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New Horizons

New Horizons is an interplanetary space probe, launched as a part of NASA's New Frontiers program. Engineered by the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory and the Southwest Research Institute, with a team led by S. Alan Stern, the spacecraft was launched in 2006 with the primary mission to perform a flyby study of the Pluto system in 2015, a secondary mission to fly by and study one or more other Kuiper belt objects in the decade to follow, which became a mission to 486958 Arrokoth, it is the fifth space probe to achieve the escape velocity needed to leave the Solar System. On January 19, 2006, New Horizons was launched from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station by an Atlas V rocket directly into an Earth-and-solar escape trajectory with a speed of about 16.26 km/s. It was the fastest man-made object launched from Earth. After a brief encounter with asteroid 132524 APL, New Horizons proceeded to Jupiter, making its closest approach on February 28, 2007, at a distance of 2.3 million kilometers.

The Jupiter flyby provided a gravity assist. Most of the post-Jupiter voyage was spent in hibernation mode to preserve on-board systems, except for brief annual checkouts. On December 6, 2014, New Horizons was brought back online for the Pluto encounter, instrument check-out began. On January 15, 2015, the spacecraft began its approach phase to Pluto. On July 14, 2015, at 11:49 UTC, it flew 12,500 km above the surface of Pluto, making it the first spacecraft to explore the dwarf planet. In August 2016, New Horizons was reported to have traveled at speeds of more than 84,000 km/h. On October 25, 2016, at 21:48 UTC, the last of the recorded data from the Pluto flyby was received from New Horizons. Having completed its flyby of Pluto, New Horizons maneuvered for a flyby of Kuiper belt object 486958 Arrokoth, which occurred on January 1, 2019, when it was 43.4 AU from the Sun. In August 2018, NASA cited results by Alice on New Horizons to confirm the existence of a "hydrogen wall" at the outer edges of the Solar System.

This "wall" was first detected in 1992 by the two Voyager spacecraft. In August 1992, JPL scientist Robert Staehle called Pluto discoverer Clyde Tombaugh, requesting permission to visit his planet. "I told him he was welcome to it," Tombaugh remembered, "though he's got to go one long, cold trip." The call led to a series of proposed Pluto missions, leading up to New Horizons. Stamatios "Tom" Krimigis, head of the Applied Physics Laboratory's space division, one of many entrants in the New Frontiers Program competition, formed the New Horizons team with Alan Stern in December 2000. Appointed as the project's principal investigator, Stern was described by Krimigis as "the personification of the Pluto mission". New Horizons was based on Stern's work since Pluto 350 and involved most of the team from Pluto Kuiper Express; the New Horizons proposal was one of five that were submitted to NASA. It was selected as one of two finalists to be subject to a three-month concept study, in June 2001; the other finalist, POSSE, was a separate, but similar Pluto mission concept by the University of Colorado Boulder, led by principal investigator Larry W. Esposito, supported by the JPL, Lockheed Martin and the University of California.

However, the APL, in addition to being supported by Pluto Kuiper Express developers at the Goddard Space Flight Center and Stanford University, were at an advantage. In November 2001, New Horizons was selected for funding as part of the New Frontiers program. However, the new NASA Administrator appointed by the Bush Administration, Sean O'Keefe, was not supportive of New Horizons, cancelled it by not including it in NASA's budget for 2003. NASA's Associate Administrator for the Science Mission Directorate Ed Weiler prompted Stern to lobby for the funding of New Horizons in hopes of the mission appearing in the Planetary Science Decadal Survey. After an intense campaign to gain support for New Horizons, the Planetary Science Decadal Survey of 2003–2013 was published in the summer of 2002. New Horizons topped the list of projects considered the highest priority among the scientific community in the medium-size category. Weiler stated that it was a result that " administration was not going to fight".

