A unitary authority is a type of local authority that has a single tier and is responsible for all local government functions within its area or performs additional functions which elsewhere in the relevant country are performed by national government or a higher level of sub-national government. Unitary authorities cover towns or cities which are large enough to function independently of county or other regional administration. Sometimes they consist of national sub-divisions which are distinguished from others in the same country by having no lower level of administration. In Canada, each province creates its own system of local government, so terminology varies substantially. In certain provinces there is only one level of local government in that province, so no special term is used to describe the situation. British Columbia has only one such municipality, Northern Rockies Regional Municipality, established in 2009. In Ontario the term single-tier municipalities is used, for a similar concept.
Their character varies, while most function as cities with no upper level of government, some function as counties or regional municipalities with no lower municipal subdivisions below them. They exist as individual census divisions, as well as separated municipalities. In Germany, kreisfreie Stadt is the equivalent term for a city with the competences of both the Gemeinde and the Kreis administrative level; the directly elected chief executive officer of a kreisfreie Stadt is called Oberbürgermeister. The British counties have no directly corresponding counterpart in Germany; this German system corresponds in the Czech Republic. Until 1 January 2007, the municipalities of Copenhagen and Bornholm were not a part of a Danish county. In New Zealand, a unitary authority is a territorial authority that performs the functions of a regional council. There are five unitary authorities; the Chatham Islands, located east of the South Island, have a council with its own special legislation, constituted with powers similar to those of a regional authority.
In Poland, a miasto na prawach powiatu, or shortly powiat grodzki is a big, city, responsible for district administrative level, being part of no other powiat. In total, 65 cities in Poland have this status. In the United Kingdom, "unitary authorities" are English local authorities set up in accordance with the Local Government Changes for England Regulations 1994 made under powers conferred by the Local Government Act 1992 to form a single tier of local government in specified areas and which are responsible for all local government functions within such areas. While outwardly appearing to be similar, single-tier authorities formed using older legislation are not Unitary Authorities thus excluding e.g. the Isle of Wight Council or any other single-tier authority formed under the Local Government Act 1972 or older legislation. This is distinct from the two-tier system of local government which still exists in most of England, where local government functions are divided between county councils and district or borough councils.
Until 1996 two-tier systems existed in Scotland and Wales, but these have now been replaced by systems based on a single-tier of local government with some functions shared between groups of adjacent authorities. A single-tier system has existed in Northern Ireland since 1973. For many years the description of the number of tiers in UK local government arrangements has ignored any current or previous bodies at the lowest level of authorities elected by the voters within their area such as parish or community councils. Northern Ireland is divided into 11 districts for local government purposes. In Northern Ireland local councils have no responsibility for road building or housing, their functions include waste and recycling services and community services, building control and local economic and cultural development. Since their reorganisation in 2015 councils in Northern Ireland have taken on responsibility for planning functions; the collection of rates is handled by the Property Services agency.
Category: Subdivisions of Northern Ireland Local authorities in Scotland are unitary in nature but not in name. The Local Government etc. Act 1994 created a single tier of local government throughout Scotland. On 1 April 1996, 32 local government areas, each with a council, replaced the previous two-tier structure, which had regional and district councils. Comhairle nan Eilean Siar uses the alternative Gaelic designation Comhairle; the phrase "unitary authority" is not used in Scottish legislation, although the term is encountered in publications and in use by United Kingdom government departments. Local authorities in Wales are unitary in nature but are described by the Local Government Act 1994 as "principal councils", their areas as principal areas. Various other legislation (e.g. s.9
Conservative Party (UK)
The Conservative Party the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a centre-right political party in the United Kingdom. The governing party since 2010, it is the largest in the House of Commons, with 313 Members of Parliament, has 249 members of the House of Lords, 18 members of the European Parliament, 31 Members of the Scottish Parliament, 12 members of the Welsh Assembly, eight members of the London Assembly and 8,916 local councillors; the Conservative Party was founded in 1834 from the Tory Party—the Conservatives' colloquial name is "Tories"—and was one of two dominant political parties in the nineteenth century, along with the Liberal Party. Under Benjamin Disraeli it played a preeminent role in politics at the height of the British Empire. In 1912, the Liberal Unionist Party merged with the party to form the Conservative and Unionist Party. In the 1920s, the Labour Party surpassed the Liberals as the Conservatives' main rivals. Conservative Prime Ministers — notably Winston Churchill and Margaret Thatcher — led governments for 57 years of the twentieth century.
