A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of nerve fibres called axons, in the peripheral nervous system. A nerve is the basic unit of the Nervous system. A nerve provides a common pathway for the electrochemical nerve impulses called action potentials that are transmitted along each of the axons to peripheral organs or, in the case of sensory nerves, from the periphery back to the central nervous system; each axon within the nerve is an extension of an individual neuron, along with other supportive cells such as Schwann cells that coat the axons in myelin. Within a nerve, each axon is surrounded by a layer of connective tissue called the endoneurium; the axons are bundled together into groups called fascicles, each fascicle is wrapped in a layer of connective tissue called the perineurium. The entire nerve is wrapped in a layer of connective tissue called the epineurium. In the central nervous system, the analogous structures are known as tracts; each nerve is covered on the outside by a dense sheath of the epineurium.
Beneath this is a layer of flat cells, the perineurium, which forms a complete sleeve around a bundle of axons. Perineurial septae subdivide it into several bundles of fibres. Surrounding each such fibre is the endoneurium; this forms an unbroken tube from the surface of the spinal cord to the level where the axon synapses with its muscle fibres, or ends in sensory receptors. The endoneurium consists of an inner sleeve of material called the glycocalyx and an outer, meshwork of collagen fibres. Nerves are bundled and travel along with blood vessels, since the neurons of a nerve have high energy requirements. Within the endoneurium, the individual nerve fibres are surrounded by a low-protein liquid called endoneurial fluid; this acts in a similar way to the cerebrospinal fluid in the central nervous system and constitutes a blood-nerve barrier similar to the blood-brain barrier. Molecules are thereby prevented from crossing the blood into the endoneurial fluid. During the development of nerve edema from nerve irritation, the amount of endoneurial fluid may increase at the site of irritation.
This increase in fluid can be visualized using magnetic resonance neurography, thus MR neurography can identify nerve irritation and/or injury. Nerves are categorized into three groups based on the direction that signals are conducted: Afferent nerves conduct signals from sensory neurons to the central nervous system, for example from the mechanoreceptors in skin. Efferent nerves conduct signals from the central nervous system along motor neurons to their target muscles and glands. Mixed nerves contain both afferent and efferent axons, thus conduct both incoming sensory information and outgoing muscle commands in the same bundle. Nerves can be categorized into two groups based on where they connect to the central nervous system: Spinal nerves innervate much of the body, connect through the vertebral column to the spinal cord and thus to the central nervous system, they are given letter-number designations according to the vertebra through which they connect to the spinal column. Cranial nerves innervate parts of the head, connect directly to the brain.
They are assigned Roman numerals from 1 to 12, although cranial nerve zero is sometimes included. In addition, cranial nerves have descriptive names. Specific terms are used to describe their actions. A nerve that supplies information to the brain from an area of the body, or controls an action of the body is said to "innervate" that section of the body or organ. Other terms relate to whether the nerve affects the same side or opposite side of the body, to the part of the brain that supplies it. Nerve growth ends in adolescence, but can be re-stimulated with a molecular mechanism known as "Notch signaling". If the axons of a neuron are damaged, as long as the cell body of the neuron is not damaged, the axons would regenerate and remake the synaptic connections with neurons with the help of guidepost cells; this is referred to as neuroregeneration. The nerve begins the process by destroying the nerve distal to the site of injury allowing Schwann cells, basal lamina, the neurilemma near the injury to begin producing a regeneration tube.
Nerve growth factors are produced causing many nerve sprouts to bud. When one of the growth processes finds the regeneration tube, it begins to grow towards its original destination guided the entire time by the regeneration tube. Nerve regeneration is slow and can take up to several months to complete. While this process does repair some nerves, there will still be some functional deficit as the repairs are not perfect. A nerve conveys information in the form of electrochemical impulses carried by the individual neurons that make up the nerve; these impulses are fast, with some myelinated neurons conducting at speeds up to 120 m/s. The impulses travel from one neuron to another by crossing a synapse, where the message is converted from electrical to chemical and back to electrical. Nerves can be categorized into two groups based on function: An afferent nerve fiber conducts sensory information from a sensory neuron to the central nervous system, where the information is processed. Bundles of fibres or axons, in the peripheral nervous system are called nerves, bundles of afferent fibers are known as sensory nerves.
