Futurist architecture is an early-20th century form of architecture born in Italy, characterized by strong chromaticism, long dynamic lines, suggesting speed, motion and lyricism: it was a part of Futurism, an artistic movement founded by the poet Filippo Tommaso Marinetti, who produced its first manifesto, the Manifesto of Futurism, in 1909. The movement attracted not only poets and artists but a number of architects. A cult of the Machine Age and a glorification of war and violence were among the themes of the Futurists; the latter group included the architect Antonio Sant'Elia, though building little, translated the futurist vision into an urban form. In 1912, three years after Marinetti's Futurist Manifesto, Antonio Sant'Elia and Mario Chiattone take part to the Nuove Tendenze exhibition in Milano. In 1914 the group presented their first exposition with a "Message" by Sant'Elia, that with the contribution of Filippo Tommaso Marinetti, became the Manifesto dell’Architettura Futurista. Boccioni unofficially worked on a similar manifesto, but Marinetti preferred Sant'Elia's paper.
In 1920, another manifesto was written by Virgilio Marchi, Manifesto dell’Architettura Futurista–Dinamica. Ottorino Aloisio worked in the style established by Marchi, one example being his Casa del Fascio in Asti. Another futurist manifesto related to architecture is the Manifesto dell’Arte Sacra Futurista by Fillia and Filippo Tommaso Marinetti, published in 1931. On 27 January 1934 it was the turn of the Manifesto of Aerial Architecture by Marinetti, Angiolo Mazzoni and Mino Somenzi. Mazzoni had publicly adhered to futurism only the year before. In this paper the Lingotto factory by Giacomo Matté-Trucco is defined as the first Futurist constructive invention. Mazzoni himself in those years worked on a building considered today a masterpiece of futurist architecture, like the Heating plant and Main controls cabin at Santa Maria Novella railway station, in Florence. Giacomo Balla Antonio Sant'Elia Umberto Boccioni Giuseppe Terragni Mario Ridolfi Eurico Prampolini The Art Deco style of architecture with its streamlined forms was regarded as futuristic when it was in style in the 1920s and 1930s.
The original name for both early and late Art Deco was Art Moderne — the name "Art Deco" did not come into use until 1968 when the term was invented in a book by Bevis Hillier. The Chrysler Building is a notable example of Art Deco futurist architecture. After World War II, Futurism was weakened and redefined itself thanks to the enthusiasm towards the Space Age, the Atomic Age, the car culture, the wide use of plastic. For example, this trend is found in the architecture of Googies in the 1950s in California. Futurism in this case is not a style, but a rather free and uninhibited architectural approach, why it was reinterpreted and transformed by generations of architects the following decades, but in general it includes amazing shapes with dynamic lines and sharp contrasts, the use of technologically advanced materials. Pioneered from late 1960s and early 1970s by Finnish architects Eero Saarinen, he designed all of the buildings in Futuroscope. In the early 21st century, Neo-Futurism has been relaunched by innovation designer Vito Di Bari with his vision of “cross-pollination of art and cutting edge technology for a better world” applied to the project of the city of Milan at the time of the Universal Expo 2015.
In popular literature, the term futuristic is used without much precision to describe an architecture that would have the appearance of the space age as described in works of science fiction or as drawn in science fiction comic strips or comic books. Today it is sometimes confused with high-tech architecture; the routine use of the term futurism — although influenced by Antonio Sant'Elia's vision of Futurist architecture — must be well differentiated from the values and political implications of the Futurist movement of the years 1910–1920. The futurist architecture created since 1960 may be termed Neo-Futurism, is referred as Post Modern Futurism or Neo-Futuristic architecture. VV. AA. Angiolo Mazzoni e l'Architettura Futurista, Supplement of CE. S. A. R. September/December 2008 Architettura Futurista Italiana 1909/1944 Civilization 0.000 Skyscraper | Dimo Ivanov | Chile | DesignDaily Futurist Architecture 2015
Intentism is "among the important art movements of the 21st century" founded by Vittorio Pelosi. Intentists include Professor of Philosophy Paisley Livingston, author of Art and Intention, Professor of Philosophy William Irwin, author of Intentionalist Interpretation. Intentism is a "reaction against the de-emphasis of the author intentionalism in the latter portion of the 20th century – which claims that the meaning of the work is found in the author’s intention and not the interpretation of the viewer." Intentists have staged various exhibitions and have spoken at Universities including the University of the Arts London. In 2009 their manifesto was published in Intentism - The Resurrection of the author. Intentists come from a variety of backgrounds but are all questioning ideas related to the meaning of work; the name Intentism is a response to the debate around authorial intent. In the public debates that launched intentism, Vittorio Pelosi cited four key schools that the new movement sought to challenge.
