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The Neretva known as the Narenta, is one of the largest rivers of the eastern part of the Adriatic basin. Four HE power-plants with large dams provide flood protection and water storage, it is recognized for its natural diversity of its landscape. Freshwater ecosystems have suffered from an increasing population and the associated development pressures. One of the most valuable natural resources of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia is its freshwater resource, contained by an abundant wellspring and clear rivers. Situated between the major regional rivers the Neretva basin contains the most significant source of drinking water; the Neretva is notable among rivers of the Dinaric Alps region regarding its diverse ecosystems and habitats and fauna, cultural and historic heritage. Its name has been suggested to come from the Indo-European root *ner, meaning "to dive"; the same root is seen in the Serbo-Croatian root "roniti". The Neretva flows through Herzegovina and Croatia until reaching the Adriatic Sea.

It is the largest karst river in the Dinaric Alps in the eastern part of the Adriatic basin/watershed. Its total length is 230 kilometres, of which 208 kilometres are in Bosnia and Herzegovina, while the final 22 kilometres are in the Dubrovnik-Neretva County of Croatia; the Neretva watershed is 11,798 square kilometres in total. The average discharge at profile Žitomislići in Bosnia and Herzegovina is 233 cubic metres /s and at the mouth in Croatia is 341 cubic metres /s in addition to the Trebišnjica River's 402 cubic metres /s; the Trebišnjica River basin is included in the Neretva watershed due to a physical link of the two basins by the porous karst terrain. The hydrological parameters of Neretva are monitored in Croatia at Metković. Geographically and hydrologically the Neretva is divided into three sections, its source and headwaters gorge are situated deep in the Dinaric Alps at the base of the Zelengora and Lebršnik mountains under the Gredelj saddle. The river source is at 1,227 meters above sea level and consists of five small and distinct wellsprings.

On its 90 kilometers course through the first section the Neretva cuts two distinct deep and narrow canyons and two distinct wide and fertile valleys, around Ulog and around Glavatičevo, before it reaches town of Konjic. This section is better known as the Upper Neretva, here river flows from east-southeast to north-northwest as do most Bosnia and Herzegovina rivers belonging to the Danube watershed, covers some 1,390 square kilometres with an average elevation of 1.2%. Right below Konjic, the Neretva again expands into a third and largest valley which provided fertile agricultural land before it was flooded by large artificial reservoir, Jablaničko Lake, formed after construction of a Jablanica Dam near town of Jablanica.. The second section begins from the confluence of the Neretva and the Rama between Konjic and Jablanica where the Neretva takes 180° degrees turn toward east-southeast and flows the short leg before reaches town of Jablanica, from which point turns again toward south. From Jablanica, the Neretva enters third and the largest canyon on its course, running through the steep slopes mountains of Prenj, Čvrsnica and Čabulja reaching 800–1,200 metres in depth.

Three hydroelectric dams operate between Mostar. When the Neretva expands for the second and final time, it reaches its third section; this area is colloquially called the "Bosnian and Herzegovinian California". The last 30 kilometres of its course forms wide alluvial delta, before the river empties into the Adriatic Sea. Rivers of the Tatinac, the Gornji Krupac and Donji Krupac, the Ljuta, the Jesenica, the Bjelimićka Rijeka, the Slatinica, the Račica, the Rakitnica, the Ljuta, the Trešanica, the Neretvica, the Rama, the Drežanka, the Grabovica, the Radobolja, the Trebižat flow into the Neretva from the right, while the Jezernica, the Živanjski Potok, the Lađanica, the Krupac, the Bukovica, the Šištica, the Bijela, the Idbar, the Glogošnica, the Mostarska Bijela, the Buna, the Bregava, the Krupa flow into it from the left. Towns and villages on the Neretva include Ulog, Glavatičevo, Konjic, Čelebići, Ostrožac, Grabovica, Drežnica, Bijelo polje, Vrapčići, Buna village, the historical town of Blagaj, Žitomislići, the historical village of Počitelj, Tasovčići, Čapljina, Gabela in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

The biggest town on the Neretva River is Mostar in Herzegovina. The upper course of the Neretva river is called the Upper Neretva, it includes numerous streams and well-springs, three major glacial lakes near the river and more lakes scattered across the mountains of Treskavica and Zelengora in the wider area, mountains and forests, flora and fauna of the area. The Upper Neretva has water of Class I purity and is certainly the coldest river water in the world as low as 7–8 degrees Celsius in the summer months. Rising from the base of the Zelengora and Lebršnik Mountain, Neretva headwaters run in undisturbed rapids and waterfalls, carving steep gorges reaching 600–800 metres in depth

