The Māori are the indigenous Polynesian people of New Zealand. Māori originated with settlers from eastern Polynesia, who arrived in New Zealand in several waves of canoe voyages some time between 1250 and 1300. Over several centuries in isolation, the Polynesian settlers developed a unique culture, with their own language, a rich mythology, distinctive crafts and performing arts. Early Māori formed tribal groups based on organisation. Horticulture flourished using plants; the arrival of Europeans to New Zealand, starting in the 17th century, brought enormous changes to the Māori way of life. Māori people adopted many aspects of Western society and culture. Initial relations between Māori and Europeans were amicable, with the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840, the two cultures coexisted as part of a new British colony. Rising tensions over disputed land sales led to conflict in the 1860s. Social upheaval, decades of conflict and epidemics of introduced disease took a devastating toll on the Māori population, which fell dramatically.
By the start of the 20th century, the Māori population had begun to recover, efforts have been made to increase their standing in wider New Zealand society and achieve social justice. Traditional Māori culture has thereby enjoyed a significant revival, further bolstered by a Māori protest movement that emerged in the 1960s. In the 2013 census, there were 600,000 people in New Zealand identifying as Māori, making up 15 percent of the national population, they are the second-largest ethnic group in New Zealand, after European New Zealanders. In addition, more than 140,000 Māori live in Australia; the Māori language is spoken to some extent by about a fifth of all Māori, representing 3 per cent of the total population. Māori are active in all spheres of New Zealand culture and society, with independent representation in areas such as media and sport. Disproportionate numbers of Māori face significant economic and social obstacles, have lower life expectancies and incomes compared with other New Zealand ethnic groups.
They suffer higher levels of crime, health problems, educational under-achievement. A number of socioeconomic initiatives have been instigated with the aim of "closing the gap" between Māori and other New Zealanders. Political and economic redress for historical grievances is ongoing. In the Māori language, the word māori means "normal", "natural" or "ordinary". In legends and oral traditions, the word distinguished ordinary mortal human beings—tāngata māori—from deities and spirits. Wai māori denotes "fresh water", as opposed to salt water. There are cognate words in most Polynesian languages, all deriving from Proto-Polynesian *maqoli, which has the reconstructed meaning "true, genuine"; the spelling of "Māori" with or without the macron is inconsistent in general-interest English-language media in New Zealand, although some newspapers and websites have adopted the standard Māori-language spelling. Early visitors from Europe to New Zealand referred to the indigenous inhabitants as "New Zealanders" or as "natives".
The Māori used the term Māori to describe themselves in a pan-tribal sense. Māori people use the term tangata whenua to identify in a way that expresses their relationship with a particular area of land; the term can refer to the Māori people as a whole in relation to New Zealand as a whole. The Māori Purposes Act of 1947 required the use of the term "Māori" rather than "Native" in official usage; the Department of Native Affairs was renamed as the Department of Māori Affairs. Before 1974, the government required documented ancestry to determine the legal definition of "a Māori person". For example, bloodlines or percentage of Māori ancestry was used to determine whether a person should enroll on the general electoral roll or the separate Māori roll. In 1947, the authorities determined that a man, five-eighths Māori had improperly voted in the general parliamentary electorate of Raglan; the Māori Affairs Amendment Act 1974 changed the definition, allowing individuals to self-identify as to their cultural identity.