These include the so-called "The Intentional Fallacy" published by Monroe Beardley and William Wimsatt, which maintained that "The design or intention of the author is neither available nor desirable as a standard for judging the success of a work of literary art." There is the case of the French philosopher Roland Barthes, who, in 1967, declared that the author is dead and that his work is nothing but a "tissue of quotations" and that the impression of the reader is more important. He cited Jacques Derrida's deconstruction theory, which critiques the relationship of text and meaning, exposes meaning that run counter to what was intended by the author. Pelosi identified Hans-Georg Gadamer's theory that a text's meaning can change over time due to the changes that transpire in society. According to the thinker, these theories are outdated and that there is an imperative to identify and recognize the relationship between the artist and his creation because "all meaning is the imperfect outworking of intention."
Intentists believe that art can convey an artist's intended message to her intended audience. Artist intentions are ‘performance expectations’ that if met by the work, is considered a ‘realized intention.’ a movement it both recognizes and celebrates the relationship between an artist's creation and its creator./> Intentists believe three principles: Intentists believe that the artist is free to convey his or her intended message. The meaning of the work is found in the artist's intention and not the interpretation of the viewer. All meaning is the imperfect outworking of intention. Intentists believe a hidden or denied intention leads to zero accountability. Intentists believe that an omission of artist intention can lead to enforced restrictions on the artist and censorship. Intentism has been the subject of several public debates. In 2009 The University of the Arts London held a Panel Discussion around Intentism entitled'Intentism: Is an artist free to convey his or her intended message? In 2011, The Royal College of Art, held a debate on Intentism named'Rebirth of the Author?'
Intentists have given several Lectures at various art institutions including The University of East London and the University of Kent. Intentist artists work in numerous ways, but at present there appears to be three areas that are of particular interest. Firstly, Intentists celebrate the artist's intentions in the work by including the entire process of creating art in the final piece. Elements of every editing decision is left in. Intentists call this process Palimpsestism "where the resolved work is distinguishable from the work in progress" and the Creative Trail since "during the course of a creative work, an artist will have multiple intentions, including a meta-intention of the overall work and many micro-intentions as the art progresses." Secondly, since authorial irony can only be understood by comparing what is said, what is meant, it is a common subject for Intentist artists. An example here would be Luciano Pelosi’s Big Breakfast. Thirdly, much art theory finds its origin in Literary theory.
It is a claim of the Intentists. In literature the author has a linear order expectation for the text since the viewer will start at the beginning and read letters sequentially until the end. However, this approach is not appropriate for the static arts. Most paintings and sculptures are anarrative. Therefore, this basis for ignoring the artist’s intentions is not relevant. An example of an Intentist artist creating work to demonstrate these anarrative properties is Govinda Sah. Vittorio Pelosi's painting The School of Postmodernism, inspired by Raphael's The School of Athens, is one of the best known paintings to come out of the Intentist movement and replaces all of Raphael's Athenian philosophers with Postmodern icons; each figure is attempting an objective depiction of the life model, but their work is subjected to their postmodernist ideologies. Intentists exhibit their work, both in solo Intentist exhibitions and Intentist group shows. Intentism web site Culture Wars web site Croydon Advertiser Article YouTube video of Intentist interview with Professor Colin Lyas Battle of Ideas archived at Burke, S The Death and Return of the Author: Criticism and Subjectivity in Barthes and Derrida Edinburgh University Press, ISBN 0-7486-3711-7 ISBN 978-0748637119 Gibbs, R.