Presidents of the United States on U.S. postage stamps

Presidents of the United States have appeared on U. S. postage stamps since the mid–1800s. The United States Post Office Department released its first two postage stamps in 1847, featuring George Washington on one, Benjamin Franklin on the other; the advent of presidents on postage stamps has been definitive to U. S. postage stamp design since the first issues were released and set the precedent that U. S. stamp designs would follow for many generations. The paper postage stamp itself was born of utility, as something simple and easy to use was needed to confirm that postage had been paid for an item of mail. People could purchase several stamps at one time and no longer had to make a special trip to pay for postage each time an item was mailed; the postage stamp design was printed from a fine engraving and were impossible to forge adequately. This is. Moreover, the subject theme of a president, along with the honors associated with it, is what began to define the stamp issues in ways that took it beyond the physical postage stamp itself and is why people began to collect them.

There exist entire series of stamp issues. The portrayals of Washington and Franklin on U. S. postage have appeared on numerous postage stamps. The presidential theme in stamp designs would continue as the decades passed, each period issuing stamps with variations of the same basic presidential-portrait design theme; the portrayals of U. S. presidents on U. S. postage has remained a significant subject and design theme on definitive postage throughout most of U. S. stamp issuance history. Engraved portrayals of U. S. presidents were the only designs found on U. S. postage from 1847 until 1869, with the one exception of Benjamin Franklin, whose historical stature was comparable to that of a president, although his appearance was an acknowledgement of his role as the first U. S. Postmaster General. During this period, the U. S. Post Office issued various postage stamps bearing the depictions of George Washington foremost, Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, Andrew Jackson, Abraham Lincoln, the last of whom first appeared in 1866, one year after his death.

After twenty-two years of issuing stamps with only presidents and Franklin, the Post Office in 1869 issued a series of eleven postage stamps that were regarded by the American public as being abruptly different from the previous issues and whose designs were considered at the time to be a break from the tradition of honoring American forefathers on the nation's postage stamps. These new issues had other nonpresidential subjects and a design style, different, one issue bearing a horse, another a locomotive, while others were depicted with nonpresidential themes. Washington and Lincoln were to be found only once in this series of eleven stamps, which some considered to be below par in design and image quality; as a result, this pictographic series was met with general disdain and proved so unpopular that the issues were sold for only one year where remaining stocks were pulled from post offices across the United States. In 1870 the Post Office resumed its tradition of printing postage stamps with the portraits of American Presidents and Franklin but now added several other famous Americans, including Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, Alexander Hamilton and General Winfield Scott among other notable Americans.

Indeed, the balance had now shifted somewhat. Moreover, presidents appeared on less than half of the denominations in the definitive sets of 1890, 1917, 1954 and 1965, while occupying only a slight majority of values in the definitive issues of 1894–98, 1902 and 1922–25. Presidential images did, overwhelmingly dominate the definitive sets released in 1908 and 1938: on the former, 10 of the 11 stamps offered the same image of Washington, while in the 1938 "prexies" series, 29 of the 32 stamps presented busts of presidents; the 1975 Americana Series marked a clear end to this tradition, being the first U. S. definitive issue on which no presidential portrait appeared. Every U. S. president, deceased as of 2016 has appeared on at least one U. S. postage stamp, all but Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford have appeared on at least two. A stamp honoring George H. W. Bush, who died November 30, 2018, was released and first issued on June 12, 2019; the portrayals of various American presidents made their first appearances on U.

S. postage at different times for different reasons. Among the most definitive is George Washington, whose engraving appeared on the first U. S. Postage stamps released by the U. S. Post Office, on July 1 of 1847. Thomas Jefferson first appeared on U. S. postage in March 1856, nine years after the first issues were released. Fifteen years of stamp issuance would pass before Andrew Jackson would appear on a U. S. postage stamp. However, by this time, Jackson had been presented on two Confederate stamps, making him the only U. S. president introduced to postage by the Confederacy rather than the U. S. Post Office. Abraham Lincoln appeared for the first time on a U. S. postage stamp with the issue of 1866, released on April 14, 1866, the first anniversary of his death. Up until this time only the portrayals of Washington, Franklin and Jackson were found on U. S. postage. The First Washington postage stamp; the 5-cent Franklin and the 10-cent Washington postage stamps issued in 1847 were the first postage stamps issued and authorized for nationwide postal duty by the U.