In matters involving financial benefits provided by the government to people of Māori ethnicity—scholarships, for example, or Waitangi Tribunal settlements—authorities require some documentation of ancestry or continuing cultural connection but no minimum "blood" requirement exists as determined by the government. The most current reliable evidence indicates that the initial settlement of New Zealand occurred around 1280 CE, at the end of the medieval warm period. Previous dating of some kiore bones at 50–150 has now been shown to have been unreliable. Māori oral history describes the arrival of ancestors from Hawaiki, in large ocean-going waka. Migration accounts vary among tribes, whose members may identify with several waka in their genealogies. In the last few decades, mitochondrial-DNA research has allowed an estimate to be made of the number of women in the founding population—between 50 and 100. Evidence fro
Blockhouse Bay is a residential suburb of Auckland, in New Zealand's North Island. It is sited on the northern coast of the Manukau Harbour, is close to the administrative boundary that existed between Auckland City and Waitakere, two of the former four cities of what was the Auckland conurbation before amalgamation into Auckland Council; the suburb is located 11 kilometres to the southwest of the city centre, is surrounded by the more central suburbs of Lynfield and New Windsor, the Waitakere suburbs of New Lynn and Green Bay. The Blockhouse Bay Library is located in the town centre, as is the Blockhouse Bay Community Centre, located 200 metres from the library. According to the 2013 census, Blockhouse Bay has a population of 6132. Portage Road is the location of one of the overland routes between the two harbours, where the Maori would beach their waka and drag them overland to the other coast, thus avoiding having to paddle around North Cape; this made the area of immense strategic importance in both pre-European times and during the early years of European occupation.
The earliest European known to have trekked through, followed the coastline of the Manukau Harbour in an endeavour to find if there was a waterway connecting the two harbours, was the Rev. Samuel Marsden in 1820. Two missionaries who had arrived in New Zealand on 30 December 1834, William Colenso and R. Wade, walked through the Whau South area in 1838 hoping to find a Māori settlement, but the Pa site on Te Whau point had been abandoned some time before, they remarked that the area was "open and barren heaths, dreary and wild." The area was a popular holiday resort in the 1920s for Aucklanders, with families making the journey over rough roads to spend the summer at the beach. The earliest industry, in 1884, was the Gittos Tannery; the early 1900s saw other industries such as poultry, potteries, flowers and small farm holdings. The building which gave the name to the area was constructed in 1860. At this time the first land war in Taranaki was escalating and there were fears it would spread north and so a defence system for Auckland was actioned.
A 12-acre site was bordered by Esplanade, Gilfillan Street, Wynyard Road and Boylan Street. The actual Whau Blockhouse was located on; the site was chosen for two reasons: The elevated cleared 12-acre site provided an unobstructed view towards the Manukau Heads, the source of possible attack from southern Māori tribes. It was close to the Whau Portage, the route favoured by northern Māori tribes. Colonel Thomas Mould of the Royal Engineers was charged with planning the location and type of defence system needed. A blockhouse is a purpose-built building with walls thick enough to stop musket ball penetration, with slits in the walls for defensive musket fire, a fence or stockade surrounding the building, with a trench beyond that; the Blockhouse Bay Blockhouse never saw military action. In the 1880s it was gutted in a fire, it was subsequently demolished. The trenches were still visible in the 1940s but have since been obscured. Local Primary Students attend Blockhouse Bay Primary, Chaucer Primary, St. Dominics Primary and Marshall Laing Primary School.
Until December 2009, a private school named Hilltop School existed in Blockhouse Bay. Local Intermediate Students attend Blockhouse Bay Intermediate School Local secondary students attend Lynfield College, Mount Roskill Grammar School, Green Bay High School, Marcellin College or Auckland International College; the Bay Roskill Vikings rugby league club are based at Blockhouse Bay reserve. "Why Blockhouse Bay?" Compiled by Keith G. Rusden for the Blockhouse Bay Historical Society Inc. Blockhouse Bay Historical Society Inc. Photographs of Blockhouse Bay held in Auckland Libraries' heritage collections
Auckland City is the part of Auckland urban area covering the isthmus and most of the islands of the Hauraki Gulf. The core of Auckland City is the Auckland CBD, a major financial and commercial centre, surrounded by many suburbs, it was the name of a local authority district, governed by Auckland City Council. Auckland City was disestablished as a local government district on 1 November 2010, when Auckland City Council was amalgamated with other councils of the Auckland Region into the new Auckland Council. Auckland City was the most populous district in the country, with a population of 450,000 at 30 June 2010. In 2009, Auckland was rated the fourth-best place to live in the world, in human resources consultancy Mercer's annual survey; the mainland part of Auckland City occupied the Auckland isthmus known as the Tāmaki isthmus. The Waitematā Harbour, which opens to the Hauraki Gulf, separated North Shore City from the isthmus; the Manukau Harbour, which opens to the Tasman Sea, separated Manukau City from the isthmus.