An efferent nerve fiber conducts signals from a motor neuron in the central nervous system to muscles. Bundles of these fibres are known as efferent nerves; the nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting sig
Nishi-Tachiarai Station is a railway station on the Amagi Line located in Tachiarai, Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan. It is operated by a third sector public-private partnership corporation; the station is served by the Amagi Railway Amagi Line and is located 8.4 km from the start of the line at Kiyama. All Amagi Line trains stop at the station; the station consists of a side platform serving a single bi-directional track. There is no station building but an enclosed shelter is provided on the platform for waiting passengers. Access to the platform is by a flight of a ramp. A bike shed is provided by the station entrance and parking for cars is available. Japanese Government Railways opened the station was opened on 28 April 1939 as an intermediate station on its Amagi Line between Kiyama and Amagi. On 1 April 1986, control of the station was handed over to the Amagi Railway. Shiroyama Park Tachiarai Park Maruyama Hospital Kikuchi Post Office Kikuchi Nursery Kikuchi Elementary School Mammy's Tachiarai shop Drug Store Mori Tachiarai shop Japan National Route 500 Oita Expressway
Silverhill is a suburb and Local Government Ward of Hastings, East Sussex. It has a central location within the town; the origin of the name Silverhill is unknown: the first documentary record of the name is on Yeakell and Gardner's map of 1783, where it appears as "Salver Hill". In the early 18th century this was the location of High Ridge Farm, but by 1815 its name was known as Silver Hill Farm to avoid confusion with farms of a similar name on the ridge near Ore; the tenant farmer was John Standen, the farm remained with his family until 1842, when it was bought by Francis Smith. The Silverhill pottery opened in 1838 and provided an important source of employment for local people, it consisted of a large open shed with a tiled roof and a round kiln where roof tiles and chimney pots were made. From the early 1840s the Pottery was owned by Fred Tree, among his workers was an artistic potter named John Pelling, promoted to foreman in 1846. John bought the pottery works five years and married Fred's daughter, Polly.
He became well known for creating a unique style of rustic pottery with a wood-bark design, according to a local story this was inspired by Polly's maiden name. The Tivoli Hotel stood at the junction of Battle Road and Sedlescombe Road North between 1836 and 1860 and, this high-class establishment was so well known that, its local area was known as "Tivoli"; the Tivoli Hotel was near where Barclays Silverhill branch now is. After founding his new town of St Leonards-on-Sea, James Burton gained permission by an Act of Parliament of 1837 to build a turnpike road northwards from Maze Hill to avoid the congestion in Hastings. However, when this was authorized, the Hastings Council obtained the necessary Turnpike Act to build a new road towards London; this road started at Hastings town centre and continued through Bohemia into Battle Road, crossing Burton's road at the Tivoli Hotel. Battle Road is now the B2159, the road that goes through Battle is the A2100. There were controversies over plans to build an ASDA Superstore on the former Marshall Tufflex site, which, in a poll set up by ASDA, gained 72.8% support.
As a result of these controversies, some saying that it would cause extra congestion and pollution', the plans were revised in 2009 and the store was opened on Monday 15 November 2010, complete with café, pharmacy and large car park with a petrol station which opened in 2014. The development led to minor changes in the four-way junction in Silverhill, with new and improved street lighting and extra traffic lights to accommodate heavier traffic flows including a bus layby; the main church is St Matthew's Church on London Road. The original church was built in 1860 but was rebuilt in 1884 by John Loughborough Pearson, who designed Truro and Brisbane Cathedrals as well as other churches in East Sussex. St Matthew's is a Grade II* listed building. St Luke's United Reformed Church was built in 1857 as Silverhill Independent Presbyterian Chapel, was one of the oldest Presbyterian places of worship in southern England. Brooks, Ken. Around Hastings Then and Now. St Leonards-on-Sea: Ken Brooks. ISBN 0-9540513-2-7.