W. Intentions in the Experience of Meaning Cambridge University Press,ISBN 0-521-57630-X ISBN 978-0521576307 Hirsch, E. D. Jnr. Validity in Interpretation Yale University Press, ISBN 0-300-01692-1 ISBN 978-0300016925 Irwin, W. I
Mid-century modern is the design movement in interior, graphic design and urban development from 1933 to 1965. The term, employed as a style descriptor as early as the mid-1950s, was reaffirmed in 1983 by Cara Greenberg in the title of her book, Mid-Century Modern: Furniture of the 1950s, celebrating the style, now recognized by scholars and museums worldwide as a significant design movement; the Mid-Century modern movement in the U. S. was an American reflection of the International and Bauhaus movements, including the works of Gropius, Florence Knoll, Le Corbusier and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. Although the American component was more organic in form and less formal than the International Style, it is more related to it than any other. Brazilian and Scandinavian architects were influential at this time, with a style characterized by clean simplicity and integration with nature. Like many of Wright's designs, Mid-Century architecture was employed in residential structures with the goal of bringing modernism into America's post-war suburbs.
This style emphasized creating structures with ample windows and open floor plans, with the intention of opening up interior spaces and bringing the outdoors in. Many Mid-century houses utilized then-groundbreaking post and beam architectural design that eliminated bulky support walls in favor of walls made of glass. Function was as important as form in Mid-Century designs, with an emphasis placed on targeting the needs of the average American family. In Europe the influence of Le Corbusier and the CIAM resulted in an architectural orthodoxy manifest across most parts of post-war Europe, challenged by the radical agendas of the architectural wings of the avant-garde Situationist International, COBRA, as well as Archigram in London. A critical but sympathetic reappraisal of the internationalist oeuvre, inspired by Scandinavian Moderns such as Alvar Aalto, Sigurd Lewerentz and Arne Jacobsen, the late work of Le Corbusier himself, was reinterpreted by groups such as Team X, including structuralist architects such as Aldo van Eyck, Ralph Erskine, Denys Lasdun, Jorn Utzon and the movement known in the United Kingdom as New Brutalism.
Pioneering builder and real estate developer Joseph Eichler was instrumental in bringing Mid-Century Modern architecture to subdivisions in the Los Angeles area and the San Francisco Bay region of California, select housing developments on the east coast. George Fred Keck, his brother Willam Keck, Henry P. Glass, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Edward Humrich created Mid-Century Modern residences in the Chicago area. Mies van der Rohe's Farnsworth House is difficult to heat or cool, while Keck and Keck were pioneers in the incorporation of passive solar features in their houses to compensate for their large glass windows; the city of Palm Springs, California is noted for its many examples of Mid-century modern architecture. Architects include: Welton Becket: Bullock's Palm Springs John Porter Clark: Welwood Murray Library. J. Robinson House. John Lautner: Desert Hot Springs Motel. John Black Lee: Specialized in residential houses. Lee House 1, Lee House 2 for which he won the Award of Merit from the American Institute of Architects, Day House, * System House, Rogers House, Ravello Frederick Monhoff: Palm Springs Biltmore Resort Richard Neutra: Grace Lewis Miller house.
M. Schindler: Paul and Betty Popenoe Cabin, Coachella. Home develope
Bay Adelaide Centre
The Bay Adelaide Centre is an office complex in the Financial District of Toronto, Canada. The first phase, a 51-storey skyscraper known as Bay Adelaide West, was completed in July 2009; the second phase, the 44-storey Bay Adelaide East, was completed in October 2016. A third tower, Bay Adelaide North, is planned. Upon completion, the Bay Adelaide Centre will consist of three towers; the first tower, Bay Adelaide West, was completed in 2009 with a floor area of 108,000 square metres and a height of 218 metres or 51 storeys. It is located on the northeast corner of Adelaide Street West; the second tower, Bay Adelaide East, has a floor area of 91,045 square metres and a height of 44 storeys. Located mid-block between Adelaide Street West and Temperance Street, the tower has a 6-storey podium extending to the northwest corner of Yonge Street and Adelaide Street West; the future Bay Adelaide North is anticipated to have a floor area of 46,450 square metres and a height of 28 to 32 storeys. Unlike the two other towers in the complex, the north tower will be located on the north side of Temperance Street, with frontage along Richmond Street West.