The distance between the two harbours is narrow at each end of the isthmus. At the western end, the Whau River, an estuarial arm of the Waitematā Harbour, comes within two kilometres of the waters of the Manukau Harbour on the west coast and marks the beginning of the Northland Peninsula. A few kilometres to the southeast at Otahuhu, the Tamaki River, an arm of the Hauraki Gulf on the east coast, comes just 1200 metres from the Manukau's waters. Being part of the Auckland volcanic field, much of the isthmus is mantled with volcanic rocks and soils, several prominent scoria cones dot the isthmus. Many Hauraki Gulf islands were part of Auckland City; such islands of the inner gulf included Rangitoto, Browns Island, Rakino and Waiheke, while the outer gulf islands included Little Barrier Island, Great Barrier and the Mokohinau Islands. In November 1989, central government restructured local authorities throughout New Zealand. After substantial protests and legal challenges, Auckland City was merged with eight smaller local authorities to form a new Auckland City Council.
The new Auckland City had double the population of the old. However, forced onto local authorities against their will, was criticised to have led to less democracy and higher rates for the same services. A further restructuring and amalgamation brought all seven councils in the area and the Auckland Regional Council into one "SuperCity", starting 1 November 2010. Auckland City was the most populous city of New Zealand. In 2010 it was made up of 188 ethnic groups, making it New Zealand's most diverse city, more diverse than in 2007, when 185 ethnic groups had been counted. In 2010, the life expectancy was 83 years for women, 79.6 years for men, while the average age of the population was 33.4 years, with 35.9 years for the whole country. In the year to March 2009, Auckland City had 353,000 jobs, of which 26.3% was held by property and business services, as well as 65,655 businesses, making up 13.1% of New Zealand's businesses and 16.2% of New Zealand's jobs. Over 2009 to the month of March, Auckland City's unemployment rate increased to 5.6%, compared to the overall New Zealand unemployment rate of 4.5%.
In addition the city's economic output declined by 2.4%. Gareth Stiven, the economic manager of Auckland City, stated that this was because the city's economy was involved with service industries, such as banking and insurance, which were affected by financial crises. However, over the last five years of its existence, Auckland's economic growth averaged 1.4% each year, higher than the average of the region and the nation. In 2003 three of the ten largest companies in New Zealand were headquartered in Auckland City. Many large corporations were housed within the central part of Auckland City. Air New Zealand has its worldwide headquarters, called "The Hub", off Beaumont and Fanshawe Streets in the Western Reclamation. In September 2003 Air New Zealand was the only one of the largest corporations in New Zealand to have its headquarters within the Auckland CBD; these lists of suburbs are arranged electorally, starting from the west. Note: CBD - central business district For the suburbs of the other cities within the Auckland urban area, see North Shore, Manukau and Papakura.
Dominion Road – an arterial road running north–south across most of the central isthmus Great North Road – begins as a continuation of Karangahape Road and runs south-westward before crossing into what was Waitakere City Great South Road – runs south from Epsom and crosses from Otahuhu into what was Manukau City Karangahape Road – a commercial street running west–east and intersecting Queen Street at the southern edge of the CBD Portage Road – in Otahuhu, the southernmost suburb, following the path of a former Maori canoe portage between the Tamaki River and the Manukau Harbour, intersecting Great South Road Queen Street – the main commercial street, running south, uphill from Queens Wharf through the CBD Tamaki Drive – a coastal road running eastward from the eastern edge of the CBD to Saint Heliers Auckland City had six sister cities and two friendship city relationships. All of these cities except Hamburg are located around the Pacific Rim. Auckland waterfront A Complete Guide To Heraldry by A.
