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Neuilly-sur-Seine, known as Neuilly, is a commune in the department of Hauts-de-Seine in France, just west of Paris. Adjacent to the city, the area is composed of select residential neighbourhoods, as well as many corporate headquarters and a handful of foreign embassies, it is most expensive suburb of Paris. Together with the 16th and 7th arrondissement of Paris, the town of Neuilly-sur-Seine forms the most affluent and prestigious residential area in the whole of France. Pont de Neuilly was a small hamlet under the jurisdiction of Villiers, a larger settlement mentioned in medieval sources as early as 832 and now absorbed by the commune of Levallois-Perret, it was not until 1222 that the little settlement of Neuilly, established on the banks of the Seine, was mentioned for the first time in a charter of the Abbey of Saint-Denis: the name was recorded in Medieval Latin as Portus de Lulliaco, meaning "Port of Lulliacum." In 1224 another charter of Saint-Denis recorded the name as Lugniacum. In a sales contract dated 1266, the name was recorded as Luingni.

In 1316, however, in a ruling of the parlement of Paris, the name was recorded as Nully, a different name from those recorded before. In a document dated 1376 the name was again recorded as Nulliacum. In the following centuries the name recorded alternated between Luny and Nully, it is only after 1648 that the name was set as Nully; the name spelt Neuilly after the French Academy standard of pronunciation of the ill as a y. Various explanations and etymologies have been proposed to explain these discrepancies in the names of Neuilly recorded over the centuries; the original name of Neuilly may have been Lulliacum or Lugniacum, that it was only corrupted into Nulliacum / Nully. Some interpret Lulliacum or Lugniacum as meaning "estate of Lullius" a Gallo-Roman landowner; this interpretation is based on the many placenames of France made up of the names of Gallo-Roman landowners and suffixed with the traditional placename suffix "-acum." Other researchers, object that it is unlikely that Neuilly owes its name to a Gallo-Roman patronym, because during the Roman occupation of Gaul the area of Neuilly was inside the large Forest of Rouvray, of which the Bois de Boulogne is all that remains today, was not a settlement.

These researchers contend that it is only after the fall of the Roman Empire and the Germanic invasions that the area of Neuilly was deforested and settled. Thus, they think that the name Lulliacum or Lugniacum comes from the ancient Germanic word lund meaning "forest", akin to Old Norse lundr meaning "grove", to which the placename suffix "-acum" was added; the Old Norse word lundr has indeed left many placenames across Europe, such as the city of Lund in Sweden, the Forest of the Londe in Normandy, or the many English placenames containing "lound", "lownde", or "lund" in their name, or ending in "-land." This interesting theory, fails to explain why the "d" of lund is missing in Lulliacum or Lugniacum. Concerning the discrepancy in names over the centuries, the most probable explanation is that the original name Lulliacum or Lugniacum was corrupted into Nulliacum / Nully by inversion of the consonants under the influence of an old Celtic word meaning "swampy land, boggy land", found in the name of many French places anciently covered with water, such as Noue, Noë, Nohant, etc.

Or the consonants were inverted under the influence of the many settlements of France called Neuilly. Until the French Revolution, the settlement was referred to as Port-Neuilly, but at the creation of French communes in 1790 the "Port" was dropped and the newly born commune was named Neuilly. On 1 January 1860, the city of Paris was enlarged by annexing neighbouring communes. On that occasion, a part of the territory of Neuilly-sur-Seine was annexed by the city of Paris, forms now the neighbourhood of Ternes, in the 17th arrondissement of Paris. On 11 January 1867, part of the territory of Neuilly-sur-Seine was detached and merged with a part of the territory of Clichy to create the commune of Levallois-Perret. On 4 June 1878, a Synagogue was founded on Rue Ancelle, the oldest synagogue of Paris' suburbs. On 2 May 1897, the commune name became Neuilly-sur-Seine, in order to distinguish it from the many communes of France called Neuilly. Most people, continue to refer to Neuilly-sur-Seine as "Neuilly."