Manwaring Baines, J.. Historic Hastings: a Tapestry of Life. St Leonards-on-Sea: Cinque Ports Press Ltd. ISBN 0-948869-00-3
The 75th Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry was a unit of the Union Army during the American Civil War. It was composed entirely of German-speaking residents of Philadelphia and newly arrived German immigrants. Total enrollment, over the course of the war, was 1,293 men; the 75th Pennsylvania participated in several major battles including Second Bull Run and Gettysburg. The regiment was transferred to the Western Theater in September, 1863. There, it participated in operations in Tennessee, before it was mustered out of service on September 1, 1865, following the close of the war. Colonel Henry Bohlen Colonel Francis Mahler Major August Ledig Lt. Colonel Alvin V. Matzdorff Company A – Capt. Julius Oswald Capt. Reinhard Gerke Company B – Capt. August Sehmann Company C – Capt. Rudolph Schwartz Capt. Charles Saalmann. Company D – Capt. Philip T. Schopp Roderick Theune Company E – Capt. August Ledig Capt. Roswell G Feltue Company F – Capt. Gablenz Wolfgang Capt. Frederick Oppman Capt. Richard Ledig Company G – Capt. Adoph Shoeninger Capt. Frederick Tiedemann Capt. Franz Ehrlich Company H – Capt.
August Sauer Capt. Joseph S. Chandler Capt. William Schindler Company I – Capt. Frederick Winter Company K – Capt. Christian Wyck Capt. Frederick Fromhagen September 1861 - November 1861. Casey's Provisional Division, Army of the Potomac. November 1861 - March 1862. Bohlen's 3rd Brigade, Blenker's Division, Army of the Potomac. March 1862 - April 1862. Third Brigade, Blenker's Division, Second Corps, Army of the Potomac. April 1862 - June 1862. Third Brigade, Blenker's Division, Mountain Department. June 1862 - September 1862. Second Brigade, Third Division, First Corps, Army of Virginia. September 1862 - October 1863. Second Brigade, Third Division, Eleventh Corps, Army of the Potomac. October 1863 - April 1864. Third Brigade, Third Division, Eleventh Corps, Army of the Cumberland. April 1864 - March 1865. Unattached, Fourth Division, 20th Army Corps, Department of the Cumberland. March 1865 - September 1865. First Brigade, First Sub-District of Middle Tennessee. Organization Henry Bohlen, a wealthy Philadelphia liquor merchant, financed and organized the 75th Pennsylvania during August and September 1861.
As his second in command, Bohlen selected Francis Mahler. The regiment fitted out at Camp Worth in Hestonville in West Philadelphia. On September 25, 1861, the regiment, by numbering about 800 men, departed camp on foot and marched to downtown Philadelphia. There, the unit was presented with national colors. At midnight, the troops departed Philadelphia for Washington, D. C. by train. Winter of 1861-1862 After arriving in the nation's capital, the 75th Pennsylvania crossed the Potomac by way of the Long Bridge and went into camp near Roach's Mills on Four Mile Run. In October, it moved into permanent winter quarters near Virginia. In November, 1861, the regiment was assigned to The Third Brigade of Louis Blenker's Division, composed of German-American regiments. On November 22, the regiment participated in the review of the Army of Potomac at Bailey's Cross Roads by President Lincoln and General McClellan. Shenandoah Valley Operations Beginning on March 10, 1862, the 75th Pennsylvania served as forward guard during the advance on Manassas, Virginia.
