Nero was the last Roman emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. He became Claudius' heir and successor. Like Claudius, Nero became emperor with the consent of the Praetorian Guard. Nero's mother, Agrippina the Younger, dominated Nero's early life and decisions until he cast her off and had her killed five years into his reign. During the early years of his reign, Nero was content to be guided by his mother, his tutor Lucius Annaeus Seneca, his Praetorian prefect Sextus Afranius Burrus; as time passed, he started to play a more active and independent role in government and foreign policy. During his reign, the redoubtable general Corbulo conducted a successful war and negotiated peace with the Parthian Empire, his general Suetonius Paulinus crushed a major revolt in Britain, led by the Iceni Queen Boudica. The Bosporan Kingdom was annexed to the empire, the First Jewish–Roman War began. Nero focused much of his attention on diplomacy and the cultural life of the empire, ordering theatres built and promoting athletic games.
He made public appearances as an actor, poet and charioteer. In the eyes of traditionalists, this undermined the dignity and authority of his person and office, his extravagant, empire-wide program of public and private works was funded by a rise in taxes, much resented by the upper classes. In contrast, his populist style of rule remained popular among the lower classes of Rome and the provinces until his death and beyond. Various plots against his life were revealed. In 68 AD Vindex, governor of the Gaulish territory Gallia Lugdunensis, rebelled, he was supported by the governor of Hispania Tarraconensis. Vindex's revolt failed in its immediate aim, but Nero fled Rome when Rome's discontented civil and military authorities chose Galba as emperor, he committed suicide on June 9, 68 AD, when he learned that he had been tried in absentia and condemned to death as a public enemy, making him the first Roman Emperor to commit suicide. His death ended the Julio-Claudian dynasty, sparking a brief period of civil wars known as the Year of the Four Emperors.
Nero's rule is associated with tyranny and extravagance. Most Roman sources, such as Suetonius and Cassius Dio, offer overwhelmingly negative assessments of his personality and reign. Suetonius tells that many Romans believed that the Great Fire of Rome was instigated by Nero to clear the way for his planned palatial complex, the Domus Aurea. According to Tacitus he was said to have seized Christians as scapegoats for the fire and burned them alive motivated not by public justice but by personal cruelty; some modern historians question the reliability of the ancient sources on Nero's tyrannical acts. A few sources paint Nero in a more favorable light. There is evidence of his popularity among the Roman commoners in the eastern provinces of the Empire, where a popular legend arose that Nero had not died and would return. At least three leaders of short-lived, failed rebellions presented themselves as "Nero reborn" to enlist popular support. Nero was born Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus on 15 December 37 AD in Antium.
He was the only son of Agrippina the Younger. His maternal grandparents were Agrippina the Elder, he was Augustus' great-great grandson, descended from the first Emperor's only daughter, Julia. The ancient biographer Suetonius, critical of Nero's ancestors, wrote that Augustus had reproached Nero's grandfather for his unseemly enjoyment of violent gladiator games. According to Jürgen Malitz, Suetonius tells that Nero's father was known to be "irascible and brutal", that both "enjoyed chariot races and theater performances to a degree not befitting their position."Nero's father, died in 40. A few years before his death, Domitius had been involved in a political scandal that, according to Malitz, "could have cost him his life if Tiberius had not died in the year 37." In the previous year, Nero's mother Agrippina had been caught up in a scandal of her own. Caligula's beloved sister Drusilla had died and Caligula began to feel threatened by his brother-in-law Marcus Aemilius Lepidus. Agrippina, suspected of adultery with her brother-in-law, was forced to carry the funerary urn after Lepidus' execution.
