars Come Out at Night"; the film included performances by Dorothy Dandridge and the Nicholas Brothers, who would appear with Miller again in two movies for Twentieth Century Fox in 1941 and 1942. In 1937, Miller formed his first band. After failing to distinguish itself from the many bands of the time, it broke up after its last show at the Ritz Ballroom in Bridgeport, Connecticut on January 2, 1938. Benny Goodman said in 1976: In late 1937, before his band became popular, we were both playing in Dallas. Glenn came to see me, he asked, "What do you do? How do you make it?" I said, "Glenn. You just stay with it." Discouraged, Miller returned to New York. He realized that he needed to develop a unique sound, decided to make the clarinet play a melodic line with a tenor saxophone holding the same note, while three other saxophones harmonized within a single octave.
George T. Simon discovered. Miller hired Schwartz, but instead had him play lead clarinet. According to Simon, "Willie's tone and way of playing provided a fullness and richness so distinctive that none of the
Ella Jane Fitzgerald was an American jazz singer sometimes referred to as the First Lady of Song, Queen of Jazz, Lady Ella. She was noted for her purity of tone, impeccable diction, intonation, a "horn-like" improvisational ability in her scat singing. After a tumultuous adolescence, Fitzgerald found stability in musical success with the Chick Webb Orchestra, performing across the country but most associated with the Savoy Ballroom in Harlem, her rendition of the nursery rhyme "A-Tisket, A-Tasket" helped boost both her and Webb to national fame. After taking over the band when Webb died, Fitzgerald left it behind in 1942 to start her solo career, her manager was Moe Gale, co-founder of the Savoy, until she turned the rest of her career over to Norman Granz, who founded Verve Records to produce new records by Fitzgerald. With Verve she recorded some of her more noted works her interpretations of the Great American Songbook. While Fitzgerald appeared in movies and as a guest on popular television shows in the second half of the twentieth century, her musical collaborations with Louis Armstrong, Duke Ellington, The Ink Spots were some of her most notable acts outside of her solo career.
These partnerships produced some of her best-known songs such as "Dream a Little Dream of Me", "Cheek to Cheek", "Into Each Life Some Rain Must Fall", "It Don't Mean a Thing". In 1993, she ended her nearly 60-year career with her last public performance. Three years she died at the age of 79 after years of declining health, her accolades included fourteen Grammy Awards, the National Medal of Arts, the Presidential Medal of Freedom. Fitzgerald was born on April 1917, in Newport News, Virginia, she was the daughter of Temperance "Tempie" Henry. Her parents lived together for at least two and a half years after she was born. In the early 1920s, Fitzgerald's mother and her new partner, a Portuguese immigrant named Joseph Da Silva, moved to Yonkers, in Westchester County, New York, her half-sister, Frances Da Silva, was born in 1923. By 1925, Fitzgerald and her family had moved to a poor Italian area, she began her formal education at the age of six and was an outstanding student, moving through a variety of schools before attending Benjamin Franklin Junior High School in 1929.
Starting in third grade, Fitzgerald admired Earl Snakehips Tucker. She performed for her peers on the way at lunchtime, she and her family were Methodists and were active in the Bethany African Methodist Episcopal Church, where she attended worship services, Bible study, Sunday school. The church provided Fitzgerald with her earliest experiences in music. Fitzgerald listened to jazz recordings by Louis Armstrong, Bing Crosby, The Boswell Sisters, she idolized the Boswell Sisters' lead singer Connee Boswell saying, "My mother brought home one of her records, I fell in love with it... I tried so hard to sound just like her."In 1932, when Fitzgerald was fifteen, her mother died from injuries received in a car accident. Her stepfather took care of her until April 1933; this swift change in her circumstances, reinforced by what Fitzgerald biographer Stuart Nicholson describes as rumors of "ill treatment" by her stepfather, leaves him to speculate that Da Silva might have abused her. Fitzgerald began skipping school, her grades suffered.
She worked as a lookout with a Mafia-affiliated numbers runner. She never talked publicly about this time in her life; when the authorities caught up with her, she was placed in the Colored Orphan Asylum in Riverdale in the Bronx. When the orphanage proved too crowded, she was moved to the New York Training School for Girls, a state reformatory school in Hudson, New York. While she seems to have survived during 1933 and 1934 in part from singing on the streets of Harlem, Fitzgerald made her most important debut at age 17 on November 21, 1934, in one of the earliest Amateur Nights at the Apollo Theater, she had intended to go on stage and dance, but she was intimidated by a local dance duo called the Edwards Sisters and opted to sing instead. Performing in the style of Connee Boswell, she sang "Judy" and "The Object of My Affection" and won first prize, she won the chance to perform at the Apollo for a week but because of her disheveled appearance, the theater never gave her that part of her prize.