The men passed through Annandale, Burke's Station, Fairfax Courthouse. They marched west to Centreville, and, from there, continued through Newmarket, Milford and Cattlett Station. By March 26, the regiment had arrived in Warrenton Junction. During this march, the troops suffered from want of provisions and shelter. After passing through Upperville and Paris, the regiment was ordered across the Shenandoah River at Berry's Ferry; the river was swollen with melted snow. A boat carrying troops from companies I and K capsized in mid river, resulting in the loss of 53 lives; the accident was described as follows: On the 15th was ordered to cross the Shenandoah, move to Winchester, in pursuit of Stonewall Jackson's force confronting Ban
"Lady Lazarus" is the eighth episode of the fifth season of the American television drama series Mad Men and the 60th episode of the series overall. It was directed by Phil Abraham, it aired on the AMC channel in the United States on May 6, 2012. The episode is set in October 1966. Megan has second thoughts on her career path after the success with Heinz but finds it difficult to tell Don. Peggy, unwittingly caught between the two when Megan's lie comes to light expresses her frustrations to both Megan and Don. Pete finds. After a sexual encounter one evening with a neighbor, he becomes obsessed with wanting to repeat the experience. Don returns to creative work full throttle, only to find the cultural changes of the 1960s have left him behind. "Lady Lazarus" was watched by 2.29 million viewers during its initial broadcast, drew in 0.7 million viewers in the coveted 18–49 demographic. It received considerable acclaim from the television critical community; the episode's title is named after a poem of the same name written by Sylvia Plath.
The episode is notable for its use of The Beatles master recording of "Tomorrow Never Knows" from the album Revolver. Creator Matthew Weiner paid for permission and engaged in a creative collaboration in order to use the song. Pete discusses life insurance with Howard, his commuter friend, who reveals that he has a new, attractive mistress and an apartment in the city. In the train station parking lot one evening, Howard's wife, asks Pete if he knows her husband and tells Pete she has locked her keys in her car. Pete drives her home, he comforts her, she kisses him, leading them to have sex on the floor of her home. After the incident, Beth tells Pete to forget. Pete continues to yearn for Beth afterwards, calling her and orchestrating a situation in which Howard invites him to dinner with Beth at their home. Before Pete creates an excuse to leave, he tells Beth to meet him at the Hotel Pennsylvania. Pete checks into the hotel; when Beth doesn't arrive, Pete smashes a champagne glass against the wall.
Megan begins to resent her job in advertising. After Peggy catches her in a lie meant to cover up her going to an audition, Megan confesses as much to Peggy, who scolds her for taking a high-value job in the agency that others would "kill to have". Late one night, Megan wakes Don up to tell him of her desire to start acting again, with Don's apparent blessing, she quits her job at the agency the next morning. Don sees her off to the elevator. Moments after Megan leaves, Don calls up another elevator. After the elevator doors open, Don looks down to find no elevator, just a bare elevator shaft, he peers down into the empty abyss and steps backward. Don complains to Megan about not knowing what is going on in youth and popular culture, leading Megan to bring him a copy of The Beatles album Revolver, she tells him to start with the song "Tomorrow Never Knows". As Megan leaves for acting class, Don sits with a glass of whiskey, he listens to most of the song, but picks up the needle, turns the record off, walks back to his bedroom in silence.
The song resumes during the end credits. The episode was directed by Phil Abraham. Matthew Weiner expanded on the significance of the empty elevator shaft: "In my mind, that happened; the elevator wasn't there. I thought, an amazing cinematic representation of his emotional state, he still had one thing left to say to her, she’s gone, into the abyss. She’s gone off on her own. That’s all that, supposed to be. Is someone going to fall down an elevator shaft? No. I will go on record as saying that." "Lady Lazarus" was viewed by 2.29 million viewers on the night of its original airing. It drew 0.7 million viewers in the 18–49 demographic. The episode received praise from television critics; the Hollywood Reporter's Tim Goodman stated: "There might be better Mad Men episodes to come, but at this point I'd say Lady Lazarus is the episode Matt Weiner should win an Emmy for writing. He's in command here and he's touching on so many longtime Mad Men truisms – including the main one, existentialism – that he makes it look effortless."
