The New Haven Green is a 16-acre owned park and recreation area located in the downtown district of the city of New Haven, Connecticut. It comprises the central square of the nine-square settlement plan of the original Puritan colonists in New Haven, was designed and surveyed by colonist John Brockett. Today the Green is bordered by the modern paved roads of College, Chapel and Elm streets. Temple Street bisects the Green into lower halves; the green is host to numerous public events, such as the International Festival of Arts and Ideas and New Haven Jazz Festival, summer jazz and classical music concerts that can draw hundreds of thousands of people, as well as typical daily park activities. The New Haven Green Historic District was designated a National Historic Landmark District for the architectural significance of the three 19th-century churches located there; the New Haven Green is one of the oldest and most well-known town greens in the nation, dating back to at least 1638. As of July 2017, the City of New Haven offers free public WiFi on the Green.
The Green is a traditional town green and was known as "the marketplace". It was completed in 1638; the Puritans were said to have designed the green large enough to hold the number of people who they believed would be spared in the Second Coming of Christ: 144,000. In its early years, the Green held a prison and a school; the upper Green once held the First Methodist Church. The church was removed from the Green in 1848 with a new church built across Elm Street; the Green held a succession of statehouses, dating from the time when New Haven was joint capital of Connecticut with Hartford. The most recent state house was erected in 1837, designed by Ithiel Town in a Greek Revival style. Hartford was declared the sole capital and the building was demolished in 1889; the Green served as the parade grounds for the New Haven militia, under the leadership of Benedict Arnold, rushed to Massachusetts after hearing of the Battle of Lexington and Concord and participated in the Battle of Bunker Hill in the American Revolution.
This indirectly led to the burning of most of the city by the British when they landed in New Haven in 1779. The Green was used as the main burial grounds for the residents of New Haven during its first 150 years, but by 1821 the practice was abolished and many of the headstones were moved to the Grove Street Cemetery. However, the remains of the dead were not moved, thus still remain below the soil of the Green, it is conservatively estimated that between 4,000 and 5,000 people remain buried there, including Benedict Arnold's first wife, members of President Rutherford B. Hayes' family, Reverend James Pierpont, Theophilus Eaton, one of the founders of New Haven and the church and governor of the New Haven Colony for 19 years. On the evening of October 29, 2012, winds from Hurricane Sandy knocked over an oak tree on the Upper Green. Intertwined in the dirt and roots was a human skeleton; the police and medical examiner were called to the scene. The bones date back to colonial times, when the Green was used as a cemetery.
The Grove Street cemetery that replaced it was chartered in 1797. A small portion of the burial ground is now preserved in The Center Church Crypt. A self-electing group of private individuals, the Committee of the Proprietors of Common and Undivided Lands at New Haven, maintain ownership of the green; this five-member committee oversees the main portion of the green. The proprietors are drawn from the ranks of prominent city residents. Members are appointed for life, when one dies the four remaining members convene to select a replacement. Located on the upper Green are three historic early 19th century churches which reflect the city's theocratic roots. Two of the three churches are the work of the influential early-19th century architects Ithiel Town and Asher Benjamin, one of them is the nation's first large-scale Gothic Revival structure; because of this architectural legacy, the green was designated a National Historic Landmark District in 1970. The three churches are: United Church on the Green, or North Church, was built in Federal style by David Hoadley in 1814.
"Center Church on the Green", or The First Church of Christ was established in 1639. The current church, designed in Georgian style by architect Ithiel Town, was built in 1812; the Center Church Crypt contains the identified remains of about 137 people, the remains of over 1,000 that are unidentified. Sarah Rutherford Trowbridge has the oldest dated stone in the Crypt. Trinity Church on the Green is an Episcopal congregation founded in 1752, was designed by Ithiel Town in 1813, built between 1814 and 1815, it is the first Gothic Style church identified in the United States. It was consecrated in 1816. In the lower Green are the Bennett Fountain and the flagpole with granite World War I memorial and fountain. While once the edges of the Green were covered with a glorious canopy of elms, planted by James Hillhouse, most died of dutch elm disease. In the 1980s, through the efforts of the Garden Club of New Haven, disease-resistant elms were planted in an attempt to memorialize the legacy of the trees that gave New Haven the nickname "Elm City".
Bordering the Green are municipal and university structures. On the northwest side of the Green, across College Street, stand Phelps Gate and the Yale University buildings bordering Old Campus. Before the Old Campus
The history of sentence spacing is the evolution of sentence spacing conventions from the introduction of movable type in Europe by Johannes Gutenberg to the present day. Typesetting in all European languages enjoys a long tradition of using spaces of varying widths for the express purpose of enhancing readability. American, English and other European typesetters' style guides—also known as printers' rules—specified spacing rules which were all identical from the 18th century onwards. Early English language guides by Jacobi in the UK and MacKellar, Bishop, De Vinne in the US specified that sentences would be separated by more space than that of a normal word space. Spaces between sentences were to be em-spaced, words would be 1/3 em-spaced, or 1/2 em-spaced; this remained standard for quite some time. MacKellar's The American Printer was the dominant language style guide in the US at the time and ran to at least 17 editions between 1866 and 1893, De Vinne's The Practice of Typography was the undisputed global authority on English-language typesetting style from 1901 until well past Dowding's first formal alternative spacing suggestion in the mid-1950s.