Caligula banished his two surviving sisters and Julia Livilla, to a remote island in the Mediterranean Sea. According to The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome, Agrippina was exiled for plotting to overthrow Caligula. Nero's inheritance was taken from him and he was sent to live with his paternal aunt Domitia Lepida, the mother of Claudius' third wife Valeria Messalina. Caligula's reign lasted from 37 until 41, he died from multiple stab wounds in January of 41 after being ambushed by his own Praetorian Guard on the Palatine Hill. Claudius succeeded Caligula as Emperor. Agrippina became his fourth wife. By February 49, she had persuaded Claudius to adopt her son Nero. After Nero's adoption, "Claudius" became part of his name: Nero Claudius Caesar Drusus Germanicus. Claudius had gold coins issued to mark the adoption. Classics professor Josiah Osgood has written that "the coins, through their distribution and imagery alike, showed that a new Leader was in the making." David Shotter noted that, despite events in Rome, Nero's step-brother Britannicus was more prominent in provincial coinages during the early 50s.
Nero formally entered public life as an adult in 51 AD—he was around 14 years old
Geoffrey Kelley is a Canadian politician and teacher. He was a member of National Assembly of Quebec for the riding of Jacques-Cartier in Montreal's West Island region from 1994 to 2018, representing the Quebec Liberal Party. Kelley went to the Université de Montréal to study French courses and obtained a diploma at John Abbott College, he would obtain a bachelor's degree in history and a master's degree in modern history of Canada at McGill University. He was a teacher at Commission scolaire du Lakeshore and a lecturer at various institutions including John Abbott College, Collège Marie-Victorin and McGill University, he was the political aide for several cabinet ministers including the Minister of Education, the Minister of Municipal Affairs and Public Security and was a chief of staff of the Deputy Premier and the President of the Treasury Board. Kelley jumped into politics when he was elected in 1994 in Jacques-Cartier and re-elected in 1998, he served as the Liberal critic in native affairs.
After being re-elected in 2003, he was a backbencher until he was named Minister for Native Affairs in 2005. Despite being re-elected to a fourth term in the 2007 elections, he was not re-appointed to Jean Charest's cabinet, he became chair of the Social Affairs Commission. In 2011 he was re-appointed as Minister for Native Affairs, he announced his retirement in 2018, was succeeded by his son Greg Kelley in the 2018 election. "Biography". Dictionnaire des parlementaires du Québec de 1792 à nos jours. National Assembly of Quebec
Durham University Electric Motorsport is a student-run team in the United Kingdom that designs and constructs solar powered cars to compete in international competitions. DUEM is the longest running solar car team in the UK and is financed by third party donations and sponsorship. Durham University Electric Motorsport is based in the university’s School of Engineering, with a team size of around 50 undergraduate students split broadly across mechanical, electrical and business sub-teams; the team is strongly supported by graduates and academics within the department with expertise in the fields of solar technology, racing car aerodynamics, direct-drive electrical machines and electrical/hybrid vehicles. Some concepts and features implemented in the vehicles have been developed as part of final year undergraduate projects; the team was founded as Durham University Solar Car in 2002, it built its first vehicle in 2004. DUSC’s first competitive event was the 2008 North American Solar Challenge in which they finished 14th out of 26 competitors, earning the “Best Rookie Team” award.
They were the only British team to compete. DUSC competed in the 2011 Veolia World Solar Challenge race across Australia, qualifying in the top ten & finishing 33rd out of 42 entrants. In 2014 Durham University Solar Car combined with Durham University Formula Student to create Durham University Electric Motorsport. DUEM developed a new solar powered vehicle called DUSC 2015, paying homage to the design work carried out while the team was still known as DUSC - DUSC 2015 competed in the 2015 Bridgestone World Solar Challenge. In 2017, the team headed back to Australia to compete once more with a modified version of DUSC 2015, showing an improvement in performance and completing more than 1000km on solar power. DUEM participates in local community and awareness outreach events, including touring schools and museum exhibitions to promote science and engineering. In 2010, DUEM ran a successful demonstration event with Cambridge University Eco Racing; the steel space frame chassis was designed using finite element analysis software.