During the 1900 Summer Olympics, it hosted the basque pelota events. The American Hospital of Paris was founded in 1906. In 1919, the Treaty of Neuilly was signed with Bulgaria in Neuilly-sur-Seine to conclude its role in World War I. In 1929, the Bois de Boulogne, hitherto divided between the communes of Neuilly-sur-Seine and Boulogne-Billancourt, was annexed in its entirety by the city of Paris, it was the site of an important royal residence during the July Monarchy. Neuilly-sur-Seine is served by three stations on Paris Métro Line 1: Porte Maillot, Les Sablons and Pont de Neuilly. RATP Bus service includes the lines 43, 73, 82, 93, 157, 158, 163, 164, 174 Night Bus lines include N11 and N24. Located near France's main business district La Défense, Neuilly-sur-Seine hosts several corporate headquarters: Bureau Veritas, Marathon Media, JCDecaux, Thales Group, M6 Group, PricewaterhouseCoopers France, Parfums Christian Dior (in

Fabrizio Gifuni

Fabrizio Gifuni is an Italian stage and television actor. He won a David di Donatello Award. Born in Rome, the son of the politician Gaetano, Gifuni enrolled at the Silvio D'Amico National Academy of Dramatic Art, graduating in 1992, he made his film debut in La bruttina stagionata. Two years he had his breakout role as Pelaia in Gianni Amelio's The Way We Laughed in 1999 he received a nomination for Best Actor at the David di Donatello for his performance in A Love. In 2002 Gifuni was appointed EFP Shooting Star at the Berlin International Film Festival for his performance in Giuseppe Bertolucci's Probably Love. In 2003 thanks to his performance in The Best of Youth he received her second nomination for David di Donatello and won the Nastro d'Argento for Best Actor along with the rest of the male cast, he received a third nomination for David di Donatello in 2012, for Marco Tullio Giordana's Piazza Fontana: The Italian Conspiracy. In 2014 he won the David di Donatello for Best Supporting Actor and the Nastro d'Argento for Best Actor for his role in Human Capital.

Gifuni is married to actress Sonia Bergamasco. He was son of politician Gaetano Gifuni, former Secretary General of the Italian President from 1992 to 2006 and former Minister for Parliamentary Relations in 1987; the Way We Laughed A Love Johnny the Partisan La Carbonara This Is Not Paradise Empty Eyes Probably Love Winter The Best of Youth Miss F The Sweet and the Bitter The Girl by the Lake Paul VI: The Pope in the Tempest Galantuomini The Cézanne Affair Dark Love C'era una volta la città dei matti... Kryptonite! Piazza Fontana: The Italian Conspiracy La leggenda di Kaspar Hauser Human Capital Sweet Dreams Official website Fabrizio Gifuni on IMDb


Ronchamp is a commune in the Haute-Saône department in the region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté in eastern France. It is located between the Jura mountains. Mining began in Ronchamp in the mid-18th century and had developed into a full industry by the late 19th century, employing 1500 people; the museum looks back at the miners' work, the techniques and tools they used, their social life. A collection of miners' lamps is on display; the chapel of Notre Dame du Haut, designed by Le Corbusier, is located in Ronchamp. It is a shrine for the Catholic Church at Ronchamp and was built for a reformist Church looking to continue its relevancy. Warning against decadence, reformers within the Church looked to renew its spirit by embracing modern art and architecture as representative concepts. Marie-Alain Couturier, who would sponsor Le Corbusier for the La Tourette commission, steered the unorthodox project to completion in 1954; this work, like several others in Le Corbusier’s late oeuvre, departs from his principles of standardization and the machine aesthetic outlined in Vers une architecture.

In this project, the structural design of the roof was inspired by the engineering of airfoils. It resembles a nun's coif; the chapel is a site-specific response. By Le Corbusier’s own admission, it was the site that provided an irresistible genius loci for the response, with the horizon visible on all four sides of the hill and its historical legacy for centuries as a place of worship; this historical legacy weaved in different layers into the terrain — from the Romans and sun-worshippers before them, to a cult of the Virgin in the Middle Ages, right through to the modern church and the fight against the German occupation. Le Corbusier sensed a sacral relationship of the hill with its surroundings, the Jura mountains in the distance and the hill itself, dominating the landscape; the nature of the site would result in an architectural ensemble that has many similitudes with the Acropolis, starting from the ascent at the bottom of the hill to architectural and landscape events along the way, before terminating at the sanctum sanctorum itself, the chapel.