C. Fox-Davies 1909. Auckland City Council website, the local authority for Auckland History of Auckland City by Graham Bush Heart of the City website by the Auckland CBD business' association Heritage Walks: The Engineering Heritage of Auckland, historic text, 360° panoramas
A suburb is a mixed-use or residential area, existing either as part of a city or urban area or as a separate residential community within commuting distance of a city. In most English-speaking countries, suburban areas are defined in contrast to central or inner-city areas, but in Australian English and South African English, suburb has become synonymous with what is called a "neighborhood" in other countries and the term extends to inner-city areas. In some areas, such as Australia, China, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, a few U. S. states, new suburbs are annexed by adjacent cities. In others, such as Saudi Arabia, Canada and much of the United States, many suburbs remain separate municipalities or are governed as part of a larger local government area such as a county. Suburbs first emerged on a large scale in the 19th and 20th centuries as a result of improved rail and road transport, which led to an increase in commuting. In general, they have lower population densities than inner city neighborhoods within a metropolitan area, most residents commute to central cities or other business districts.
Suburbs tend to proliferate around cities that have an abundance of adjacent flat land. The English word is derived from the Old French subburbe, in turn derived from the Latin suburbium, formed from sub and urbs; the first recorded usage of the term in English, was made by John Wycliffe in 1380, where the form subarbis was used, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. In Australia and New Zealand, suburbs have become formalised as geographic subdivisions of a city and are used by postal services in addressing. In rural areas in both countries, their equivalents are called localities; the terms inner suburb and outer suburb are used to differentiate between the higher-density areas in proximity to the city center, the lower-density suburbs on the outskirts of the urban area. The term'middle suburbs' is used. Inner suburbs, such as Te Aro in Wellington, Eden Terrace in Auckland, Prahran in Melbourne and Ultimo in Sydney, are characterised by higher density apartment housing and greater integration between commercial and residential areas.
In New Zealand, most suburbs are not defined which can lead to confusion as to where they may begin and end. Although there is a geospatial file defining suburbs for use by emergency services developed and maintained by Fire and Emergency New Zealand, in collaboration with other government agencies, to date this file has not been released publicly. New Zealand company Koordinates Limited requested access to the geospatial file under the Official Information Act 1982 but this request was rejected by the New Zealand Fire Service on the basis that it would prejudice the health & safety of, or cause material loss, to the public. In September 2014 a decision was made by the Ombudsman of New Zealand ruling that the New Zealand Fire Service refusal to release the geospatial file without agreeing to terms which included, among other restrictions, a prohibition on redistribution of the geospatial file, was reasonable. In the United Kingdom and in Ireland, suburb refers to a residential area outside the city centre, regardless of administrative boundaries.
Suburbs, in this sense, can range from areas that seem more like residential areas of a city proper to areas separated by open countryside from the city centre. In large cities such as London and Leeds, suburbs include separate towns and villages that have been absorbed during a city's growth and expansion, such as Ealing and Guiseley. In the United States and Canada, suburb can refer either to an outlying residential area of a city or town or to a separate municipality or unincorporated area outside a town or city; the earliest appearance of suburbs coincided with the spread of the first urban settlements. Large walled towns tended to be the focus around which smaller villages grew up in a symbiotic relationship with the market town; the word'suburbani' was first used by the Roman statesman Cicero in reference to the large villas and estates built by the wealthy patricians of Rome on the city's outskirts. Towards the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty, the capital, was occupied by the emperor and important officials.