Positioned on the centre-right of British politics, the Conservative Party is ideologically conservative. Different factions have dominated the party at different times, including One Nation Conservatives and liberal conservatives, while its views and policies have changed throughout its history; the party has adopted liberal economic policies—favouring free market economics, limiting state regulation, pursuing privatisation—although in the past has supported protectionism. The party is British unionist, opposing both Irish reunification and Welsh and Scottish independence, supported the maintenance of the British Empire; the party includes those with differing views on the European Union, with Eurosceptic and pro-European wings. In foreign policy, it is for a strong national defence; the Conservatives are a member of the International Democrat Union and the Alliance of Conservatives and Reformists in Europe and sit with the European Conservatives and Reformists parliamentary group. The Scottish, Northern Irish and Gibraltan branches of the party are semi-autonomous.
Its support base consists of middle-class voters in rural areas of England, its domination of British politics throughout the twentieth century has led to it being referred to as one of the most successful political parties in the Western world. The Conservative Party was founded in the 1830s. However, some writers trace its origins to the reign of Charles II in the 1670s Exclusion Crisis. Other historians point to a faction, rooted in the 18th century Whig Party, that coalesced around William Pitt the Younger in the 1780s, they were known as "Independent Whigs", "Friends of Mr Pitt", or "Pittites" and never used terms such as "Tory" or "Conservative". Pitt died in 1806. From about 1812 on the name "Tory" was used for a new party that, according to historian Robert Blake, "are the ancestors of Conservatism". Blake adds that Pitt's successors after 1812 "were not in any sense standard-bearer's of true Toryism"; the term "Conservative" was suggested as a title for the party by a magazine article by J. Wilson Croker in the Quarterly Review in 1830.
The name caught on and was adopted under the aegis of Sir Robert Peel around 1834. Peel is acknowledged as the founder of the Conservative Party, which he created with the announcement of the Tamworth Manifesto; the term "Conservative Party" rather than Tory was the dominant usage by 1845. The widening of the electoral franchise in the nineteenth century forced the Conservative Party to popularise its approach under Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby and Benjamin Disraeli, who carried through their own expansion of the franchise with the Reform Act of 1867. In 1886, the party formed an alliance with Spencer Compton Cavendish, Lord Hartington and Joseph Chamberlain's new Liberal Unionist Party and, under the statesmen Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, Lord Salisbury and Arthur Balfour, held power for all but three of the following twenty years before suffering a heavy defeat in 1906 when it split over the issue of free trade. Young Winston Churchill denounced Chamberlain's attack on free trade, helped organize the opposition inside the Unionist/Conservative Party.
Balfour, as party leader, followed Chamberlain's policy introduced protectionist legislation. The high tariff element called itself "Tariff Reformers" and in a major speech in Manchester on May 13, 1904, Churchill warned their takeover of the Unionist/Conservative party would permanently brand it as: A party of great vested interests, banded together in a formidable confederation. Two weeks Churchill crossed the floor and formally joined the Liberal Party. )He rejoined the Conservatives in 1925.) In December, Balfour lost control of his party, as the defections multiplied. He was replaced by Liberal Prime Minister Henry Campbell-Bannerman who called an election in January 1906, which produced a massive Liberal victory with a gain of 214 seats. Liberal Prime Minister H. H. Asquith enacted a great deal of reform legislation, but the Unionists worked hard at grassroots organizing. Two general elections were held in one in January and one in December; the two main parties were now dead equal in seats.
The Unionists had more popular votes but the Liberals kept control with a coalition with the Irish Parliamentary Party. In 1912, the Liberal Unionis
Milford on Sea
Milford on Sea hyphenated as Milford-on-Sea, is a large village and civil parish located on the south coast of England in Hampshire. With a population of 4,660, it has a variety of shops, restaurants and pubs in its high street, which borders the village green, pebble beaches and a hospital. Milford on Sea is a village on the shore of Poole Bay in Hampshire; the village is scenic in location, protected from development by a surrounding green belt of land. From the beach, the Needles of the Isle of Wight are on most days visible. On the coast to the west on a clear night, the conurbation of Christchurch and Poole can be seen, together with the stars reflecting on the sea. Further east is Keyhaven, with its boatyard and bird sanctuary. Protruding southwards from Keyhaven is Hurst Spit two miles of shingle, from the end of which the inhabitants of Hurst Castle used to watch over the Solent; the castle was built by Henry VIII, is now visitor oriented, with a museum and café. A seasonal ferry makes the trip across the marshes every 20-30mins as an alternative to the blustery walk across the shingle.