The building itself is a comparatively small structure enclosed by thick walls, with the upturned roof supported on columns embedded within the walls. In the interior, the spaces left between the wall and roof, as well as asymmetric light from the wall openings serve to further reinforce the sacral nature of the space and buttress the relationship of the building with its surroundings. INSEE Official website of the Ronchamp village Official website of the Chapel of Ronchamp

J. R. Williams

James Robert Williams was a Canadian cartoonist who signed his work J. R. Williams, he was best known for his long-run daily syndicated panel Out Our Way. As noted by Coulton Waugh in his 1947 book The Comics, anecdotal evidence indicated that more Williams' cartoons were clipped and saved than were other newspaper comics. A newspaper promotion of 1930 compared him to poets James Whitcomb Riley. Williams was born in Canada; when he was young, his family moved to Detroit, he was 15 when he dropped out of school to work as an apprentice machinist in Ohio, soon relocating to Arkansas and Oklahoma, where he drifted about, sometimes working on ranches during a six-year period. He spent three years in the U. S. Cavalry. Returning to Ohio, he married Lida Keith and settled into a steady job with a crane manufacturing firm, where he drew covers for the company's catalog. During his spare time, he created cartoons depicting ranch machine shop workers, he started submitting his work to newspaper syndicates receiving an offer from Newspaper Enterprise Association.

Out Our Way first appeared in newspapers on March 20, 1922. The single-panel series introduced a variety of characters, including the cowboy Curly and ranch bookkeeper Wes, soon led to a Sunday strip, Out Our Way with the Willits, his assistants on the strip were Neg Cochran. Williams used Out Our Way as an umbrella title for several alternating series; these had recurring characters, such as Bull of the Woods about the boss of a machine shop and the small town family life in Why Mothers Get Gray. Don Markstein, in describing Williams' settings and themes, lists the other series subtitles: Frequently-used settings reflected Williams's experiences before he became a cartoonist, included factory floors, mechanic shops, cattle ranches — in fact and other ranch denizens appeared so it could have edged Little Joe out as comics' first successful western, if other settings hadn't been prominent as well. Family life and the adventures of small town boys were common themes. Williams used multiple large word balloons when the situation called for it, but if the picture stood on its own, didn't mind getting the words out of the way and using only a single short caption.

He re-used the same captions, such as Born Thirty Years Too Soon, Heroes Are Made, Not Born, Bull of the Woods and Why Mothers Get Gray. The Worry Wart was used as a caption for panels starring a boy of about eight. Wart was one of several recurring characters. With 40 million readers by 1930, Williams was so successful that he bought his own ranch in Prescott, where he rode about on his horse Lizard, he moved to Pasadena, California. His cartoons and strips continued through the next two decades, appearing in more than 700 newspapers at their peak, they were collected in several books, some were reprinted in Popular Comics. In 1956, the Worry Wart starred in a single issue of his own comic book, a Dell Four-Color titled Out Our Way with the Worry Wart; the following year, Williams died at age 69. Out Our Way was continued by Neg Cochran, Paul Gringle, Ed Sullivan and others until 1977. Publisher Leonard G. Lee of Canada's Algrove Publishing has reprinted Williams' work in more than a dozen volumes of their Classic Reprint Series.

In addition to Out Our Way Sampler: 20s, 30s & 40s, their catalog includes U. S. Cavalry Cartoons, The Bull of the Woods and Classic Cowboy Cartoons. Sampling of panels from Out Our Way from Barnacle Press Michael H. Price. "J. R. Williams: a cowboy cartoonist for the ages". Fort Worth Business Press. Archived from the original on 16 February 2013. Retrieved 18 January 2013. Michael H. Price. "Cowpuncher cartoonist J. R. Williams". Comic Mix. Christopher Stigliano. "Review: Out Our Way Sampler". Blog to Comm

Contracting Officer's Technical Representative

A Contracting Officer's Technical Representative is a business communications liaison between the United States government and a private contractor. The COTR is a federal or state employee, responsible for recommending actions and expenditures for both standard delivery orders and task orders, those that fall outside of the normal business practices of its supporting contractors and sub-contractors. Most COTRs have experience in the technical area, critical to the success of translating government requirements into technical requirements that can be included in government acquisition documents for potential contractor to bid and execute that work. A COTR must be designated by a Contracting Officer; the CO has the actual authority to enter into, and/or terminate contracts and make related determinations and findings. Other terms for COTR include Project Officer; the terminology may be agency specific. The Contracting Officer's Technical Representative is responsible for monitoring the contractor's progress in fulfilling the technical requirements specified in the contract.