The Bay Adelaide North site is occupied by a one-storey elevator lobby which provides access to the underground concourse and garage. The towers of the Bay Adelaide Centre are connected by an underground concourse, which extends under Temperance Street, is connected to the PATH network; the underground concourse has PATH connections to Scotia Plaza to the south and Hudson's Bay Queen Street to the north. There is a four-level underground garage under the complex, with vehicular access from both Adelaide Street West and Richmond Street West. There is a 0.2-hectare public space, Arnell Plaza, located between Bay Adelaide West and Bay Adelaide East. Although Arnell Plaza is owned, public access has been secured by the City of Toronto. Cloud Gardens, a 0.24-hectare public park, is located to the east of the Bay Adelaide North site on land conveyed to the City of Toronto as a condition of the original development approvals for the complex. The complex's mechanical facilities are located in a four-storey above-grade building on the southwest corner of Yonge and Temperance Streets, with retail uses to be constructed at grade as part of the Bay Adelaide East construction.
In order to accommodate the construction of the Bay Adelaide East podium, the historic facades of the former Elgin Block, constructed in 1850 and 1910 and once occupied by Holt Renfrew, were disassembled and reconstructed as the facade of the mechanical facility building. Both Bay Adelaide West and Bay Adelaide East are designed in a modernist style, although the historic north and west facades of the former National Building at the corner of Bay and Temperance Streets, completed in 1926, has been incorporated into Bay Adelaide West; the first tower development on the site was a joint project by Markborough Properties and TrizecHahn: a 57-storey office tower to be constructed at the corner of Bay and Adelaide Streets. It was to have cost a billion dollars, was the last of a series of construction projects in downtown Toronto launched in the boom years of the 1980s, when a number of massive towers were built nearby, such as Scotia Plaza; the building caused considerable controversy among those opposed to the erection of such massive structures.
The tower would have stood far higher. To gain city hall's approval, the developers committed some $80 million towards new social housing and other projects. A portion of the site was turned over to the city for use as a park, now Cloud Gardens. Both of these deals went ahead, despite the tower never having been completed. Construction began in 1990; the economy went into recession and office vacancy rates in Toronto rose to 20%. Construction was halted, in 1993, with over $500 million invested, the project was permanently put on hold. All, completed was the underground parking garage and several storeys of the concrete service shaft that stood from 1991 onwards, as a monument to the failed project in downtown Toronto; the stump of the service shaft was known to security and the locals as "the bunker" or "the stump". The parking garage was in operation, the stump itself was used as a surface on which to mount advertisements; the exterior of the stump of the building was depicted as a nightclub in the opening scene of the 1996 comedy film Brain Candy.
There were several attempts to revive the project. In 1998 TrizecHahn revived it, but another shift in the economy caused them to again pause. In 2000 there was again talk of reviving the project, but the next year TrizecHahn sold its 50% share to Brookfield Properties for $49 million. Brookfield was committed to completing the structure to a smaller height of either 40 or 50 storeys, but that year the economy again soured and the project remained on hiatus. In October 2005, plans were filed with the City of Toronto to develop the property. An information sign was placed on Bay St. between 347 Bay and 355 Bay, both Brookfield properties. The notice, in short, informed the public that three mixed-use high-rise towers surrounding an urban plaza will be built; the towers were planned to vary in size from 43 to 50 storeys and contain an aggregate density of 240,396 square metres. Brookfield Properties had signed KPMG and Goodmans as anchor tenants for the first tower, Bay Adelaide West, with Fasken Martineau and Heenan Blaikie taking up residence in the building.