Both the American and the UK style guides specified that spaces should be inserted between punctuation and text. The MacKellar guide described these as hairspaces but itself used a much wider space than was commonly regarded as a hairspace. Spaces following words or punctuation were subject to line breaks, spaces between words and associated punctuation were non-breaking. Additionally, spaces were varied proportionally in width when justifying lines by hand by machine, now by software; the spacing differences between traditional typesetting and modern conventional printing standards are observed by comparing two different versions of the same book, from the Mabinogion: 1894: the Badger-in-the-bag game—traditional typesetting spacing rules: a single enlarged em-space between sentences 1999: the Badger-in-the-bag game—modern mass-production commercial printing: a single word space between sentencesThe 1999 example demonstrates the current convention for published work. The 1894 version demonstrates thin-spaced words but em-spaced sentences.
It demonstrates spaces around punctuation according to the rules above and equivalent to French typesetting today. With the advent of the typewriter in the late nineteenth century, typists adopted approximations of standard spacing practices to fit the limitations of the typewriter itself. French typists used a single space between sentences, consistent with the typeset French spacing technique, whereas English typists used a double space. French spacing inserted spaces around most punctuation marks, but single-spaced after sentences and semicolons. English spacing removed spaces around most punctuation marks, but double-spaced after sentences and semicolons; these approximations were taught and used as the standard typing techniques in French and English-speaking countries. For example, T. S. Eliot typed rather than wrote the manuscript for his classic The Waste Land between 1920 and 1922, used only English spacing throughout: double-spaced sentences. There is, considerable variability in the use of the terms, to the extent that they are used with the meanings reversed.
Here are some definitions of French spacing: "Additional space at the ends of sentences is called'French Spacing.' It is a old practice, having been commonplace in books up through the 19th century" "Adding two spaces after a period is called French spacing. French spacing was quite common in books before the 19th century, it became the norm for typewritten copy." "French spacing: The additional inter-word spacing between sentences can be switched off in TeX and LaTeX with the command \frenchspacing" "Additional space at the ends of sentences is called French spacing... In typesetting, a thin space set in addition to the word space achieves French spacing. "French spacing leaves the same amount of white space after all punctuation marks, but leaves some thin space before the “tall” punctuation marks..." "In ordinary spacing a full em occurs at the end of a sentence. In French spacing the end of a sentence is spaced the same as the balance of the words in the line. "... French spacing; the insertion of fixed space such as an en or an em between sentences instead of a variable word space."This 1960 quotation is the result of some contemporary research: French spacing is tight spacing with equal word spacing throughout a line, i.e. no extra space after a period, etc.
The purpose is not only to create a tighter looking, evenly colored page, but more important, to avoid rivers. In some ad shops, French spacing is understood to mean optically equal word spacing; as to the "French" part of the term, this style has nothing to do with France as verified by several French cultural societies and printers. The word was evidently used. A key change in the publishing industry from the mid-19th century to the mid-20th century was the enormous growth of mass-produced books and magazines. Increasing commercial pressure to reduce the costs and lead-time of printing affected the industry, leading to a widening gap between commercial printing and fine printing. For example, T. S. Eliot's The Waste Land was published by a high-volume commercial printer according to its house rules and it was not until its third publication that Eliot was satisfied with its typesetting; the underlying reasons were: ease and speed, since far less physical type and more far less skilled effort was required cost, since less work was
"Cynthia" was a mannequin created in 1932 by Lester Gaba, a sculptor, retail display designer and a teacher and writer. An unusually natural and human looking mannequin, Gaba used the attention Cynthia garnered to further anthropomorphize her; as a result and Cynthia became famous, with Gaba becoming known for his mannequins, with Cynthia appearing on a cover of Life Magazine, being invited to the wedding of the former Edward VIII and Wallis Simpson in 1937. Gaba's development of lighter weight mannequins, with more natural, human features, along with Cynthia's popularity impacted the use of mannequins in retail sales marketing. In 1932, artist Lester Gaba created Cynthia for Saks Fifth Avenue, a 100-pound plaster model who, had realistic human imperfections like freckles, pigeon toes, different sized feet. Gaba posed with Cynthia around New York City for a Life Magazine shoot, Cynthia appeared on the cover of the magazine, humorously demonstrating how life-like mannequins had become. Gaba further anthropomorphized Cynthia, she began to receive invitations, fan mail and gifts, to attend events.
Gaba insisted that Cynthia had laryngitis, to account for her lack of speech during personal appearances. Additionally, a whole host of "Gaba Girls" were to follow; the Gaba Girls were life-sized, carved-soap mannequins modeled after well-known New York debutantes for the windows of Best & Company. They were much lighter, at 30 pounds, than the typical 200-pound New York store mannequin. With the Gaba Girls and their realistic successors’ appeal, mannequins became an important new tool used by sellers to attract their clientele. Cynthia herself soon became dazzlingly famous. Cartier and Tiffany sent her jewelry, Lilly Daché designed hats for her, couturiers sent her their latest fashions, furrieries sent minks. Cynthia was photographed by Alfred Eisenstaedt, she was given a credit card from Saks Fifth Avenue, had a box seat subscription to the Metropolitan Opera House. She had her own newspaper column, a successful radio show. In 1938, she went to Hollywood to appear in the movie Models Abroad. In 1939, she was back in New York to see the notorious play Madame Bovary at the Broadhurst Theater.
Cynthia met her demise when she shattered. The press reported her death, Gaba appeared distraught, but reconstructed her. In December 1942, Gaba was inducted into the army. Cynthia retired, it wasn't until 1953 that she came back to the public in a TV show, but the magic was over, Cynthia was soon to be stored in a cupboard for good. Radio 360: Mannequin Pixie Dream Girl Leeander Scott: "Gabbing over Gaba" "Gabbing over Gaba". by Leeander Scott "Lester Gaba: From Soap to Mannequins" by Janet Mabie