Should the contractor fail to fulfill the contractual requirements, the COTR must inform the CO of such failure. The COTR maintains administration records, approves invoices and performs quarterly monitoring reports to confirm the contractor is meeting the terms and conditions under the contract. There are limits to the authority delegated to the COTR from the CO; the COTR is not authorized to make any commitments or obligations on behalf of the government, the CO is the only authorized authority that can commit or obligate on behalf of the government. The COTR may not grant the contractor permission to deviate from the requirements stated in the contract, nor direct the contractor to perform any work outside that stated in the contract, these actions can only be done by the CO. On November 26, 2007 the Office of Management and Budget, issued a memorandum which established a standardized training program for Contracting Officer's Technical Representatives; the program was developed by the Federal Acquisition Institute in coordination with all executive agencies.

The program applies to all Technical Representatives except those subject to Defense Acquisition Workforce Improvement Act. All Technical Representatives appointed after November 26, 2007 must be certified no than six months from their date of appointment. Technical Representatives who received their appointment before November 26, 2007 must ensure that training is obtained, they are recertified no than 12 months from the effective date of the memorandum The COTR must have a minimum of 40 hours of training, including 22 hours of training in essential COTR competencies; the COTR competencies include project management, decision making, market research, problem solving and negotiations. The remaining 18 hours of training should include courses relating to the specific needs of the agency and program office. Once the COTR receives their certification they are required to earn 40 continuous learning points every two years thereafter. Federal Acquisition Regulation Resource Allocation Schedule Federal Acquisition Institute DAU COR222 Student Guide Book

Wayne Pygram

Wayne Pigram, better known by his stage name Wayne Pygram, is an Australian actor, known for his role as Scorpius in the science fiction series Farscape and the miniseries that followed, Farscape: The Peacekeeper Wars, he appears in Star Wars: Episode III – Revenge of the Sith, playing Grand Moff Tarkin, the character in which Peter Cushing had played 28 years beforehand, in A New Hope. Pygram was born in Cootamundra, New South Wales and raised in Wagga Wagga, where, as a teen, he was a drummer in a dance group, he studied art at Riverina College of Advanced Education, but changed majors to primary school education. While in college, he became a member of a theatre troupe known as the Riverina Trucking Company. Before acting in films and television, he was a regular on the Australian theatre circuit. In 2005, he made a brief cameo in Star Wars: Episode III – Revenge of the Sith as a young Grand Moff Tarkin, because of his striking resemblance to the late Peter Cushing, who had portrayed the same character 28 years in Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope.

Due to the brevity of his Star Wars cameo, the makeup he wore on Farscape, Pygram's real face may now be known best for his appearance on the TV show Lost, as a faith healer named Isaac of Uluru. Pygram has played the drums in numerous bands over the past 20 years, the most recent being a band named Signal Room. Along with his Farscape co-star Anthony Simcoe, he teaches the drums at Kildare Catholic College, an Australian Catholic school based in Wagga Wagga. Warming Up – Wombat The First Kangaroos – Abie Rosenfeldt Farewell to the King – Bren Armstrong Return to the Blue Lagoon – Kearney Hammers Over the Anvil – Snarley Burns The Custodian – Det. Massey Doing Time for Patsy Cline – Geoff Spinks The Day of the Roses – Sgt. Joe Beecroft Risk – Mick Star Wars: Episode III – Revenge of the Sith – Governor Tarkin Heatstroke – Mental Blanakoff The Last Resort Heroes II: The Return – Lt Bruno Reymond The Girl From Tomorrow – Guard Fire – Senior Station Officer Quentin'Spit' Jacobsen Roar – Goll Home and Away – Ian Woodford / Ian Muir Farscape – Scorpius / Harvey / Jack Crichton Heroes' Mountain – Col Langdon Farscape: The Peacekeeper Wars – Scorpius / Harvey Through My Eyes – Rice Lost – Isaac of Uluru Underbelly: The Golden MilePolice Commissioner Wayne Pygram on IMDb