Neolithic Europe is the period when Neolithic technology was present in Europe between 7000 BCE and c. 1700 BCE. The Neolithic overlaps the Mesolithic and Bronze Age periods in Europe as cultural changes moved from the southeast to northwest at about 1 km/year – this is called the Neolithic Expansion; the duration of the Neolithic varies from place to place, its end marked by the introduction of bronze implements: in southeast Europe it is 4,000 years while in parts of Northwest Europe it is just under 3,000 years. The spread of the Neolithic from the Near East Neolithic to Europe was first studied quantitatively in the 1970s, when a sufficient number of 14C age determinations for early Neolithic sites had become available. Ammerman and Cavalli-Sforza discovered a linear relationship between the age of an Early Neolithic site and its distance from the conventional source in the Near East, thus demonstrating that, on average, the Neolithic spread at a constant speed of about 1 km/yr. More recent studies confirm these results and yield the speed of 0.6–1.3 km/yr at 95% confidence level.
Regardless of specific chronology, many European Neolithic groups share basic characteristics, such as living in small-scale, family-based communities, subsisting on domesticated plants and animals supplemented with the collection of wild plant foods and with hunting, producing hand-made pottery, that is, pottery made without the potter's wheel. Polished stone axes lie at the heart of the neolithic culture, enabling forest clearance for agriculture and production of wood for dwellings, as well as fuel. There are many differences, with some Neolithic communities in southeastern Europe living in fortified settlements of 3,000-4,000 people whereas Neolithic groups in Britain were small and mobile cattle-herders; the details of the origin, social organization, subsistence practices and ideology of the peoples of Neolithic Europe are obtained from archaeology, not historical records, since these people left none. Since the 1970s, population genetics has provided independent data on the population history of Neolithic Europe, including migration events and genetic relationships with peoples in South Asia.
A further independent tool, has contributed hypothetical reconstructions of early European languages and family trees with estimates of dating of splits, in particular theories on the relationship between speakers of Indo-European languages and Neolithic peoples. Some archaeologists believe that the expansion of Neolithic peoples from southwest Asia into Europe, marking the eclipse of Mesolithic culture, coincided with the introduction of Indo-European speakers, whereas other archaeologists and many linguists believe the Indo-European languages were introduced from the Pontic-Caspian steppe during the succeeding Bronze Age. Archeologists trace the emergence of food-producing societies in the Levantine region of southwest Asia to the close of the last glacial period around 12,000 BCE, these developed into a number of regionally distinctive cultures by the eighth millennium BCE. Remains of food-producing societies in the Aegean have been carbon-dated to around 6500 BCE at Knossos, Franchthi Cave, a number of mainland sites in Thessaly.
Neolithic groups appear soon afterwards in the Balkans and south-central Europe. The Neolithic cultures of southeastern Europe show some continuity with groups in southwest Asia and Anatolia. In 2018, an 8,000-year-old ceramic figurine portraying the head of the "Mother Goddess", was found near Uzunovo, Vidin Province in Bulgaria, which pushes back the Neolithic revolution to 7th millennium BC. Current evidence suggests that Neolithic material culture was introduced to Europe via western Anatolia, that similarities in cultures of North Africa and the Pontic steppes are due to diffusion out of Europe. All Neolithic sites in Europe contain ceramics, contain the plants and animals domesticated in Southwest Asia: einkorn, barley, pigs, goats and cattle. Genetic data suggest that no independent domestication of animals took place in Neolithic Europe, that all domesticated animals were domesticated in Southwest Asia; the only domesticate not from Southwest Asia was broomcorn millet, domesticated in East Asia.