In January 1935, Fitzgerald won the chance to perform for a week with the Tiny Bradshaw band at the Harlem Opera House. She was introduced to drummer and bandleader Chick Webb, who had asked his signed singer Charlie Linton to help find him a female singer. Although Webb was "reluctant to sign her...because she was gawky and unkempt, a'diamond in the rough,'" he offered her the opportunity to test with his band when they played a dance at Yale University. Met with approval by both audiences and her fellow musicians, Fitzgerald was asked to join Webb's orchestra and gained acclaim as part of the group's performances at Harlem's Savoy Ballroom. Fitzgerald recorded several hit songs, including "Love and Kisses" and " You'll Have to Swing It", but it was her 1938 version of the nursery rhyme, "A-Tisket, A-Tasket", a song she co-wrote, that brought her public acclaim. "A-Tisket, A-Tasket" became a major hit on the radio and was one of the biggest-selling records of the decade. Webb died of spinal tuberculosis on June 16, 1939, his band was renamed Ella and Her Famous Orchestra with Fitzgerald taking on the role of bandleader.
She recorded nearly 150 songs with Webb's orchestra between 1935 and 1942. In The New York Times obituary o
Oradell, New Jersey
Oradell is a borough in Bergen County, New Jersey, United States. At the 2010 United States Census, the borough's population was 7,978, reflecting a decline of 69 from the 8,047 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 23 from the 8,024 counted in the 1990 Census; the borough includes a dam on the Hackensack River. Oradell is a suburb of New York City, located 15 miles northwest of Midtown Manhattan. Oradell was formed on March 8, 1894, as the borough of Delford, from portions of Harrington Township, Midland Township and Palisades Township; the borough was formed during the "Boroughitis" phenomenon sweeping through Bergen County, in which 26 boroughs were formed in the county in 1894 alone. The name "Delford" was a portmanteau created from the names of two communities within the new borough: Oradell and New Milford; the Hotel Delford had been constructed in 1870 after the construction of the first railroad to reach the area. On November 12, 1920, the borough's name was changed to "Oradell", based on the results of a referendum held ten days earlier.
Oradell derives its name from "ora" and "dell". New Jersey Monthly magazine ranked Oradell as the 68th best place to live in New Jersey in its 2010 rankings of the "Top Towns" in the state; this ranking makes the borough the seventh best place to live in Bergen County. According to the United States Census Bureau, Oradell borough had a total area of 2.577 square miles, including 2.424 square miles of land and 0.153 square miles of water. Unincorporated communities and place names located or within the borough include Delford; the borough borders Dumont, Haworth, New Milford and River Edge. Oradell Reservoir was formed by the Oradell Reservoir Dam placed on the Hackensack River, started in 1921 and finished in 1923; the reservoir is fed by the Pascack Dwars Kill in addition to the Hackensack River. The Dam has reduced the amount of flooding in the eastern part of Oradell caused by the Hackensack River, though it resulted in the loss of flora and fauna that depended on the fresh water that flowed down the river.
Fed by rain from Hurricane Irene in August 2011, the water level in the reservoir was two feet above the top of the dam, allowing billions of gallons of water to flow over the dam and exacerbating flooding conditions in Oradell and New Milford. The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Oradell has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 7,978 people, 2,749 households, 2,292.666 families residing in the borough. The population density was 3,291.5 per square mile. There were 2,831 housing units at an average density of 1,168.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 85.79% White, 0.68% Black or African American, 0.08% Native American, 11.26% Asian, 0.00% Pacific Islander, 0.80% from other races, 1.40% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.98% of the population. There were 2,749 households out of which 39.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 73.5% were married couples living together, 7.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 16.6% were non-families.
14.8% of all households were made up of individuals, 7.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.87 and the average family size was 3.20. In the borough, the population was spread out with 26.1% under the age of 18, 5.6% from 18 to 24, 19.8% from 25 to 44, 31.9% from 45 to 64, 16.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 44.1 years. For every 100 females there were 91.6 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 89.2 males. The Census Bureau's 2006-2010 American Community Survey showed that median household income was $123,750 and the median family income was $147,139. Males had a median income of $91,332 versus $68,208 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $39,520. About 1.4% of families and 1.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 0.0% of those under age 18 and 4.2% of those age 65 or over. Same-sex couples headed 14 households in 2010, an increase from the 13 counted in 2000; as of the 2000 United States Census, there were 8,047 people, 2,789 households and 2,300 families residing in the borough.