Milford began as a Saxon settlement, the name means "mill ford". At the time of the Domesday Book of 1086 there were two separate estates in Milford, one held by Aelfric Small, the other some unpopulated land held by Wulfgar. At a date three separate manors were evolved from these estates and were known by the names of Milford Montagu, Milford Barnes, Milford Baddesley; the manor of Milford Montagu, held of the lords of Christchurch, seems to have originated in an estate held by William Spileman at his death in 1291. In the late 14th century it was part of the lands of 2nd Earl of Salisbury. In 1428 Thomas, the 4th Earl, died possessed of the manor, was succeeded by his daughter Alice. By 1580 the manor had passed out of the hands of the Montagu family, it was acquired in 1610 by Sir Thomas Gorges, succeeded by his son Sir Edward, Baron Gorges of Dundalk. In 1638 he sold it to Edward Hopgood. At the end of the 18th century the manor was purchased by Admiral William Cornwallis; the manor of Milford Barnes belonged to Christchurch Priory.
After the Dissolution a twenty-one years' lease of "the site of the manor with the appurtenances and all land and fisheries belonging, together with 20 acres in Shorefield," was in 1557 granted to John Wavell, in 1574 a similar lease was granted to John Rowe. Sir Thomas Gorges owned the estate in 1611, from that time its descent was the same as that of the manor of Milford Montagu; the manor of Milford Baddesley originated in an estate held in Milford by the Knights Templar. In the time of King John, Hugh de Whitwell and his son William granted land at Milford to William Mackerel which he granted to the Templars, for their preceptory of Baddesley, it was held of Christchurch manor. On the suppression of the order of Knights Templar this estate was granted, about 1312 to the Knights Hospitaller, to whom it continued to belong until the Dissolution of 1540, it was acquired in whose family it remained into the 18th century. In 1829 Mary Anna Theresa Whitby, who had inherited Admiral Cornwallis' estates purchased Milford Baddesley, thus uniting all three estates.
Around 1800 Admiral William Cornwallis leased and purchased the small Newlands estate in Milford. His purchases included the manors of Milford Barnes, he was joined at Newlands by his close friend and fellow naval officer Captain John Whitby and John's wife Mary Anna Theresa Whitby. John Whitby died in 1806, but Mary and her infant daughter Theresa stayed on looking after Cornwallis into his old age. On William Cornwallis' death in 1819, Mary Whitby and her daughter inherited his fortune. In 1829 Mary Whitby purchased Milford Baddesley, her daughter Theresa, who inherited the estates, married Frederick Richard West, they used Newlands as one of their residences. Their son, born in 1835, bore the name of William Cornwallis-West, he inherited Newlands in 1886, attempted to convert Milford into a premier seaside resort, changing the name of the village to Milford-on-Sea. His plans included the construction of a pier, railway station, public baths, health spa, golf course; the scheme failed due to a lack of funds and market interest, but it gave Milford a layout and ordered development that lasted well into the 20th century.
William's son George Cornwallis-West sold it three years later. As as 1800 the parish of Milford was inland, being separated from the sea by a narrow strip of coast-line, an extension eastwards of Hordle parish. Coastal erosion, as well as the growth of the village to the south and west, meant that by 1900 Milford bordered the sea. Milford was part of a combined Milford and Pennington Parish Council after 1894, became a separate Milford Parish Council when Pennington was separated from it in 1911. However, in 1932 Milford was absorbed into an enlarged Lymington Borough, only re-emerging as a separate parish in 1974. With the advent of increasing car ownership after the Second World War, the village expanded as a resort and as a place in which to retire. Blocks of flats were constructed along the clifftop in the 1960s and'70s, additional housing was built inland; the oldest building in Milford is All Saints' Church, 12th/13th century in date. The earliest parts of the structure are Norman work from a preceding church.
A south aisle was added around 1170. In the 13th century the church was more than brought to its present plan. This
Ringwood is a market town in Hampshire, England, on the River Avon, close to the New Forest and northeast of Bournemouth. It was founded by the Anglo-Saxons, has held a weekly market since the Middle Ages; the town is on the border with Dorset. Ringwood is recorded in a charter of 961, in which King Edgar, gave 22 hides of land in Rimecuda to Abingdon Abbey; the name is recorded in the 10th century as Runcwuda and Rimucwuda. The second element Wuda means a'wood'; the name may refer to Ringwood's position on the fringe of the New Forest, or on the border of Hampshire. William Camden in 1607 gave a much more fanciful derivation, claiming that the original name was Regne-wood, the "Regni" being an ancient people of Britain. In the Domesday Book of 1086, Ringwood had been appropriated by the Crown and all but six hides taken into the New Forest. Prior to 1066 Ringwood had been held by Earl Tostig. During the 12th and early 13th centuries Ringwood, like other manors of which John and Henry III had the immediate overlordship changed hands.