In June 2006, both buildi
Starchitect is a portmanteau used to describe architects whose celebrity and critical acclaim have transformed them into idols of the architecture world and may have given them some degree of fame among the general public. Celebrity status is associated with avant-gardist novelty. Developers around the world have proven eager to sign up "top talent" in hopes of convincing reluctant municipalities to approve large developments, of obtaining financing or of increasing the value of their buildings. A key characteristic is that the starchitecture is always "iconic" and visible within the site or context; as the status is dependent on current visibility in the media, fading media status implies that architects lose "starchitect" status—hence a list can be drawn up of former "starchitects". Buildings are regarded as profit opportunities, so creating "scarcity" or a certain degree of uniqueness gives further value to the investment; the balance between functionality and avant-gardism has influenced many property developers.
For instance, architect-developer John Portman found that building skyscraper hotels with vast atriums—which he did in various U. S. cities during the 1980s—was more profitable than maximizing floor area. However, it was the rise of postmodern architecture during the late 1970s and early 1980s that gave rise to the idea that star status in the architectural profession was about an avant-gardism linked to popular culture—which, it was argued by postmodern critics such as Charles Jencks, had been derided by the guardians of a modernist architecture. In response, Jencks argued for "double coding"; the star architects from that period built little or their best-known works were "paper architecture"—unbuilt or unbuildable schemes, yet known through frequent reproduction in architectural magazines, such as the work of Léon Krier, Michael Graves, Aldo Rossi, Robert A. M. Stern, Hans Hollein, James Stirling; as postmodernism went into decline, its avant-gardist credentials suffered due to its associations with vernacular and traditionalism, celebrity shifted back towards modernist avant-gardism.
But a high-tech strand of modernism persisted in parallel with a formally retrogressive post-modernism. Such technological virtuosity can be discovered during this time in the work of Norman Foster, Renzo Piano, Richard Rogers, the latter two having designed the controversial Pompidou Centre in Paris, which opened to international acclaim. What this so‑called high-tech architecture showed was that an industrial aesthetic—an architecture characterized as much by urban grittiness as engineering efficiency—had popular appeal; this was somewhat evident in so‑called Deconstructionist architecture, such as the employment of chainlink fencing, raw plywood and other industrial materials in designs for residential and commercial architecture. Arguably the most notable practitioner along these lines, at least in the 1970s, is the now internationally renowned architect Frank Gehry, whose house in Santa Monica, bears these characteristics. With urban generation from the turn of the twentieth century picking up, economists forecast that globalization and the powers of multinational corporations would shift the balance of power away from nation states towards individual cities, which would compete with neighboring cities and cities elsewhere for the most lucrative modern industries, which in major Western Europe and U.
S. cities did not include manufacturing. Thus cities set about "reinventing themselves". Municipalities and non-profit organizations hope the use of a Starchitect will drive traffic and tourist income to their new facilities. With the popular and critical success of the Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao, Spain, by Frank Gehry, in which a rundown area of a city in economic decline brought in huge financial growth and prestige, the media started to talk about the so-called "Bilbao Effect". Similar examples are the Imperial War Museum North, Greater Manchester, UK, by Daniel Libeskind, the Kiasma Museum of Contemporary Art, Finland, by Steven Holl, the Seattle Central Library, Washington state, United States, by OMA; the origin of the phrase "wow factor architecture" is uncertain, but has been used extensively in business management in both the UK and United States to promote avant-gardist buildings within urban regeneration since the late 1990s. It has taken on a more scientific aspect, with money made available in the UK to study the significance of the factor.
In research carried out in Sussex University, UK, in 2000, interested parties were asked to consider the "effect on the mind and the senses" of new developments. In an attempt to produce a "delight rating" for a given building, architects and the intended users of the building were encouraged to ask: "What do passers‑by think of the building?", "Does it provide a focal point for the community?" The Design Quality Indicator has been produced by the UK Construction Industry Council, so that bodies commissioning new buildings will be encouraged to consider whether the planned building has "the wow factor" in addition to more traditional concerns of function and cost. The "wow factor" has been taken up by American architecture critics such as New York Times architecture critics Herbert Mushamp and Nicolai Ouroussof, in their arguments that the city needs to be "radically" re
Art Deco, sometimes referred to as Deco, is a style of visual arts and design that first appeared in France just before World War I. Art Deco influenced the design of buildings, jewelry, cars, movie theatres, ocean liners, everyday objects such as radios and vacuum cleaners, it took its name, short for Arts Décoratifs, from the Exposition internationale des arts décoratifs et industriels modernes held in Paris in 1925. It combined modern styles with rich materials. During its heyday, Art Deco represented luxury, glamour and faith in social and technological progress. Art Deco was a pastiche of many different styles, sometimes contradictory, united by a desire to be modern. From its outset, Art Deco was influenced by the bold geometric forms of Cubism, it featured rare and expensive materials, such as ebony and ivory, exquisite craftsmanship. The Chrysler Building and other skyscrapers of New York built during the 1920s and 1930s are monuments of the Art Deco style. In the 1930s, during the Great Depression, the Art Deco style became more subdued.