As populations grew during the Early Modern Period in Europe, urban towns swelled with a steady influx of people from the countryside. In some places, nearby settlements were swallowed up as the main city expanded; the peripheral areas on the outskirts of the city were inhabited by the poorest. Due to the rapid migration of the rural poor to the industrialising cities of England in the late 18th century, a trend in the opposite direction began to develop; this trend accelerated through the 19th century in cities like London and Manchester that were growing and the first suburban districts sprung up around the city centres to accommodate those who wanted to escape the squalid conditions of the industrial towns. Toward the end of the century, with the development of public transit systems such as the underground railways and buses, it became possible for the majority of the city's population to reside outside the city and to commute into the
Daniel Pollen was the son of Elizabeth and Hugh Pollen and became the ninth Premier of New Zealand, serving from 6 July 1875 to 15 February 1876. The son of Hugh Pollen, a dock master, Pollen was born in Dublin. Little is known about the early part of his life, but it is supposed that he grew up in Ireland and in the United States of America. However, his father was dock master of the Grand Canal Company at Ringsend in 1812, still held that office in 1832, died in 1837 to be succeeded as dock master by Thomas Pollen. On some accounts, Pollen's father helped to build the United States Capitol. A doctor, Pollen claimed to hold the MD degree, although where he graduated is not recorded, he travelled to New South Wales in the late 1830s, moved to North Auckland in January 1840. He was a witness to the proceedings of the Treaty of Waitangi, he began his practice as a doctor in Parnell, Auckland, in 1841. In 1844 he was held this post for four years. On 18 May 1846, Pollen married the daughter of an officer of the Royal Navy.
He moved with her to Kawau Island in 1847, after becoming medical officer to a Scottish copper-mining company. Pollen spent several years on Kawau, during which time he began to contribute articles to The New Zealander supporting the agitation for responsible government, he was to the fore in supporting temperance and library movements there. When the New Zealand Constitution Act 1852 became law, Pollen was made chief clerk in the Auckland Superintendent's office. From there, he rose through the ranks. Two years after his original appointment, he was appointed to the Executive Council, in 1858 he was appointed Commissioner of Crown Lands for Auckland. In 1856 he was elected to the Auckland Provincial Council for the Suburbs of Auckland electorate, where he served until 1861. From 1862 to 1865, he represented the Auckland East electorate on the Council, he was one of four candidates in the Suburbs of Auckland electorate in the 1855 general election. He came last in this election. On 16 July 1861, he was appointed to the New Zealand Legislative Council.
In 1862, he resigned as Commissioner of Crown Lands, became the Deputy Superintendent of Auckland, where he served until the end of his second term. He resigned from the Legislative Council on 4 December 1867 to become agent for the Central Government at Auckland, he returned to the Legislative Council on 10 June 1868 to represent the Stafford Ministry. He resigned from the Legislative Council in 1870 to be agent in Auckland again. In 1870, Daniel Pollen held four positions - Receiver of Land Revenue, Commissioner of Confiscated Lands, Commissioner under the Native Land Act of 1870, Immigration Officer; the Vogel Ministry recalled him to the Legislative Council on 12 May 1873, where he became Colonial Secretary on 4 July 1873. He held this role until 13 October 1877 during various ministries, he became Premier on 6 July 1875 and led the Pollen Ministry until 15 February 1876. After he left this position, he was again appointed to the Legislative Council on 12 May 1873 and served for 23 years until his death on 18 May 1896.
Pollen Island "Obituary". "The Star" in Papers Past. 18 May 1896. "Obituary". "The New Zealand Herald" in Papers Past. 19 May 1896. "Obituary". "The Evening Post" in Papers Past. 18 May 1896. "Obituary". "The Auckland Star" in Papers Past. 18 May 1896. Scholefield, Guy. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1949. Wellington: Govt. Printer
Avondale is a suburb in the West Auckland, New Zealand, located in the Whau ward, one of the thirteen administrative divisions for the Auckland Council. It was called Te Whau, the common name, of Māori origin, for Entelea arborescens, a native tree; the first European settler in the area was John Sheddon Adam in 1843, but settlement did not occur in larger numbers until the late 1850s, with the completion of Great North Road. Expansion was rapid, with churches, stores and a public hall built by 1867. With a railway connection to the settlement in 1880, the rate of settlement increased further. Te Whau became Avondale District on 5 June 1882, although the old name survives in the Whau River, an estuarial arm of the Waitematā Harbour, which runs along the western edge of the suburb. A prominent community leader and Member of Parliament was John Bollard, who lived in Avondale from 1861 to 1915. Early industries included brickyards, tanneries and pottery works. Avondale had numerous market gardens on the Rosebank Peninsula.