Funding for the mission was secured following the publication of the report, Stern's team were able to start building the spacecraft and its instruments, with a planned launch in January 2006 and arrival at Pluto in 2015. Alice Bowman became Mission Operations Manager. New Horizons is the first mission in NASA's New Frontiers mission category and more expensive than the Discovery missions but smaller than the Flagship Program; the cost of the mission is $700 million over 15 years. The spacecraft was built by Southwest Research Institute and the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory; the mission's principal investigator is Alan S

Mitsubishi A5M

The Mitsubishi A5M, formal Japanese Navy designation Mitsubishi Navy Type 96 Carrier-based Fighter, experimental Navy designation Mitsubishi Navy Experimental 9-Shi Carrier Fighter, company designation Mitsubishi Ka-14, was a Japanese carrier-based fighter aircraft. It was the world's first monoplane shipboard fighter to enter service and the direct predecessor of the famous Mitsubishi A6M "Zero"; the Allied reporting name was Claude. In 1934, the Imperial Japanese Navy prepared a specification for an advanced fighter, requiring a maximum speed of 350 km/h at 3,000 m and able to climb to 5,000 m in 6.5 minutes. This 9-shi specification produced designs from both Nakajima. Mitsubishi assigned the task of designing the new fighter to a team led by Jiro Horikoshi; the resulting design, designated Ka-14 by Mitsubishi, was an all-metal low-wing fighter, with a thin elliptical inverted gull wing and a fixed undercarriage, chosen as the increase in performance arising from use of a retractable undercarriage was not felt to justify the extra weight.

The first prototype, powered by a 447 kW Nakajima Kotobuki 5 radial engine, flew on 4 February 1935. The aircraft far exceeded the requirements of the specification, with a maximum speed of 450 km/h being reached; the second prototype was fitted with a revised, ungulled wing, after various changes to maximize maneuverability and reduce drag, was ordered into production as the A5M. With the Ka-14 demonstrating excellent performance, the Imperial Japanese Army Air Force ordered a single modified prototype for evaluation as the Ki-18. While this demonstrated similar performance to the Navy aircraft and hence was far faster than the IJAAF's current fighter, the Kawasaki Ki-10 biplane, the type was rejected by the army owing to its reduced maneuverability; the Army produced a specification for an improved advanced fighter to replace the Ki-10. Mitsubishi, busy turning the Ka-14 into the A5M, submitted a minimally changed aircraft as the Ki-33, this being defeated by Nakajima's competing aircraft, ordered into service as the Ki-27.

The aircraft entered service in early 1937, soon saw action in aerial battles at the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War, including air-to-air battles with the Republic of China Air Force's Boeing P-26C Model 281 "Peashooters" in the world's first aerial dogfighting and kills between monoplane fighters built of metal. Chinese Nationalist pilots flying the Curtiss Hawk III, fought against the Japanese, but the A5M was the better of every fighter aircraft it encountered. Though armed with only a pair of 7.7 mm machine-guns, the new fighter proved effective and damage-tolerant, with excellent manoeuvrability and robust construction. On A5M's provided much-needed escorts for the then-modern but vulnerable Mitsubishi G3M bombers; the Mitsubishi team continued to improve the A5M, working through versions until the final A5M4, which carried an external underside drop tank to provide fuel for extended range. The A5M's most competitive adversary in the air was the Polikarpov I-16, a fast and armed fighter flown by both Chinese Air Force regulars and Soviet volunteers.

Air battles in 1938 on 18 February and 29 April, ranked among the largest air battles fought at the time. The battle of 29 April saw 67 Polikarpov fighters against 18 G3Ms escorted by 27 A5Ms; each side claimed victory: the Chinese/Soviet side claimed 21 Japanese aircraft shot down with 50 Japanese airmen killed and two captured having bailed out while losing 12 aircraft and 5 pilots killed. This version, used for pilot training, was dubbed the A5M4-K. K version aircraft continued to be used for pilot training long after standard A5Ms left front-line service. All A5Ms had open cockpits. A closed cockpit found little favor among Navy aviators. All had fixed, non-retractable undercarriage. Wheel spats were a feature of standard fighters but not training aircraft; the Flying Tigers encountered the Type 96, although not and one was shot down at Mingaladon airfield, Burma on 29 January 1942. Some A5Ms remained in service at the end of 1941 when the United States entered World War II in the Pacific. US intelligence sources believed the A5M still served as Japan's primary Navy fighter, when in fact the A6M'Zero' had replaced it on first-line aircraft carriers and with the Tainan Kōkūtai in Taiwan.

