SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Nerva

Nerva was Roman emperor from 96 to 98. Nerva became emperor when aged 66, after a lifetime of imperial service under Nero and the rulers of the Flavian dynasty. Under Nero, he was a member of the imperial entourage and played a vital part in exposing the Pisonian conspiracy of 65; as a loyalist to the Flavians, he attained consulships in 71 and 90 during the reigns of Vespasian and Domitian, respectively. On 18 September 96, Domitian was assassinated in a palace conspiracy involving members of the Praetorian Guard and several of his freedmen. On the same day, Nerva was declared emperor by the Roman Senate, although it is possible they were approving a decision made by the Praetorian Guard, as rare coins show him speaking with this group; as the new ruler of the Roman Empire, he vowed to restore liberties, curtailed during the autocratic government of Domitian. Nerva's brief reign was marred by financial difficulties and his inability to assert his authority over the Roman army. A revolt by the Praetorian Guard in October 97 forced him to adopt an heir.

After some deliberation Nerva adopted a young and popular general, as his successor. After fifteen months in office, Nerva died of natural causes on 27 January 98. Upon his death he was deified by Trajan. Although much of his life remains obscure, Nerva was considered a wise and moderate emperor by ancient historians. Nerva's greatest success was his ability to ensure a peaceful transition of power after his death by selecting Trajan as his heir, thus founding the Nerva–Antonine dynasty. Marcus Cocceius Nerva was born in the village of Narni, 50 kilometers north of Rome, as the son of Marcus Cocceius Nerva, Suffect Consul during the reign of Caligula, Sergia Plautilla. Ancient sources report the date as either 30 or 35, he had at least one attested sister, named Cocceia, who married Lucius Salvius Titianus Otho, the brother of the earlier Emperor Otho. Like Vespasian, the founder of the Flavian dynasty, Nerva was a member of the Italian nobility rather than one of the elite of Rome; the Cocceii were among the most esteemed and prominent political families of the late Republic and early Empire, attaining consulships in each successive generation.

The direct ancestors of Nerva on his father's side, all named Marcus Cocceius Nerva, were associated with imperial circles from the time of Emperor Augustus. His great-grandfather was Consul in 36 BC, Governor of Asia in the same year, his grandfather became Consul Suffect in July of either 21 or 22, was known as a personal friend of Emperor Tiberius, accompanying the emperor during his voluntary seclusion on Capri from 23 onwards, dying in 33. Nerva's father attained the consulship under the emperor Caligula; the Cocceii were connected with the Julio-Claudian dynasty through the marriage of Sergia Plautilla's brother Gaius Octavius Laenas, Rubellia Bassa, the great-granddaughter of Tiberius. Not much of Nerva's early life or career is recorded, but it appears he did not pursue the usual administrative or military career, he was praetor-elect in the year 65 and, like his ancestors, moved in imperial circles as a skilled diplomat and strategist. As an advisor to Emperor Nero, he helped detect and expose the Pisonian conspiracy of 65.

His exact contribution to the investigation is not known, but his services must have been considerable, since they earned him rewards equal to those of Nero's guard prefect Tigellinus. He received triumphal honors—which was reserved for military victories—and the right to have his statues placed throughout the palace. According to the contemporary poet Martial, Nero held Nerva's literary abilities in high esteem, hailing him as the "Tibullus of our time". Another prominent member of Nero's entourage was Vespasian, an old and respected general who had celebrated military triumphs during the 40s, it appears Vespasian befriended Nerva during his time as an imperial advisor, may have asked him to watch over Vespasian's youngest son Domitian when Vespasian departed for the Jewish war in 67. The suicide of Nero on 9 June 68 brought the Julio-Claudian dynasty to an end, leading to the chaotic Year of the Four Emperors, which saw the successive rise and fall of the emperors Galba and Vitellius, until the accession of Vespasian on 21 December 69.