S. Post Offi


Cremona is a city and comune in northern Italy, situated in Lombardy, on the left bank of the Po River in the middle of the Pianura Padana. It is the capital of the province of Cremona and the seat of the local city and province governments; the city of Cremona is noted for its musical history and traditions, including some of the earliest and most renowned luthiers, such as Giuseppe Guarneri, Antonio Stradivari, Francesco Rugeri, Vincenzo Rugeri, several members of the Amati family. Cremona is first mentioned in history as a settlement of the Cenomani, a Gallic tribe that arrived in the Po valley around 400 BC. However, the name Cremona most dates back to earlier settlers and puzzled the ancients, who gave many fanciful interpretations. In 218 BC the Romans established on that spot their first military outpost north of the Po river, kept the old name. Cremona and nearby Placentia, were founded in the same year, as bases for penetration into what became the Roman Province of Gallia Cisalpina.

Cremona grew into one of the largest towns in northern Italy, as it was on the main road connecting Genoa to Aquileia, the Via Postumia. It supplied troops to Julius Caesar and benefited from his rule, but supported Marcus Iunius Brutus and the Senate in their conflict with Augustus, having won, in 40 BC confiscated Cremona's land and redistributed it to his men; the famous poet Virgil, who went to school in Cremona, had to forfeit his ancestral farm, but regained it. The city's prosperity continued to increase until 69 AD, when it was sacked and destroyed in the Second Battle of Bedriacum by the troops of Vespasian under command of Marcus Antonius Primus, fighting to install him as Emperor against his rival Vitellius. Cremona was rebuilt with the help of the new emperor Vespasian, but it seems to have failed to regain its former prosperity as it disappeared from history until the 6th century, when it resurfaced as a military outpost of the Eastern Roman Empire during the Gothic War; when the Lombards invaded much of Italy in the second half of the 6th century AD, Cremona remained a Byzantine stronghold as part of the Exarchate of Ravenna.

The city expanded towards the north-west, with the creation of a great trenched camp outside the walls. In 603, it was again destroyed, its territory was divided between the two duchies of Bergamo. However, in 615 queen Theodelinda, a devout Roman Catholic intent on converting her people, had Cremona rebuilt and re-installed a bishop there. Control of the city fell to its bishop, who became a Holy Roman Empire vassal after Charlemagne's conquest of Italy. In this way, Cremona increased its power and its prosperity and some of its bishops had important roles between the 10th and 11th centuries. Bishop Liutprand of Cremona was a member of the Imperial court under the Saxony dynasty and Olderic gained strong privileges for his city from emperor Otto III, its economy was boosted by the creation of a river port out of the former Byzantine fortress. However, the two bishops Ubaldo created discord with the city's people. Emperor Conrad II settled the quarrel by entering in Cremona in 1037 together with the young Pope Benedict IX.

Under Henry IV, Cremona refused to pay the oppressive taxes requested by the bishop. According to a legend, the great gonfaloniere Giovanni Baldesio of Cremona faced the emperor himself in a duel; as Henry was knocked from his horse, the city was saved the annual payment of the 3 kg golden ball, for that year, was instead given to Berta, Giovanni's girlfriend, as her dowry. The first historical news about a free Cremona is from 1093, as it entered into an anti-Empire alliance led by Mathilde of Canossa, together with Lodi and Piacenza; the conflict ended with the defeat of Henry IV and his famous humiliation of Canossa to Pope Urban II in 1098. Cremona gained the area around the nearby city of Crema, as its territory. After that time, the new commune warred against nearby cities to enlarge its territory. In 1107 Cremona conquered Tortona, but four years its army was defeated near Bressanoro; as in many northern Italian cities, the people were divided into two opposing parties, the Guelphs, who were stronger in the new city, the Ghibellines, who had their base in the old city.