Other Japanese carriers and Kōkūtai continued to use the A5M until production of the Zero caught up with demand. On 1 February 1942, the US carrier USS Enterprise launched air-strikes at Japanese air & naval bases on Roi and Kwajalein Atolls in the Gilbert Islands. During these actions, Mitsubishi A5Ms shot down three Douglas SBD dive-bombers, including the aircraft of Lt-Cdr Halstead Hopping, CO of VS-6 Squadron; the last combat actions with the A5M as a fighter took place at the Battle of the Coral Sea on 7 May 1942, when two A5Ms and four A6Ms of the Japanese carrier Shōhō fought against US aircraft that sank their carrier. In the closing months of the war most remaining A5M airframes were used for kamikaze attacks. Data from Ka-14 Six prototypes with various engines and design modifications. A5M1 Navy carrier-based fighter, Model 1: first production model with 633 kW Kotobuki 2 KAI I engine. A5M2/2a Model 21: More powerful engine. A5M2b Mod

Boat Harbour, Nova Scotia

Boat Harbour is a body of water on the Northumberland Strait in Pictou County, Nova Scotia. A tidal bay, construction of an effluent treatment facility in the 1960s led to it becoming a polluted lake and the source of ongoing environmental concern. Treated water takes about 30 days to reach the Northumberland Strait. Since the treatment system began operation in 1967, Boat Harbour has become polluted with dioxins, chloride and other toxic heavy metals, it is considered to be one of Nova Scotia's worst cases of environmental racism. It is scheduled to cease receiving effluent no than January 31, 2020; the Boat Harbour Remediation Project aims to return Boat Harbour to its original state as a tidal estuary. Pilot scale testing has been completed and the project is undergoing a federal environmental assessment and cleanup is expected to begin in 2021. Boat Harbour is fed by several freshwater streams from spruce woodlands. Known as A'se'k in the Mi'kmaq language, it was used by First Nations people for fishing, clam digging and recreation, as well as a harbour for boats used to fish in the Northumberland Strait.

Pictou Landing First Nation have their main reserve, Fisher's Grant 24, adjacent to Boat Harbour, two other unpopulated reserves nearby. In the 1960s a kraft pulp mill was constructed by Scott Paper Company at Abercrombie Point, 4 km to the west. Keen to promote economic growth, the provincial government led by Robert L. Stanfield agreed to take responsibility for effluent leaving the mill for a period of thirty years, turned Boat Harbour into a settling pond by constructing a dam across its mouth. Pictou Landing First Nation were compensated $65,000 for lost fishing opportunities and future use of the harbour; as soon as the mill began operation all aquatic life died and the water level rose by 2–3 m, flooding 12 hectares of reserve lands. In 1971 two settling ponds and an aerated stabilisation basin were constructed where the effluent entered the lagoon. In 1975 a pipeline replaced the ditch. Canso Chemicals, a chlor-alkali facility situated on the mill property from 1971 to 1992 used Boat Harbour to dispose of its effluent.

It produced chlorine, caustic soda, hydrogen for use at the mill. During the 1970s the plant was unaccountably losing several tons of mercury each year, with a peak loss of five tons in 1975; this loss has never been resolved, leading to concerns that it may have found its way into Boat Harbour. Settled material from the facility is dredged and buried off-site, but some has been dried and burned in the mill's power boiler under'test permits'. In 1977 the Pictou Landing Band began considering legal options, but it wasn't until 1986 that they filed against the federal government, their position strengthened by the 1984 case of R v Guerin in which the Supreme Court of Canada confirmed the government's fiduciary duty to status Indians. In 1993 the federal government settled out of court for $35 million, some of, paid to individual band members and some to a trust fund for future use. In 1995 the provincial government agreed to extend its contract with the mill to handle the effluent, in return to hand over nearby Crown lands to the band.

It agreed to close the facility in 2005 and return the harbour to its natural condition. In 1997 the mill was taken over by Kimberly-Clark and in 2003 they agreed with the Band to extend treatment beyond the 2005 deadline, by piping effluent directly from the aerated settling pond to the Northumberland Strait where it would be released on the ebb tide, to return Boat Harbour to a tidal state. However, the mill was purchased in 2004 by Neenah Paper who were not inclined to spend capital on water treatment, following concerns from the Department of Fisheries and Oceans over the environmental consequences of the pipeline, that plan was cancelled in 2005. In 2008 the province decided to extend the discharge license on a month-by-month basis; the following month the mill was purchased by Northern Pulp, a subsidiary of Asia Pulp and Paper, an arm of the Indonesian conglomerate Sinar Mas. The Progressive Conservative government of the time agreed to close Boat Harbour and build a new facility, but when the New Democrats came to power in 2009 negotiations ceased.

