New Mexico is a state in the Southwestern region of the United States of America. It is one of the Mountain States and shares the Four Corners region with Utah and Arizona. New Mexico is bordered by the state of Texas to the east-southeast, Oklahoma to the northeast, the Mexican states of Chihuahua to the south and Sonora to the southwest. With an estimated population of 2,096,829 as of the July 1, 2019, U. S. Census Bureau estimate, New Mexico is the 36th largest state by population. With a total area of 121,592 sq mi, it is the fifth-largest and sixth-least densely populated of the 50 states. Due to their geographic locations and eastern New Mexico exhibit a colder, alpine climate, while western and southern New Mexico exhibit a warmer, arid climate; the economy of New Mexico is dependent on oil drilling, mineral extraction, dryland farming, cattle ranching, lumber milling, retail trade. As of 2018, its total gross domestic product was $101 billion with a GDP per capita of $45,465. New Mexico's status as a tax haven yields low to moderate personal income taxes on residents and military personnel, gives tax credits and exemptions to favorable industries.
Because of this, its film industry contributed $1.23 billion to its overall economy. Due to its large area and economic climate, New Mexico has a large U. S. military presence marked notably with the White Sands Missile Range. Various U. S. national security agencies base their research and testing arms in New Mexico such as the Sandia and Los Alamos National Laboratories. During the 1940s, Project Y of the Manhattan Project developed and built the country's first atomic bomb and nuclear test, Trinity. Inhabited by Native Americans for many thousands of years before European exploration, it was colonized by the Spanish in 1598 as part of the Imperial Spanish viceroyalty of New Spain. In 1563, it was named Nuevo México after the Aztec Valley of Mexico by Spanish settlers, more than 250 years before the establishment and naming of the present-day country of Mexico. After Mexican independence in 1821, New Mexico became a Mexican territory with considerable autonomy; this autonomy was threatened, however, by the centralizing tendencies of the Mexican government from the 1830s onward, with rising tensions leading to the Revolt of 1837.
At the same time, the region became more economically dependent on the United States. At the conclusion of the Mexican–American War in 1848, the United States annexed New Mexico as the U. S. New Mexico Territory, it was admitted to the Union as the 47th state on January 6, 1912. Its history has given New Mexico the highest percentage of Hispanic and Latino Americans, the second-highest percentage of Native Americans as a population proportion. New Mexico is home to part of the Navajo Nation, 19 federally recognized Pueblo communities of Puebloan peoples, three different federally recognized Apache tribes. In prehistoric times, the area was home to Ancestral Puebloans and the modern extant Comanche and Utes inhabited the state; the largest Hispanic and Latino groups represented include the Hispanos of New Mexico and Mexicans. The New Mexican flag features the state's Spanish origins with the same scarlet and gold coloration as Spain's Cross of Burgundy, along with the ancient sun symbol of the Zia, a Puebloan tribe.
These indigenous, Mexican and American frontier roots are reflected in the eponymous New Mexican cuisine and the New Mexico music genre. New Mexico received its name long before the present-day nation of Mexico won independence from Spain and adopted that name in 1821. Though the name "Mexico" itself derives from Nahuatl, in that language it referred to the heartland of the Empire of the Mexicas in the Valley of Mexico far from the area of New Mexico, Spanish explorers used the term "Mexico" to name the region of New Mexico in 1563. In 1581, the Chamuscado and Rodríguez Expedition named the region north of the Rio Grande "San Felipe del Nuevo México"; the Spaniards had hoped to find wealthy indigenous Mexica cultures there similar to those of the Aztec Empire of the Valley of Mexico. The indigenous cultures of New Mexico, proved to be unrelated to the Mexicas, they were not wealthy, but the name persisted. Before statehood, the name "New Mexico" was applied to various configurations of the U.
S. territory, to a Mexican state, to a province of New Spain, all in the same general area, but of varying extensions. With a total area of 121,699 square miles, New Mexico is the fifth-largest state larger than the British Isles. New Mexico's eastern border lies along 103°W longitude with the state of Oklahoma, 2.2 miles west of 103°W longitude with Texas. On the southern border, Texas makes up the eastern two-thirds, while the Mexican states of Chihuahua and Sonora make up the western third, with Chihuahua making up about 90% of that; the western border with Arizona runs along the 109° 03'W longitude. The southwestern corner of the state is known as the Bootheel; the 37°N parallel forms the northern boundary with Colorado. The states of New Mexico, Colorado and Utah come together at the Four Corners in New Mexico's northwestern corner
Society for the Protection of Animal Rights in Egypt, or S. P. A. R. E. is a non-profit animal welfare organization founded by Amina Abaza in 2001. It is the first animal welfare organization in Egypt to address the situation of all animals, including dogs and donkeys. S. P. A. R. E.'s greatest goal and challenge is to eliminate the cruel mentality which allows people to abuse animals. By raising public awareness about animal welfare in Egypt, SPARE works continuously to convince Egyptians that compassion towards animals is not a luxury, it's a must. In addition to providing kennels and spay and neuter operations, SPARE acts as an animal advocacy organization, it has undertaken causes such as improving conditions at the Cairo zoo, fighting the growth of "private zoos" in Egypt, improving government standards relating to Egyptian slaughterhouses. Animal welfare in Egypt World Animal Protection Animal protection Animal welfare Animal rights S. P. A. R. E. Homepage
Rashid Mekki Hassan is the Professor and Director at the Centre for Environmental Economics and Policy in Africa at the University of Pretoria. He specialises in natural resource and environmental economics, agricultural economics, optimisation and modelling of economic systems. Hassan holds a BSc and MSc. both in Agricultural Economics, from the University of Khartoum in 1977 and 1983 respectively. He proceeded to Iowa State University where he got MSc and Ph. D. degrees, both in Economics, in 1988 and 1989 respectively. Hassan is the professor of economics at the University of Pretoria where he studies natural resources management, he has authored co-authored and co-edited journal articles and books on Water management in the South Africa, used to chart the efficiency of use of water. He was elected a foreign associate of the US National Academy of Sciences in April 2019; the books which Hassan has authored, co-authored, or co-edited include: Rashid M. Hassan; the Economics of Water Management in southern Africa: an environmental accounting approach.
Edward Elgar Publishing. Doi:10.4337/9781847203021. ISBN 9781843764724. Hassan has written. "Water accounting for the Orange River Basin: An economic perspective on managing a transboundary resource". Ecological Economics. 61: 660–670. Doi:10.1016/j.ecolecon.2006.07.032. Rashid M. Hassan. "Determinants of farmers' choice of adaptation methods to climate change in the Nile Basin of Ethiopia". Global Environmental Change. 19: 248–255. Doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2009.01.002. Hdl:2263/9270. Profile on ResearchGate Profile on Google Scholar