Emily VanderWerff of The A. V. Club gave the episode an A grade: "'Lady Lazarus' feels big, it feels like a Rosetta Stone for the season, one that we don't have all of the pieces to read just yet, but an episode that will seem more great in retrospect once we do. At the same time, analyzing it feels more like taking hold of one thing and trying to make it stand in for the episode as a whole." TIME magazine writer Nate Rawlings stated: "If Megan's phone-booth conversation was the beginning of a new and exciting chapter in her life, Pete Campbell's off-the-record chat was the low point in a year that has seen his life spiral out of control. Professionally, things could hardly be going better for Pete. Companies are lining up to work with him, the new, mellow Roger is all too willing to pass off work and help from the sidelines, but Pete is a disaster." Alan Sepinwall of HitFix stated: "Early in'Lady Lazarus', Don complains to Megan that he has no idea what's happening in pop culture anymore. She reassures him.
Culturally, it feels like we've seen more change in this season than the four previous, that rate is only accelerating." "Lady Lazarus" at AMC "Lady Lazarus" on IMDb "Lady Lazarus" at TV
Katharine G. Abraham is an American economist, the director of the Maryland Center for Economics and Policy, a professor of survey methodology and economics at the University of Maryland, she was commissioner of the Bureau of Labor Statistics from 1993–2001 and a member of the Council of Economic Advisers from 2011–2013. Abraham holds a bachelor of science degree in economics from Iowa State University and a Ph. D. in economics from Harvard University. She was an assistant professor at MIT's Sloan School of Management and a research associate at the Brookings Institution before joining the faculty at the University of Maryland in 1988. During her time as commissioner of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, Abraham laid the groundwork for the American Time Use Survey, the first U. S. government survey of time use, established the Federal Economic Statistics Advisory Committee. During extensive public debate on the Consumer Price Index in the 1990s, Abraham testified before Congress on the shortcomings of existing methodology and the necessity of making revisions based on objective research.
She expanded coverage of the prices of services in the Producer Price Index. Abraham's research has included studies of the effects of job duration on wages. S. European, Japanese labor markets, she is a research associate of the National Bureau of Economic Research and the recipient of an honorary doctorate by Iowa State University. She has been awarded the Julius Shiskin Award for Economic Statistics, the Roger Herriot Award for Innovation in Federal Statistics, the Susan C. Eaton Scholar-Practitioner Award of the Labor and Employment Relations Association, she is the Society of Labor Economists. BooksAbraham, Katharine G.. New developments in the labor market: toward a new institutional paradigm. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press. ISBN 9780262011181. Based on papers presented at a conference held at MIT in June 1987. Abraham, Katharine G.. Job security in America: lessons from Germany. Washington, D. C: Brookings Institution. ISBN 9780815700753. Abraham, Katharine G.. Beyond the market designing nonmarket accounts for the United States.
Washington, D. C.: National Academies Press. ISBN 9780309093194. Abraham, Katharine G.. Labor in the new economy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 9780226001432. Journal articlesAbraham, Katharine G.. "Female workers as a buffer in the Japanese economy". The American Economic Review. American Economic Association. 83: 45–51. JSTOR 2117638. Abraham, Katharine G.. "Job security in America: a better approach". The Brookings Review. 11: 34–35. Doi:10.2307/20080404. JSTOR 20080404. Abraham, Katharine G.. "Real wages and the business cycle". Journal of Economic Literature. American Economic Association. 33: 1215–1264. JSTOR 2729121. Abraham, Katharine G.. "Toward a cost-of-living index: progress and prospects". Journal of Economic Perspectives. 17: 45–58. Doi:10.1257/089533003321164949. JSTOR 3216839. Abraham, Katharine G.. "Nonresponse in the American time use survey:, missing from the data and how much does it matter?". Public Opinion Quarterly. 70: 676–703. Doi:10.1093/poq/nfl037. Abraham, Katharine G.. "New evidence on the returns to job skills".
The American Economic Review. 99: 52–57. Doi:10.1257/aer.99.2.52. JSTOR 25592374. Abraham, Katharine G.. "Exploring differences in employment between household and establishment data". Journal of Labor Economics. 31: S129–S172. Doi:10.1086/669062. JSTOR 669062. Abraham, Katharine G.. "Short-time compensation as a tool to mitigate job loss? Evidence on the U. S. experience during the recent recession". Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society. 53: 543–567. Doi:10.1111/irel.12069. SSRN 2048540. Pdf. Working papers and National Bureau of Economic Research papers