Following that government's decision to provide $90 million assistance to the mill to purchase woodland and improve air treatment systems but do nothing about Boat Harbour, the First Nation filed an action in the Nova Scotia Supreme Court. In June 2014 the pipeline carrying effluent from the mill to the treatment facility ruptured, causing 47 million litres of effluent to spill into a wetland and thence to the East River and Pictou Harbour; the mill owners were charged under the Fisheries Act and fined $225,000, to be distributed to three conservation organizations. Following protests by the First Nation over this spill, the Provincial Government passed the Boat Harbour Act 2015 to the effect that effluent treatment must cease no than January 31, 2020. A Provincial Crown Corporation, Nova Scotia Lands, Inc. is responsible for remediation of the site. A pilot project was undertaken in 2017 to test options for handling the clean up which will involve removing an estimated 350,000 cubic metres of contaminated material and restoring the lagoon to a tidal estuary at an estimated cost of $133 million.

In December 2019 the mill owners, having failed to design an acceptable alternative effluent handling system, asked for an extension to the deadline. This was refused by Premier Stephen McNeil, the mill announced that it would be closing. "Boat Harbour: On toxic pond". The Coast. University of King's College Journ

Junctional rhythm

Junctional rhythm describes an abnormal heart rhythm resulting from impulses coming from a locus of tissue in the area of the atrioventricular node, the "junction" between atria and ventricles. Under normal conditions, the heart's sinoatrial node determines the rate by which the organ beats – in other words, it is the heart's "pacemaker"; the electrical activity of sinus rhythm depolarizes the atria. Current passes from the atria through the atrioventricular node and into the bundle of His, from which it travels along Purkinje fibers to reach and depolarize the ventricles; this sinus rhythm is important because it ensures that the heart's atria reliably contract before the ventricles. In junctional rhythm, the sinoatrial node does not control the heart's rhythm – this can happen in the case of a block in conduction somewhere along the pathway described above; when this happens, the heart's atrioventricular node takes over as the pacemaker. In the case of a junctional rhythm, the atria will still contract before the ventricles.

Junctional rhythm can be diagnosed by looking at an ECG: it presents without a P wave or with an inverted P wave. Retrograde P waves refers to the depolarization from the AV node back towards the SA node. Accelerated junctional rhythm is when the rhythm of emerged impulses is more than 40 to 60 beats per minute, the natural range of the junction, it happens in some instances such as digoxin toxicity, has a rate of between 60 and 100 bpm. Junctional tachycardia Junctional escape beat

Beau Mirchoff

William Beau Mirchoff is a Canadian-American actor best known for his role in the MTV series Awkward. Mirchoff was born in Washington. Two days he moved to his family's home in Victoria, British Columbia. Mirchoff first got noticed for his role in the play Bubbly Stiltskin, his first feature was a supporting role in Scary Movie 4, playing'Robbie Ryan'. He was a recurring character on the CBC series Heartland, he landed a lead role in The Grudge 3. Mirchoff joined the cast of Desperate Housewives, playing Danny Bolen between 2009 and 2010, he had supporting roles in the indie film The Secret Lives of Dorks and in the film I Am Number Four. Mirchoff stars as a lead in the MTV series Awkward, he played the role of Dominic in the Disney Channel film The Wizards Return: Alex vs. Alex. Beau was seen as recurring character on NBC's period drama Aquarius and in indie thriller Poker Night opposite Ron Perlman and Giancarlo Esposito. Beau Mirchoff on IMDb

XHESO-FM

XHESO-FM is a radio station on 104.9 FM in Ciudad Obregón, Sonora. XESO-AM 1150 received its concession on December 10, 1992, it was owned by Radio Signo, S. A. a subsidiary of Radiorama, operated with 5 kW day and 300 watts at night. Radiorama sold most of its Sonora stations to Larsa in the early 2010s. In December 2011, XESO was cleared to move to FM as XHESO-FM 104.9. In April 2018, XHESO ditched its Fiesta Mexicana name and took on imaging matching that of its Hermosillo then-sister station XHHQ-FM as "La Número Uno"; as a result of XHHQ's alliance with Larsa being dismantled, XHESO was relaunched as "La Más Chingona", in line with XHVSS-FM, in November of that year. In August 2019, XHESO temporarily went silent as Larsa ceased its own operations in Ciudad Obregón, affecting three stations, it reemerged in September as Los 40 under ISA Medios management