New materials arrived, including chrome plating, stainless steel, plastic. A sleeker form of the style, called Streamline Moderne, appeared in the 1930s. Art Deco is one of the first international styles, but its dominance ended with the beginning of World War II and the rise of the functional and unadorned styles of modern architecture and the International Style of architecture that followed. Art Deco took its name, short for Arts Décoratifs, from the Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes held in Paris in 1925, though the diverse styles that characterize Art Deco had appeared in Paris and Brussels before World War I; the term arts décoratifs was first used in France in 1858. In 1868, Le Figaro newspaper used the term objets d'art décoratifs with respect to objects for stage scenery created for the Théâtre de l'Opéra. In 1875, furniture designers, textile and glass designers, other craftsmen were given the status of artists by the French government. In response to this, the École royale gratuite de dessin founded in 1766 under King Louis XVI to train artists and artisans in crafts relating to the fine arts, was renamed the National School of Decorative Arts.
It took its present name of ENSAD in 1927. During the 1925 Exposition the architect Le Corbusier wrote a series of articles about the exhibition for his magazine L'Esprit Nouveau under the title, "1925 EXPO. ARTS. DÉCO." which were combined into a book, "L'art décoratif d'aujourd'hui". The book was a spirited attack on the excesses of the lavish objects at the Exposition; the actual phrase "Art déco" did not appear in print until 1966, when it featured in the title of the first modern exhibit on the subject, called Les Années 25: Art déco, Stijl, Esprit nouveau, which covered the variety of major styles in the 1920s and 1930s. The term Art déco was used in a 1966 newspaper article by Hillary Gelson in the Times, describing the different styles at the exhibit. Art Deco gained currency as a broadly applied stylistic label in 1968 when historian Bevis Hillier published the first major academic book on the style: Art Deco of the 20s and 30s. Hillier noted that the term was being used by art dealers and cites The Times and an essay named "Les Arts Déco" in Elle magazine as examples of prior usage.
In 1971, Hillier organized an exhibition at the Minneapolis Institute of Arts, which he details in his book about it, The World of Art Deco. The emergence of Art Deco was connected with the rise in status of decorative artists, who until late in the 19th century had been considered as artisans; the term "arts décoratifs" had been invented in 1875, giving the designers of furniture and other decoration official status. The Société des artistes décorateurs, or SAD, was founded in 1901, decorative artists were given the same rights of authorship as painters and sculptors. A similar movement developed in Italy; the first international exhibition devoted to the decorative arts, the Esposizione international d'Arte decorative moderna, was held in Turin in 1902. Several new magazines devoted to decorative arts were founded in Paris, including Arts et décoration and L'Art décoratif moderne. Decorative arts sections were introduced into the annual salons of the Sociéte des artistes français, in the Salon d'automne.
French nationalism played a part in the resurgence of decorative arts. In 1911, the SAD proposed the holding of a major new international exposition of decorative arts in 1912. No copies of old styles were to be permitted; the exhibit was postponed until 1914 because of the war, postponed until 1925, when it gave its name to the whole family of styles known as Déco. Parisian department stores and fashion designers played an important
Eclecticism is a conceptual approach that does not hold rigidly to a single paradigm or set of assumptions, but instead draws upon multiple theories, styles, or ideas to gain complementary insights into a subject, or applies different theories in particular cases. However, this is without conventions or rules dictating how or which theories were combined, it can sometimes seem inelegant or lacking in simplicity, eclectics are sometimes criticized for lack of consistency in their thinking. It is, common in many fields of study. For example, most psychologists accept certain aspects of behaviorism, but do not attempt to use the theory to explain all aspects of human behavior. Eclecticism in ethics and religion is known as syncretism. Eclecticism was first recorded to have been practiced by a group of ancient Greek and Roman philosophers who attached themselves to no real system, but selected from existing philosophical beliefs those doctrines that seemed most reasonable to them. Out of this collected material they constructed their new system of philosophy.