The population density was 3,319.0 per square mile. There were 2,833 housing units at an average density of 1,168.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 90.07% White, 0.48% African American, 0.04% Native American, 8.09% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.32% from other races, 0.98% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.09% of the population.3.1% of Oradell's residents identified themselves as being of Armenian American ancestry. This was the 11th highest percentage of Armenian American people in any place in the United States with 1,000 or more residents identifying their ancestry. There were 2,789 households of which 38.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 73.9% were married couples living together, 6.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 17.5% were non-families. 15.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.83 and the average family size w
United States Army
The United States Army is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the seven uniformed services of the United States, is designated as the Army of the United States in the United States Constitution; as the oldest and most senior branch of the U. S. military in order of precedence, the modern U. S. Army has its roots in the Continental Army, formed to fight the American Revolutionary War —before the United States of America was established as a country. After the Revolutionary War, the Congress of the Confederation created the United States Army on 3 June 1784 to replace the disbanded Continental Army; the United States Army considers itself descended from the Continental Army, dates its institutional inception from the origin of that armed force in 1775. As a uniformed military service, the U. S. Army is part of the Department of the Army, one of the three military departments of the Department of Defense; the U. S. Army is headed by a civilian senior appointed civil servant, the Secretary of the Army and by a chief military officer, the Chief of Staff of the Army, a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
It is the largest military branch, in the fiscal year 2017, the projected end strength for the Regular Army was 476,000 soldiers. S. Army was 1,018,000 soldiers; as a branch of the armed forces, the mission of the U. S. Army is "to fight and win our Nation's wars, by providing prompt, land dominance, across the full range of military operations and the spectrum of conflict, in support of combatant commanders"; the branch participates in conflicts worldwide and is the major ground-based offensive and defensive force of the United States. The United States Army serves as the land-based branch of the U. S. Armed Forces. Section 3062 of Title 10, U. S. Code defines the purpose of the army as: Preserving the peace and security and providing for the defense of the United States, the Commonwealths and possessions and any areas occupied by the United States Supporting the national policies Implementing the national objectives Overcoming any nations responsible for aggressive acts that imperil the peace and security of the United StatesIn 2018, the Army Strategy 2018 articulated an eight-point addendum to the Army Vision for 2028.
While the Army Mission remains constant, the Army Strategy builds upon the Army's Brigade Modernization by adding focus to Corps and Division-level echelons. Modernization, reform for high-intensity conflict, Joint multi-domain operations are added to the strategy, to be completed by 2028; the Continental Army was created on 14 June 1775 by the Second Continental Congress as a unified army for the colonies to fight Great Britain, with George Washington appointed as its commander. The army was led by men who had served in the British Army or colonial militias and who brought much of British military heritage with them; as the Revolutionary War progressed, French aid and military thinking helped shape the new army. A number of European soldiers came on their own to help, such as Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben, who taught Prussian Army tactics and organizational skills; the army fought numerous pitched battles and in the South in 1780–1781, at times using the Fabian strategy and hit-and-run tactics, under the leadership of Major General Nathanael Greene, hit where the British were weakest to wear down their forces.
Washington led victories against the British at Trenton and Princeton, but lost a series of battles in the New York and New Jersey campaign in 1776 and the Philadelphia campaign in 1777. With a decisive victory at Yorktown and the help of the French, the Continental Army prevailed against the British. After the war, the Continental Army was given land certificates and disbanded in a reflection of the republican distrust of standing armies. State militias became the new nation's sole ground army, with the exception of a regiment to guard the Western Frontier and one battery of artillery guarding West Point's arsenal. However, because of continuing conflict with Native Americans, it was soon realized that it was necessary to field a trained standing army; the Regular Army was at first small and after General St. Clair's defeat at the Battle of the Wabash, the Regular Army was reorganized as the Legion of the United States, established in 1791 and renamed the United States Army in 1796; the War of 1812, the second and last war between the United States and Great Britain, had mixed results.