The chassis is strong enough to withstand a heavy impact, whilst being as light as possible. The suspension consists of racing shock absorbers, with a conventional double wishbone arrangement at the front and a trailing arm at the rear. Special brake calipers are used, which retract to ensure there are no frictional losses when the brakes are not applied. Specialist solar car tyres are employed to reduce rolling resistance. A combination of high-efficiency silicon solar cells and maximum power point trackers are used to extract the maximum possible power from the available solar energy and feed it into a lithium iron phosphate battery pack; the vehicle is driven by a specially designed axial flux wheel motor via a custom controller, resulting in higher efficiency and less transmission loss than conventional electric motors. The vehicle makes use of a telemetry system operating the CAN protocol to communicate real-time vehicle data over a radio link to a support vehicle. Using this data, the driver may make control adjustments to the vehicle to account for the current performance of the electrical package.
The same car was raced both as DUSC2008 across North America and as DUSC2011 across Australia. The major changes between the two are that in 2008 a chain drive was used instead of the in wheel motor, lead acid batteries were used instead of lithium iron, a commercial solar array was used instead of in-house custom encapsulated panels. There were numerous other minor changes. DUSC 2015 is a Challenger Class solar car designed to compete in the 2015 Bridgestone World Solar Challenge, it is the first vehicle built by DUEM to feature a carbon fibre monocoque, offering significant weight savings over earlier spaceframe designs. Extensive finite element analysis was performed on the chassis to optimise its design and crash safety; the car uses a 4-wheeled catamaran configuration, designed to have minimal frontal area to reduce drag. The car's front suspension is a duolever design, chosen for its favourable packaging requirements. Carbon trailing arm rear suspension is used to reduce unsprung mass. Industrial hydraulic retracting brake calipers are used to minimise mechanical power losses.
DUSC 2015 runs on specialist Schwalbe Energiser S tyres, featuring a solar car specific low rolling resistance compound. DUSC 2015 has a 6 m2 solar array, using high-efficiency cells from Gochermann Solar Technology; the array is capable of providing 1.4 kW at peak sunlight, which can drive the motor directly or feed excess power into the lithium iron phosphate battery pack. The car uses a bespoke in-hub brushless motor manufactured in Durham University; the axial flux machine is a derivative of a concept first designed in 2011, optimised to give a peak efficiency of 98%, develops a maximum power of 5 kW. The machine drives the rear left wheel of the vehicle only, made possible by the vehicle's asymmetric weight distribution. To capture as much telemetry data as possible, custom circuitry termed. Sensor nodes are designed so they can all communicate to each other across the length of the vehicle, as well as each individual node being able to interface with over 20 different sensors each; this allows some data to be relayed to the driver via the dashboard.
The 2017 car from DUEM called'DUSC', is a modified version of DUSC 2015. While several aspects remained unchanged from the 2015 car, changes were made both to improve performance and comply with new regulations introduced for Challenger-class vehicles in the 2017 Bridgestone World Solar Challenge. To improve hand
Matti Rajakylä is a former freestyle and butterfly swimmer from Finland. He has hold several Finnish national records in short course, he participated in the Summer Olympics in Athens 2004 and Beijing 2008. Rajakylä's achievements include the bronze in the 50 m freestyle at the European Junior Championships in Linz, Austria in 2002, the bronze in the 4×50 m medley relay at the European Short Course Swimming Championships in Wien, Austria in 2004 and the bronze in the 50 m butterfly at the European SC Championships in Trieste, Italy in 2005 with a time of 23.17. Rajakylä finished third in the semi-finals of 50m butterfly at the European LC Championships 2006 in Budapest, but was left on sixth position in the finals. In December, at the European Short Course Swimming Championships 2006 in Helsinki, Rajakylä managed to achieve silver medal status in the men's 4 x 50m medley relay, he came in last in each of his personal finals. In April 2009 Rajakylä announced. Rajakylä has hold Finnish national records in following events: Rajakylä has set the world record for the 24-hour swim along with other Finnish swimmers in September 2005.