Nothing is known of Nerva's whereabouts during 69, but despite the fact that Otho was his brother-in-law, he appears to have been one of the earliest and strongest supporters of the Flavians. For services unknown, he was rewarded with a consulship early in Vespasian's reign in 71; this was a remarkable honour, not only because he held this office early under the new regime, but because it was an ordinary consulship, making him one of the few non-Flavians to be honoured in this way under Vespasian. After 71 Nerva again disappears from historical record continuing his career as an inconspicuous advisor under Vespasian and his sons Titus and Domitian, he re-emerges during the revolt of Saturninus in 89. On 1 January 89, the governor of Germania Superior, Lucius Antonius Saturninus, his two legions at Mainz, Legio XIV Gemina and Legio XXI Rapax, revolted against the Roman Empire with the aid of a tribe of the Chatti; the governor of Germania Inferior, Lappius Maximus, moved to the region at once, assisted by the procurator of Rhaetia, Titus Flavius Norbanus.

Within twenty-four days the rebellion was crushed, its leaders at Mainz savagely punished. The mutinous legions were sent to the front of Illyricum, while those who had assisted in their defeat were

Dragon 2

Dragon 2 is a class of reusable spacecraft developed and manufactured by U. S. aerospace manufacturer SpaceX, intended as the successor to the Dragon cargo spacecraft. The spacecraft launches atop returns via ocean splashdown; when compared to Dragon, Crew Dragon has larger windows, new flight computers and avionics, redesigned solar arrays, a modified outer mold line. The spacecraft has two planned variants – Crew Dragon, a human-rated capsule capable of carrying up to seven astronauts, Cargo Dragon, an updated replacement for the original Dragon. Crew Dragon is equipped with an integrated launch escape system in a set of four side-mounted thruster pods with two SuperDraco engines each. Crew Dragon has been contracted to supply the International Space Station with crew under the Commercial Crew Program, with the initial award occurring in October 2014 alongside Boeing CST-100 Starliner. Crew Dragon's first non-piloted test flight to the ISS launched in March 2019. Cargo Dragon will supply the ISS with cargo under the Commercial Resupply Services-2 after a January 2016 selection alongside Northrop Grumman Innovation Systems' Cygnus and Sierra Nevada Corporation's Dream Chaser.

SpaceX's first CRS-2 mission with the Cargo Dragon is slated to occur in August 2020 after SpaceX's final CRS-20 mission with the original Dragon spacecraft. The Crew Dragon capsule that flew in the first test flight was scheduled to be used in a flight abort test before it unexpectedly exploded during a test of its SuperDraco engines on 20 April 2019. An investigation into the explosion was completed on 15 July 2019 and resulted in changes to vehicle plumbing; the in-flight abort test was conducted on 19 January 2020 at 15:30 UTC. The first crewed launch with astronauts Robert L. Behnken and Douglas G. Hurley, is scheduled for 7 May 2020. There are two variants: Cargo Dragon. Crew Dragon was called DragonRider· and it was intended from the beginning to support a crew of seven or a combination of crew and cargo.· It is able to perform autonomous rendezvous and docking with manual override ability using the NASA Docking System.· For typical missions, Crew Dragon will remain docked to the ISS for a period of 180 days, but is designed to remain on the station for up to 210 days, matching the Russian Soyuz spacecraft.·· From the beginning of the development process, SpaceX planned to use an integrated pusher launch escape system for the Dragon spacecraft.··SpaceX intended to land Crew Dragon on land using the LES engines, with parachutes and an ocean splashdown available in the case of an aborted launch.

Precision water landing under parachutes was proposed to NASA as "the baseline return and recovery approach for the first few flights" of Crew Dragon. Propulsive landing was cancelled, leaving ocean splashdown under parachutes as the only option; as of 2011, the Paragon Space Development Corporation was assisting in developing Crew Dragon's life support system. In 2012, SpaceX was in talks with Orbital Outfitters about developing space suits to wear during launch and re-entry; each crew member wears a custom space suit fitted for them. The suit is designed for use inside the Dragon, however in the case of a rapid cabin depressurization the suit can protect the crew members; the suit can provide cooling for astronauts during normal flight.· For the SpX-DM1 test, a test dummy nicknamed Ripley was fitted with the spacesuit and sensors. The spacesuit "is made from Nomex" a fire retardant fabric similar to Kevlar. At a NASA news conference on 18 May 2012, SpaceX confirmed their target launch price for crewed Dragon flights of US$160 million, or about $20 million per seat if the maximum crew of 7 is aboard and NASA orders at least four Crew Dragon flights per year.