The U. S. Army did not conquer Canada but it did destroy Native American resistance to expansion in the Old Northwest and it validated its independence by stopping two major British invasions in 1814 and 1815. After taking control of Lake Erie in 1813, the U. S. Army seized parts of western Upper Canada, burned York and defeated Tecumseh, which caused his Western Confederacy to collapse. Following U. S. victories in the Canadian province of Upper Canada, British troops who had dubbed the U. S. Army "Regulars, by God!", were able to capture and burn Washington, defended by militia, in 1814. The regular army, however proved they were professional and capable of defeating the British army during the invasions of Plattsburgh and Baltimore, prompting British agreement on the rejected terms of a status quo ante bellum. Two weeks after a treaty was signed, Andrew Jackson defeated the British in the Battle of New Orleans and Siege of Fort St. Philip, became a national hero. U. S. troops and sailors captured HMS Cyane and Penguin in the final engagements of the war.
Per the treaty, both sides (the United S
Singing is the act of producing musical sounds with the voice and augments regular speech by the use of sustained tonality, a variety of vocal techniques. A person who sings is called a vocalist. Singers perform music that can be sung without accompaniment by musical instruments. Singing is done in an ensemble of musicians, such as a choir of singers or a band of instrumentalists. Singers may perform as soloists or accompanied by anything from a single instrument up to a symphony orchestra or big band. Different singing styles include art music such as opera and Chinese opera, Indian music and religious music styles such as gospel, traditional music styles, world music, blues and popular music styles such as pop, electronic dance music and filmi. Singing arranged or improvised, it may be done as a form of religious devotion, as a hobby, as a source of pleasure, comfort or ritual, as part of music education or as a profession. Excellence in singing requires time, dedication and regular practice.
If practice is done on a regular basis the sounds can become more clear and strong. Professional singers build their careers around one specific musical genre, such as classical or rock, although there are singers with crossover success, they take voice training provided by voice teachers or vocal coaches throughout their careers. In its physical aspect, singing has a well-defined technique that depends on the use of the lungs, which act as an air supply or bellows. Though these four mechanisms function independently, they are coordinated in the establishment of a vocal technique and are made to interact upon one another. During passive breathing, air is inhaled with the diaphragm while exhalation occurs without any effort. Exhalation may be aided by lower pelvis/pelvic muscles. Inhalation is aided by use of external intercostals and sternocleidomastoid muscles; the pitch is altered with the vocal cords. With the lips closed, this is called humming; the sound of each individual's singing voice is unique not only because of the actual shape and size of an individual's vocal cords but due to the size and shape of the rest of that person's body.
Humans have vocal folds which can loosen, tighten, or change their thickness, over which breath can be transferred at varying pressures. The shape of the chest and neck, the position of the tongue, the tightness of otherwise unrelated muscles can be altered. Any one of these actions results in a change in pitch, timbre, or tone of the sound produced. Sound resonates within different parts of the body and an individual's size and bone structure can affect the sound produced by an individual. Singers can learn to project sound in certain ways so that it resonates better within their vocal tract; this is known as vocal resonation. Another major influence on vocal sound and production is the function of the larynx which people can manipulate in different ways to produce different sounds; these different kinds of laryngeal function are described as different kinds of vocal registers. The primary method for singers to accomplish this is through the use of the Singer's Formant, it has been shown that a more powerful voice may be achieved with a fatter and fluid-like vocal fold mucosa.
The more pliable the mucosa, the more efficient the transfer of energy from the airflow to the vocal folds. Vocal registration refers to the system of vocal registers within the voice. A register in the voice is a particular series of tones, produced in the same vibratory pattern of the vocal folds, possessing the same quality. Registers originate in laryngeal function, they occur. Each of these vibratory patterns appears within a particular range of pitches and produces certain characteristic sounds; the occurrence of registers has been attributed to effects of the acoustic interaction between the vocal fold oscillation and the vocal tract. The term "register" can be somewhat confusing; the term register can be used to refer to any of the following: A particular part of the vocal range such as the upper, middle, or lower registers. A resonance area such as chest voice or head voice. A phonatory process A certain vocal timbre or vocal "color" A region of the voice, defined or delimited by vocal breaks.
In linguistics, a register language is a language which combines tone and vowel phonation into a single phonological system. Within speech pathology, the term vocal register has three constituent elements: a certain vibratory pattern of the vocal folds, a certain series of pitches, a certain type of sound. Speech pathologists identify four vocal registers based on the physiology of laryngeal function: the vocal fry register, the modal register, the falsetto register, the whistle register; this view is adopted by many vocal pedagogues. Vocal resonation is the process by which the basic product of phonation is en