The term comes from the Greek ἐκλεκτικός "choosing the best", that from ἐκλεκτός, "picked out, select". Well known eclectics in Greek philosophy were the Stoics Panaetius and Posidonius, the New Academics Carneades and Philo of Larissa. Among the Romans, Cicero was eclectic, as he united the Peripatetic and New Academic doctrines. Philo's successor and Cicero's teacher Antiochus of Ascalon is credited with influencing the Academy so that it transitioned from Scepticism to Eclecticism. Other eclectics included Seneca the Younger. According to Rošker and Suhadolnik, however though eclecticism had a Greek origin, the term was used and it was given a negative connotation by historians of Greek thought, associating it with the description for impure and unoriginal thinking. Scholars such as Clement of Alexandria maintained that eclecticism had a long history in Greek philosophy and it is underpinned by a deeper metaphysical and theological conviction concerning the absolute/God as the source of all noble thoughts and that all parts of the truth can be found among the various philosophical systems.
The term eclecticism is used to describe the combination, in a single work, of elements from different historical styles, chiefly in architecture and, by implication, in the fine and decorative arts. The term is sometimes loosely applied to the general stylistic variety of 19th-century architecture after neoclassicism, although the revivals of styles in that period have, since the 1970s been referred to as aspects of historicism. Eclecticism plays an important role in critical discussions and evaluations but is somehow distant from the actual forms of the artifacts to which it is applied, its meaning is thus rather indistinct; the simplest definition of the term—that every work of art represents the combination of a variety of influences—is so basic as to be of little use. In some ways Eclecticism is reminiscent of Mannerism in that the term was used pejoratively for much of the period of its currency, unlike Mannerism, Eclecticism never amounted to a movement or constituted a specific style: it is characterized by the fact that it was not a particular style.
Some martial arts can be described as eclectic in the sense that they borrow techniques from a wide variety of other martial arts. In textual criticism, eclecticism is the practice of examining a wide number of text witnesses and selecting the variant that seems best; the result of the process is a text with readings drawn from many witnesses. In a purely eclectic approach, no single witness is theoretically favored. Instead, the critic forms opinions about individual witnesses, relying on both external and internal evidence. Since the mid-19th century, eclecticism, in which there is no a priori bias to a single manuscript, has been the dominant method of editing the Greek text of the New Testament. So, the oldest manuscripts, being of the Alexandrian text-type, are the most favored, the critical text has an Alexandrian disposition. In ancient philosophy, the Eclectics use elements from multiple philosophies, life experiences and their own philosophical ideas; these ideas include life as connected with existence, values, reason and language.
Antiochus of Ascalon, was the pupil of Philo of Larissa, the teacher of Cicero. Through his influence, Platonism made the transition from New Academy skepticism to Eclecticism. Whereas Philo had still adhered to the doctrine that there is nothing certain, Antiochus returned to a pronounced dogmatism. Among his other objections to skepticism was the consideration that without firm convictions no rational content of life is possible. Antiochus pointed out that it is a contradiction to assert that nothing can be asserted or to prove that nothing can be proved, he expounded the Academic and Stoic systems in such a way as to show that these three schools deviate from one another only in minor points. Antiochus himself was chiefly interested in ethics, in which he tried to find a middle way between Zeno and Plato. For instance, he said that virtue suffices for happiness, but for the highest grade of happiness bodily and external goods are necessary as well; this eclectic tendency was favoured by the lack of dogmatic works by Plato.
Middle Platonism was promoted by the necessity of considering the main theories of the post-Platonic schools of philosophy, such as the Aristotelian logic and the Stoic psychology and ethic