Thus it was held by Roland de Dinan, a Breton lord, in 1167. In January 1331, Ringwood and other manors which Isabella had surrendered were granted to William Montagu, 1st Earl of Salisbury, whose descendants with some intermission held it for more than two centuries, until the death of Margaret Pole, Countess of Salisbury in 1541, it was held by Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset until his execution in 1552, briefly by John Gates, executed in 1553. Queen Mary granted the lands to Francis Hastings, 2nd Earl of Huntingdon, but by the middle of the 17th century the manor had passed to the Arundells of Wardour, in 1728 was in the hands of Henry Arundell, 6th Baron Arundell of Wardour, his grandson, the eighth Baron, sold it in 1794 to John Morant of Brockenhurst, the Morant family held the manor throughout the 19th century. In 1108, it was recorded that the tenants of the "manor of Ringwood and Harbridge" had common rights in the New Forest, among the knights and esquires, for their farm beasts and plough beasts between "Teg att Brokelisford" and "Ostaven" and in the vill of Beaulieu for all their livestock except goats and geese: for this they paid the King an annual agistment.
A valuation of the manor made at the end of the 13th century records the tenants services included mowing the lord's meadow, haymaking on eight acres in "Muchelmershe," carting the hay and making a rick. A mill in Ringwood is mentioned in the Domesday Book and there were two. In March 1226 Henry III granted a weekly market in Ringwood on Wednesdays to Richard Marshal, 3rd Earl of Pembroke and Gervaise his wife to hold until the King should come of age. In 1337 the Earl of Salisbury, as lord of Ringwood Manor, was granted a yearly fair on the feast-day of Saint Andrew. There was another fair held on the feast of Saint Peter in the 16th century. After the Battle of Sedgemoor on 6 July 1685, James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth was arrested near Horton, Dorset. Monmouth is believed to have hidden in a ditch under an ash tree disguised as a shepherd, but was betrayed by a local woman who, according to legend killed herself in remorse. Monmouth was taken to the house now named Monmouth House in West Street.
It was there. This was not granted, he was brought to trial in the Tower of London by the infamous "Hanging Judge Jefferies". After the Battle of Sedgemoor, an elderly local lady, Alice Lisle, gave refuge to two wanted men who were escaping the battle; when her home, Moyles Court, was raided, the men were found and Alice was arrested. She was sentenced by the same Judge Jefferies to be burned at the stake, she is buried at St Mary's Church, one mile from her Moyles Court home. Her tomb can be found to the right of the church entrance. There is now a pub called the Alice Lisle near Moyles Court; the Town Hall was erected by John Morant in 1868. The town was famous in the 19th century for its "Ringwood" woollen gloves, there was a large linen collar and cuff factory here; the site of Royal Air Force Station Ibsley, in use during World War II, is located on the outskirts of the Ringwood hamlet of Poulner. This site has been used for motor-racing as Ibsley Circuit and today is a quarry lake area. Ringwood is a town on the east bank of the River Avon in Hampshire.
The parish includes the hamlets of Poulner, Hightown, Crow and Bisterne. Ringwood has a weekly market in the traditional market place. A cattle market ran until 1989 in the Furlong, now home to a Waitrose supermarket, coffee shops and fashion outlets. Ringwood was noted as the second most expensive market town in England in July 2008 with average property prices of over £380,000. Ringwood is the home of the Ringwood Brewery, which produces a variety of cask ales and runs five pubs in the local ar
Brockenhurst is the largest village by population within the New Forest in Hampshire, England. The nearest city is Southampton some 13 miles to the North East, while Bournemouth is nearby, 15 miles South West. Surrounding towns and villages include Beaulieu, Lymington and Sway; the earliest signs of habitation in Brockenhurst date back 4,000 years to the Bronze Age: the area is dotted with burial mounds – called tumuli. Beyond that, few signs remain of other habitation during the subsequent 3,000 years. Middle agesThe Saxon period was brought to an end by the events of 1066. William the Conqueror created his Nova Foresta traditionally in 1079, a vast hunting area lying south and west of his capital at Winchester. In 1086, the Domesday Book recorded that there were four small Saxon manors in the Brockenhurst area, Hincelveslei and Broceste. Mapleham no longer exists being subsumed within Brookley; the third manor, gives the modern name, granted a regular weekly market and an annual fair, lasting several days, in the 1347.