The earliest evidence of cheese-making dates to 5500 BCE in Poland. Archaeologists agreed for some time that the culture of the early Neolithic is homogeneous, compared to the late Mesolithic. DNA studies tend to confirm this, indicating that agriculture was brought to Western Europe by the Aegean populations, that are known as ‘the Aegean Neolithic farmers’; when these farmers arrived in Britain, DNA studies show that they did not seem to mix much with the earlier population of the Western Hunter-Gatherers. Instead, there was a substantial population replacement; the diffusion of these farmers across Europe, from the Aegean to Britain, took about 2,500 years. The Baltic region was penetrated a bit around 3500 BCE, there was a delay in settling the Pannonian plain. In general, colonization shows a "saltatory" pattern, as the Neolithic advanced from one patch of fertile alluvial soil to another, bypassing mountainous areas. Analysis of radiocarbon dates show that Mesolithic and Neolithic populations lived side by side for as much as a millennium in many parts of Europe in the Iberian peninsula and along the Atlantic coast.
With some exceptions, population levels rose at the beginning of the Neolithic until t
A Gaza–Israel conflict escalation began on 3 May 2019, after two Israeli soldiers were injured by sniper fire from the Gaza Strip during the weekly protests at the Gaza–Israel border. In response, the Israeli Air Force carried out an airstrike. Following this, hundreds of rockets were launched from Gaza at Israel, while the Israeli Air Force struck numerous targets within the Gaza Strip. In addition, Israel increased its troop presence near the Israel–Gaza barrier. A ceasefire facilitated by Egyptian mediators went into effect on 6 May. On 3 May, during the weekly protests at the Gaza–Israel border, two Israeli soldiers were injured in an attack by a Gazan sniper who, according to Israel Defense Forces, was connected to Palestinian Islamic Jihad. In response, the Israel Air Force targeted a nearby Hamas post with an airstrike, killing two people and injuring two others; the men killed were identified as Abdullah Ibrahim Mahmoud Abu Salouh, 33 and Alaa Ali Hasan al-Boubli, 29. Hamas pledged to respond to the "Israeli aggression".
In addition, two other Palestinians were 60 wounded, 36 of them by Israeli gunfire. According to IDF, more than 250 rockets were launched from Gaza into Israel, causing serious injury to at least one person; the Israeli Air Force and IDF struck more than 120 sites in the Gaza Strip. According to the Health Ministry of the Gaza Strip, these airstrikes killed four people – two men, a woman with a toddler. According to Palestinian officials, the woman and toddler who died were identified as Falestine Abu Arar, 37, her niece Siba Abu Arar, 14-months old. Thirteen other Palestinians were injured during the day; the IDF denied responsibility, stating that the woman and toddler were killed by Palestinian rocket fire. Al-Risala News run by Hamas denied the claims against the IDF, saying that the PIJ was responsible for the deaths. At least 200 more projectiles were launched from Gaza towards Israel, killing four people and injuring several others. An Israeli man was killed; the man was identified as a 58-year old father of four.
A rocket fired overnight damaged an empty kindergarten in Sderot, after landing in its yard and exploding. That day, a rocket directly struck a factory in the city of Ashkelon, leaving a man dead and two others injured. A Kornet anti-tank missile hit a private van in the kibbutz community of Yad Mordechai, killing the Israeli driver. Three people were injured in the Eshkol Regional Council – two when a mortar shell landed in a yard, a Thai worker was moderately wounded by a rocket that exploded in a field where he was working. A 35-year old man was killed by shrapnel from a rocket that hit his Ashdod home that day. In response, the IDF struck over 210 sites in the Gaza Strip during the day. A Hamas commander was killed by an airstrike during the day while travelling in a car down a street, marking the first targeted killing carried out by Israel in several years; the man was identified as Hamed Ahmed Abed Khudri, was accused of transferring funds from Iran to Gaza. Palestinian factions threatened to use long-range rockets to attack Israel if the "aggression" continues.