This contrasts with the 2014 Soyuz launch price of $76 million per seat for NASA astronauts. The spacecraft's design was unveiled on 29 May 2014, during a press event at SpaceX headquarters in Hawthorne, California.·· In October 2014, NASA selected the Dragon spacecraft as one of the candidates to fly American astronauts to the International Space Station under the Commercial Crew Program.·· SpaceX plans to use the Falcon 9 Block 5 launch vehicle for launching Dragon 2. Dragon 2 includes the following features:·· Dragon 2 is reusable resulting in a significant cost reduction. SpaceX plans to use new capsules for every crewed flight for NASA. Cargo Dragon can carry 3,307 kilograms to the ISS. Above the seats, there is a toilet and the docking hatch. Ocean landings are accomplished with four main parachutes in both variants; the parachute system was redesigned from the one used in the prior Dragon capsule, due to the need to deploy the parachutes under a variety of launch abort scenarios. Crew Dragon has eight side-mounted SuperDraco engines, clustered in redundant pairs in four engine pods, with each engine able to produce 71 kilonewtons of thrust to be used for launch aborts.

Each pod contains four Draco thrusters that can be used for attitude control and orbital maneuvers. The SuperDraco engine combustion chamber is printed of Inconel, an alloy of nickel and iron, using a process of direct metal laser sintering. Engines are contained in a protective nacelle to prevent fault propagation. Once on orbit, Dragon 2 is able to autonomously dock to the ISS. Dragon used berthing, a non-autonomous means to attach to the ISS, completed by use of the Canadarm2 robotic arm. Pilots of Crew Dragon retain the ability to dock the spacecraft using manual controls interfaced with a static tablet-like computer; the spacecra

Charlottesville-Albemarle Tribune

The Charlottesville-Albemarle Tribune was a weekly newspaper in Charlottesville, Virginia published by and for African American residents of the city. While the title suggests that the paper covered Charlottesville and Albemarle County, the paper covered news from surrounding counties of Greene, Culpeper and Nelson counties as well. Founded in 1954 by Randolph Lewis White, it bore the name Charlottesville-Albemarle Tribune through 1992, a year after White's death. At that time, the name changed to The Tribune, this paper ran until 2011. Sherman White co-published the newspaper with Randolph White for many years. Randolph L. White was the editor, Mrs. Donna Reaves was the society editor, Sherman R. White was the advertising representative as well as the author of a column called, "Spotlight on Sports". Both men were involved in desegregation efforts in Charlottesville, the paper contributed important reporting and editorials to the debates in Charlottesville over School integration and Massive resistance.

The newspaper included national columnists such as Vernon E. Jordan, Jr. Wiley Harris, Bayard Rustin, as well as a column from Virginia House Delegate Thomas J. Michie, Jr. For many years, the newspaper included local society columns covering various regions in the area, Proffit, Nelson County, Orange County, Cumberland, Cismont, Shenandoah Valley, Yancey Mills, Louisa County, Charlottesville. In Charlottesville society news, the newspaper would cover such information as meetings of The Phyllis Wheatley Club, The B Square Club, the Bethune Art and Literary Club, The Lucky Twenty Club, the Taylor Art Club, the Mt. Zion Social Club. In editions after holidays, the paper would cover when households traveled to visit far-flung relatives, or when out-of town visitors came to visit a church or parishioner homes. In 1974, the paper included a society editor, Mrs. Donna Reaves, advertising representative Sherman R. White. In December of this year, the subscription rate was $3.00 per six months. Cvillepedia entry Call numbers for The Tribune: LCCN sn95079529 OCLC 27008933 Call numbers for Charlottesville-Albemarle Tribune: LCCN sn95079521 OCLC 12302644