Brochelie had forest rights to graze sheep on the open forest, but only between Wilverley and what is now Rhinefield Road, this right is associated with religious houses and was attached to the medieval estate which Christchurch Priory held at Brookley. The manor house of Brochelie was situated on the plot now occupied by the Watersplash Hotel; the Watersplash Hotel closed in our about 2017 and now building work is going on to provide high quality apartments due to open in 2019. Its manor itself extended over the lands on the western side of the A337 Lyndhurst-Lymington Road; the fourth Saxon manor of the area was Broceste. It was the most important manor, being a grand-serjeanty held by providing accommodation for the King when hunting in the area. Royden to the south of Brockenhurst was a medieval grange belonging to Netley Abbey and was set up by a grant made by Henry III in 1253. St Nicholas' Church, at that time, was no more than an outlying chapel linked to Twynham – Christchurch Priory.
William Rufus visited Brockenhurst worshiping in St Nicholas' church, as at least two writs were issued by him from here. Early modern eraBy the 18th century, nearby Lymington was a thriving town, due to its port and the manufacture of salt from sea water. By the end of the 18th century, the Lymington road had become a turnpike and a regular route for the mail coaches from Lyndhurst and the north. During this time, Brockenhurst grew with dwellings and inns strung along the main road. In 1745, Henry Thurston, a local man who left to make his fortune in London, leaving a bequest to set up a school in the village. After being held in a number of houses it became fixed in a cottage on the corner of what is now Mill Lane and the A337. In 1770, Edward Morant, using some of the vast wealth that flowed from the family estates in Jamaica, purchased Brockenhurst House – a late Stuart farmhouse – for £6,400, he rebuilt it as a large Georgian mansion, while he and his heirs laid out avenues in the grounds and acquired adjacent land peaking at some 3,000 acres.
In the 19th century the railway station was introduced to Brockenhurst, increasing a large number of holiday visitors and the local population. First World WarIn the First World War, Brockenhurst hosted the Lady Hardinge Hospital for Wounded Indian Soldiers; the name Meerut Road recalls the Indian troops of the Meerut and Lahore Divisions who fought on the Western Front in the war and were patients at Brockenhurst. Specialist sections were established in the Balmer Lawn and Forest Park Hotels; the hospital was transferred to the New Zealand Army and, as No. 1 New Zealand General Hospital, continued in use until 1919. Auckland Avenue and Auckland Place commemorate the stay of the New Zealanders. Second World War In the Second World War, what is now The Balmer Lawn Hotel was used as a Divisional HQ and was the location of many of Generals Montgomery and Eisenhower's meetings, away from their headquarters in Southsea, as they planned the D-Day Landings in Normandy. In early 1944, Brockenhurst became a secret training area for troops preparing to do battle in Normandy.
The area's ancient oak trees were ideal for concealing military vehicles. The 50th Infantry Division, the core of Assault Force "G", tasked with storming Gold Beach on D-Day, had its HQ at the Carey's Manor Hotel. Afterwards, the Eastern Warfare School, near Brockenhurst, taught jungle infantry tactics suited to the Asian and Pacific campaigns, to personnel from the Royal Marines and shore units of the Royal Navy. Since 1945The western part of the village expanded in the 1970s and, in the early 1990s, Berkeley Homes built Ober Park, now known as The Coppice, this despite having been known as Clerks from the 13th to 19th centuries. More construction of the village still continues today by Penny Son. Brockenhurst has a Non-League football club Brockenhurst F. C. which plays at Grigg Lane. The current manager is Patrick Macmanus. During a Hampshire Senior Cup match Brockenhurst set a new record when they scored 29 consecutive penalties in a shoot-out after the tie had finished 0–0. After 29 successful attempts Andover missed and'The Badgers' won the tie.