It was here that the "Hayward" cultivar of the Chinese gooseberry known as the kiwifruit, was developed by Hayward Wright. From the mid-1920s Avondale became suburban. In 1927 the Avondale Borough Council was absorbed into the Auckland City Council; the so-called Avondale spider, an introduced species of a spectacular but harmless Australian huntsman spider, was for decades only found in the area surrounding Avondale, thus received its New Zealand name. It was introduced to New Zealand in a shipment of timber to the Aitkins Timber Yard in Patiki Road, was left to spread, so its distribution pattern might help with the identification of future introduced species dispersal. In 2017, the council-controlled organisation Panuku Development Auckland announced a major redevelopment of Avondale town centre, including a new library building and recreation centre, increased housing and local business development. Avondale had a local government just like other suburbs of Auckland at that time; the local government was called Avondale Borough Council, which started in 1922 and merged into Auckland City Council in 1927 amalgamated into Auckland Council in November 2010.
1922–1923 James Watkin Kinniburgh 1923–1927 William John Tait 1927–1927 Edward Ernest Copsey 1927–1927 Herbert Tiarks Avondale is home to Avondale College, the third largest high school in New Zealand. The Avondale Jockey Club operates the Avondale Racecourse - one of only two gallops tracks in suburban Auckland and the location of the Sunday markets, the largest in the country. Avondale Railway Station is situated on the Western Line of Auckland's metropolitan rail network. Lisa Truttman, 2003, Heart of The Whau, The Story of the Centre of Avondale 1841-2001, Words Incorporated. Photographs of Avondale held in Auckland Libraries' heritage collections
Glen Eden, New Zealand
Glen Eden is a suburb of Auckland, New Zealand. The suburb is in the Waitakere Ward, one of the thirteen administrative areas of Auckland governed by Auckland Council; the population was 6,609 in the 2006 census, an increase of 540 from 2001. Glen Eden village is situated on West Coast Road. Most commercial premises in Glen Eden are either on this road or in Glen Mall, a small shopping centre nearby. Waikumete Cemetery is to the north of Glen Eden. Glen Eden Railway Station is located on West Coast Road, is a station on Auckland's Western Line. Glen Eden is home to a library, the Playhouse Theatre, an RSA club; the Glenora Rugby League team plays at Glenora Park. It has the oldest registered Scouts club in the country. Most housing is wooden, with a few old farmhouses, some 1930s art deco houses, post-war bungalows and weatherboard houses. There is more recent terrace housing. Before the adoption of an Auckland Supercity in 2010, Glen Eden was under the local governance of the Waitakere City Council and the New Lynn Community Board.
The original Māori name for the area was Waikomiti. Because this name was similar to that of Waikumete Cemetery, residents requested a name change. Glen Eden was chosen from the valleys and orchards of the area. Glen Eden School is a coeducational contributing primary school with a decile rating of 3 and a roll of 359. Prospect School is a coeducational contributing primary school with a decile rating of 2 and a roll of 350. Waitakere Seventh-day Adventist School is a coeducational full primary school with a roll of 42 and a decile rating of 2. A church school, it is integrated with the state system. Local secondary schools nearby are Kelston Girls' College. Glen Eden is home to the Glenora Bears rugby league club. Glen Eden School website https://www.facebook.com/Glen. Eden. Village Glen Eden Community Protection Society website Photographs of Glen Eden held in Auckland Libraries' heritage collections