The parties were so irreconcilable that the former built a second Communal Palace, the still existing Palazzo Cittanova. When Frederick Barbarossa descended into Italy to assert his authority, Cremona sided with him in order to gain his support against Crema, which had rebelled with the help of Milan; the subsequent victory and its loyal imperial stance earned Cremona the right to create a mint for its own coinage in 1154. In 1162, Imperial and Cremonese forces destroyed it. However, in 1167 the city joined the Lombard League, its troops were part of the army. However, the Lombard League did not survive this victory for long. In 1213, at Castelleone, the Cremonese defeated the League of Milan, Crema, Novara and Brescia. In 1232, Cremona allied itself with Emperor Frederick II, again trying to reassert the Empire's authority over Northern Italy. In the Battle of Cortenuova, the Cremonese were on the winning side. Thereafter Frederick held his court in the city. In the Battle of Parma, the Ghibellines suffered a heavy defeat and up to two thousand Cremonese were made prisoners.

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Mahammad Hasan Movlazadeh Shakavi

Movlazada Mahammad Hasan Ismayil oglu Shakavi was a noble Azerbaijani religious leader and scholar, the sixth Sheikh ul-Islam of the Caucasus and the first scholar who translated Quran into the Azerbaijani language and provided detailed commentary and interpretation. Mahammad Hasan was born in 1854, he received his first religious education at Shaki mollakhane, which he continued at Ganja Madrasa. After graduation from madrasah he served for a few years as mullah of Ganja Jum'a mosque, he decided to continue his education and for this purpose traveled to Iraq where he advanced his degree in religion studies. In 1891 he returned to the Caucasus and published the first joint Hijri and Gregorian calendars in Persian. In 1893 Mahammad Hasan Movlazada started teaching Islamic religious law at Tiflis Muslim Religious Scholl, he served as Ghazi of Jabrayil, Ganja and Kutaisi regions. In 1908 Mahammad Hasan Movlazada had been elected as the sixth Sheikh ul-Islam of Muslims of the Caucasus. In 1908 in Tiflis he publishes Kitab al-bayan fi tafsir al-Quran - the two-volume edition of Koran's translation and tafsir.

This work has been re-published in Baku in 1990. Movlazada Mahammad Hasan Ismayil oglu Shakavi died in 1932 in Tbilisi

Edward Wilson Davis

Edward Wilson Davis was an American engineer and inventor famous for pioneering early research into taconite. As a researcher at the University of Minnesota, Davis developed an engineering process to economically extract iron ore from hard taconite rocks, making taconite valuable as iron ore for the iron and steel industries, he worked with industrial firms such as the Mesabi Iron Company and the Reserve Mining Company to transform his research into a working industry on northeast Minnesota's Iron Range. Davis was known as "Mr. Taconite" for his efforts. Davis was born on May 1888, in Cambridge City, Indiana, he pursued courses in science and engineering and received a degree in electrical engineering from Purdue University in 1911. In 1912, Davis began working as a mathematics instructor at the University of Minnesota. In 1913, Davis began working on taconite. Over the next four decades, Davis devised a process to crush the hard rock, separate the iron from the crushed rock using magnets, roll the iron into pellets suitable for transport and use in a blast furnace.

Davis earned 19 patents for his many innovations. In the 1950s, Davis's research was used to create several taconite processing plants in northeast Minnesota; the Reserve Mining Company honored Davis by naming its Silver Bay, facility the E. W. Davis Works. In addition to his taconite research, Davis was active in Minnesota politics and history, he published an account of his research, Pioneering With Taconite, with the Minnesota Historical Society in 1964. A Basic Explanation of Taconite Mining and Processing Davis's Entry in the Minnesota Inventors Hall of Fame Finding Aid for Davis's Papers at the Minnesota Historical Society

Jacob Ben-Arie

Jacob Ben-Arie is a former Israeli paralympic champion. Ben-Arie was born in grandson of Yerachmiel Tzimbal. Shortly after he was born the family moved to live in Kibbutz Gesher, where he was affected by polio in 1952. In 1960 the family moved Givatayim, where he began in 1962 to practice sports at the Israel Sports Center for the Disabled. Between 1968–1976, Ben-Arie completed a degree in Biology at Tel Aviv University and studied for MA in Psychology and Biomechanics at New York University. Alongside his studies he continued to practice in wheelchair basketball and athletics. Throughout the years he took part in Paralympic Games. Beginning in 1978, Ben-Arie worked at "Telrad" telecommunications company. Promoted to the rank of deputy CEO, he retired in 1998. Appointed in 2002 as director of the Israel Sports Center for the Disabled, he held the position until 2011. Results for Ben-Arie from the International Paralympic Committee