Brockenhurst railway station offers frequent South Western Railway services to Bournemouth, London Waterloo and Weymouth. CrossCountry express services run to Mancheste
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Burley is a village and civil parish in the New Forest, England, with a cycle hire centre and cycle shop, cider farm, tea rooms, gift shops, art galleries and a pick-your-own farm. Burley is located towards the western edge of the New Forest, 5 miles south-east of the town of Ringwood; the village is scattered, apart from the village centre, there is Burley Street to the north. Burley has a post office, butcher's shop, village stores, as well as tea rooms, a Hippy/ festival clothing shop, antique shops, art galleries and gift shops, pubs and a large Cycle Shop and Cycle Hire centre; the village still practices the old tradition of commoning, allowing animals to graze on the open Forest, ponies and cattle roam around the village. Burley is home to a cricket club. Burley Golf Club can be found to the southeast of the village; the village is surrounded by the open heathland of the New Forest, containing a complex of woodland and acid grassland and valley bog, supporting a richness and diversity of wildlife.
Burley is twinned with Beurlay in south western France. Burley Fire Station is thought to be the only fire station in the country with a cattle grid at the entrance. People have lived in the Burley area since prehistoric times. At least 23 Bronze Age barrows are known in the Burley area; the site of an Iron Age hillfort can be seen just to the west of the village at Castle Hill. There is evidence of Saxon occupation as the name Burley is composed of two Saxon words'burgh', which means fortified palace, and'leah', which means an open meadow or clearing in a wood. Burley is not mentioned in the Domesday book of 1086, but the entry for nearby Ringwood may well refer to Burley when it mentions lands in the forest with "14 villagers and 6 smallholders with 7 ploughs. By the beginning of the 13th Century the family of de Burley was established here. Richard de Burley held the estate from Edward I who gave the village of Burley and Manor of Lyndhurst as dowry to his second wife Margaret, sister of Philip IV of France.
The manor is said to have belonged to the Crown down to the time of James I. In 1852 the manor passed into the possession of Colonel Esdaile who pulled down the old manor house and built a new one. Further changes to the building have been made since that time, the manor house is now a hotel. There was a watermill belonging to the manor of Burley, which ceased operating around 1820; the mill is commemorated in names of Mill Lawn and Mill Lawn Brook, but the only building which survives is the grist house in the grounds of Mill Cottage.2 miles to the north-east of the Burley village, lies Burley lodge, the history of which dates back to the 15th century. It was part of the lands of the "bailiwick of Burley", held in the 18th century by the Paulets, Dukes of Bolton and Marquesses of Winchester; the first known church in Burley was the Calvinistic Burley Chapel erected in 1789. The ecclesiastical parish of Burley was formed in 1840 out of Ringwood; this was served by the Anglican church of John the Baptist, built in 1839 and added to in 1886–7.
A school was built in Burley in 1854 large enough to accommodate 120 children. The civil parish of Burley was formed in 1868 from Burley Walk and Holmsley Walk, extra-parochial parts of the New Forest, together with the ancient vill of Burley. From 1847 to 1964, Burley was served by trains at nearby Holmsley railway station, about 1.5 miles southeast of the village. The station buildings still stand, are now tea rooms. Arthur Clough and his wife Eleanor Freshfield built Castletop House on Castle Hill Lane in 1898: Eleanor's father was President of the Royal Geographic Society and brought back many exotic plants from his travels which were planted at Castletop. Burley has a long connection with witches and, during the late 1950s, Sybil Leek, a self-styled white witch, lived in this village; the witch could be seen walking around Burley with her pet jackdaw on her shoulder before she moved to America. Some of the gift shops in Burley now sell witch-related ornaments. Burley was once a favourite haunt for smugglers, a secret cellar in the Queens Head pub was discovered during renovation work, where pistols and other unusual items were discovered.
Burley is notable in English folklore for the supposed location of a dragon's lair at Burley Beacon, just outside the village. There are several versions of the tale, one being that the creature "flew" every morning to Bisterne, where it would be supplied with milk. To kill the dragon, a valiant knight built a hide, with two dogs lay in wait; the creature came as usual one morning for its milk, when the hut door was opened the dogs attacked it, while thus engaged the knight took the dragon by surprise, the dogs dying in the affray. The fight raged throughout the forest, with the dragon dying outside Lyndhurst, its corpse turning into a great hill. Though the knight had defeated the dragon he had been mentally broken by the battle, after thirty days and thirty nights he went back to Boltons Bench to die alone atop it, his body turning into the yew tree which can still be seen today. Official Burley Village Website Worldwide Burley Village Website Burley Parish Council Burley, New Forest Explorers Guide Burley, New Forest National Park A 101-year-old Burley resident reminisces on the village as it used to be