During the day, Israel deployed the 7th Armored Brigade and the Golani Brigade to the Gaza–Israel border. That day, an Israeli airstrike killed 3 people in the northern Gaza town of Beit Lahiya, including a pregnant woman, according to the Health Ministry of the Gaza Strip; the woman was identified as 33-year old Amani al-Madhoun. In the early morning of 6 May, a ceasefire agreement mediated by Egypt in its capital city Cairo was reached, taking effect at 4:30 A. M. At 7:00 A. M. Israel announced all restrictions for residents of the south were lifted, schools opened normally. EU High Representative Federica Mogherini called for armed Palestinians in the Gaza Strip to end rocket shootings towards Israeli territory, holding that attacks lead to suffering on both sides, that the EU seeks security and stability in the region, she backed Egypt in its pertinent role in the ceasefire mediation effort. U. S. President Donald Trump backed Israel's right to self-defense, he called on the Gazan people to "end the violence".
Michael Quinn Patton is an independent organizational development and program evaluation consultant, former president of the American Evaluation Association. He is the director of Utilization-Focused Evaluation. After receiving his doctorate in sociology from the University of Wisconsin–Madison, he spent 18 years on the faculty of the University of Minnesota, including five years as Director of the Minnesota Center for Social Research and ten years with the Minnesota Extension Service. Patton has written many books on the art and science of program evaluation, including Utilization-Focused Evaluation, in which he emphasizes the importance of designing evaluations to ensure their usefulness, rather than creating long reports that may never get read or never result in any practical changes, he has written about evaluation, worked in the field beginning in the 1970s when evaluation in the non-profit sector was a new development. In "Developmental Evaluation: Applying Complexity Concepts to Enhance Innovation and Use," Patton makes a convincing case that evaluation can be useful when there is not a fixed model being improved or tested.
In cases where there is not yet a clear model, or where the environment is too complex and changing too fast for the model of practice to be fixed, developmental evaluators can be of great assistance by helping people articulate their hunches and hopes, do "vision-directed reality testing," tracking emergent and changing realities, "feeding back meaningful findings in real time so that reality testing facilitates and supports the dynamics of innovation." This type of evaluation is helpful in the context of social innovation, where "goals are be emergent and changing rather than predetermined and fixed, time periods are fluid and forward-looking rather than artificially imposed by external deadlines, the purposes are innovation and learning rather than external accountability or getting ready for external accountability.". Instead of evaluating a program to determine whether resources are being spent on what they're supposed to be spent on, developmental evaluation helps answer questions like, "Are we walking the talk?
Are we being true to our vision? Are we dealing with reality? Are we connecting the dots between here-and-now reality and our vision? And how do we know? What are we observing that's different, that's emerging?". Practical Evaluation. Culture and Evaluation. Creative Evaluation. How to Use Qualitative Methods in Evaluation. Family Sexual Abuse: Frontline Research and Evaluation. Grand Canyon Celebration: A Father-Son Journey of Discovery. Essentials of Utilization-Focused Evaluation. Teaching Evaluation Using the Case Method: New Directions for Evaluation. Getting to Maybe: How the World is Changed. Utilization-Focused Evaluation. | Developmental Evaluation: Applying Complexity Concepts to Enhance Innovation and Use. Qualitative Research and Evaluation Methods. Developmental Evaluation Exemplars: Principles Into Practice Utilization-Focused Evaluation checklist: https://www.wmich.edu/sites/default/files/attachments/u350/2014/UFE_checklist_2013.pdf Pedagogy of Evaluation: New Directions for Evaluation Principles-Focused Evaluation: The GUIDE Facilitating Evaluation: Principles in Practice Alva and Gunnar Myrdal Award (awarded by the Evaluation Research Society and subsequently by the for "outstanding contributions to evaluation use and practice" Paul F. Lazarsfeld Award for lifetime contributions to evaluation theory.
2001 Lester F. Ward Award for Outstanding Contributions to Applied Sociology. 2017 Research On Evaluation Award Patton was president of the American Evaluation Association in 1988 and co-chair of the 2005 International Evaluation Conference in Toronto sponsored jointly by the American and Canadian evaluation associations. He sits on the Editorial Advisory Board for The Foundation Review. Utilization-Focused Evaluation website University of Minnesota Minnesota Center for Social Research Minnesota Extension Service Alva and Gunnar Myrdal Award Society for Applied Sociology The Foundation Review