Matti Rajakylä at Olympics at Sports-Reference.com
K-14 is a 219.276-mile-long north–south state highway which runs most of the length of the U. S. state of Kansas. The highway runs through the central part of the state. K-14's southern terminus is at U. S. Route 160 and K-2 in the City of Harper, the northern terminus is a continuation as N-14 at the Nebraska border north of the City of Mankato. K-14 begins on its southern end at US-160 in the town of Harper in Harper County. From there, it travels north into Kingman County, crossing the Chikaskia River near the community of Rago. K-14 continues north to Kingman, where it crosses the South Fork of the Ninnescah River and meets US-54/US-400. K-14 travels east with US-54/400 for 10 miles before turning north again near Waterloo, continuing into Reno County, where it crosses the North Fork of the Ninnescah River. K-14 meets K-96 just south of South Hutchinson, are duplexed for 3 miles, until they meet US-50 and K-61, where all four routes run concurrently for 2 miles to the west, when K-14 and K-96 turn north and pass through Nickerson, US-50 and K-61 continue west.
The two highways enter Rice County just south of Sterling before passing through the town. The highway crosses the Arkansas River before encountering Lyons, US-56, at which point K-96 splits from K-14 and continues west along US-56 toward Great Bend, while K-14 continues north into Ellsworth County. In the historic town of Ellsworth, the highway crosses the Smoky Hill River and continues north to I-70. K-14 travels east along I-70 for 2 miles before exiting and resuming north into Lincoln County, where K-14 passes through the Smoky Hills Wind Farm. K-14 passes north through Lincoln and Mitchell Counties, crossing the Saline River in the town of Lincoln and the Solomon River in Beloit; the highway jogs to the west for close to 2 miles at the Mitchell/Jewell county line before continuing north into Jewell County. K-14 meets US-36 just east of Mankato. K-14 is duplexed with US-36 for three miles as it heads east, before splitting off again to the north. K-14 passes over White Rock Creek at the far western end of Lovewell Reservoir and continues north into Nebraska near the town of Superior, where the highway continues as Nebraska Highway 14.
The northern and southern halves of the highway differ significantly in terms of terrain and landscape. The southern half of K-14 travels over flat terrain in the valley of the Arkansas River. Just north of the intersection with K-4 in southern Ellsworth County, K-14 passes into the Smoky Hills region, traveling over a series of broad, rolling hills, providing several scenic vistas of the surrounding countryside; the portion of the highway between Lincoln and Beloit is hilly. In a September 9, 2009 resolution, K-14 was rerouted along K-61 from Arlington to Hutchinson along K-96 from Hutchinson to the former end of the K-14 / K-96 overlap; until 2013, K-14 followed US-54 / US-400 west out of Kingman for 4 miles. From there it went north to K-61 and through Arlington and continued north met K-96 south of Sterling. In 2013, K-14 was realigned to the now defunct K-17, K-11 took over a section of original K-14 alignment from US-54 / US-400 north to K-61. All exits are unnumbered
Shades of Fern is a 1986 Czechoslovak crime film directed by František Vláčil. It is based on a novella by Josef Čapek of the same name. Rudolf likes to illegally hunt in a local forest, he is accompanied by his friend Václav. One day, they are caught by a Gamekeeper and they murder him, they run away. They realize they have to leave the village, they are trying to avoid police. Vašek becomes sick and Rudolf wants to leave him behind but Václav goes on, they meet Rousová and try to rape her but she escapes. They are found by Policeman Marjánka and Rudolf shoots him. Sensitive Václav is scared of Rudolf's brutality, they are surrounded by police and Rudolf is killed. Václav is hiding at his body whole night, he kills himself in the morning. Marek Probosz as Rudolf Aksamit Zbigniew Suszyński as Václav Kala Miroslav Macháček as Gamekeeper/Vagabund/Beggar František Peterka as Father Aksamit Vladimír Hlavatý as Čepelka Milada Ježková as Čepelka's wife Shades of Fern on IMDb