The New Model Army of England was formed in 1645 by the Parliamentarians in the English Civil War, was disbanded in 1660 after the Restoration. It differed from other armies in the series of civil wars referred to as the Wars of the Three Kingdoms in that it was intended as an army liable for service anywhere in the country, rather than being tied to a single area or garrison, its soldiers became full-time professionals, rather than part-time militia. To establish a professional officer corps, the army's leaders were prohibited from having seats in either the House of Lords or House of Commons; this was to encourage their separation from the political or religious factions among the Parliamentarians. The New Model Army was raised from among veteran soldiers who had held Puritan religious beliefs, from conscripts who brought with them many held beliefs about religion or society. Many of its common soldiers therefore held radical views unique among English armies. Although the Army's senior officers did not share many of their soldiers' political opinions, their independence from Parliament led to the Army's willingness to contribute to the overthrow of both the Crown and Parliament's authority, to establish a Commonwealth of England from 1649 to 1660, which included a period of direct military rule.
The Army's Generals could rely both on the Army's internal discipline and its religious zeal and innate support for the "Good Old Cause" to maintain an dictatorial rule. The New Model Army was formed as a result of dissatisfaction among Parliamentarians with the conduct of the Civil War in 1644. Although the Parliamentarians had a clear advantage in financial resources and manpower over the Royalists, most of their forces were raised by local associations of counties, could be used far from their homes; as early as 2 July of that year, Sir William Waller discovered that his London-based units were refusing to campaign further afield, wrote, "An army compounded of these men will never go through with your service, till you have an army your own that you may command, it is in a manner impossible to do anything of importance". There was increasing dissension among Parliament's generals in the field. Parliament suspected that many of its senior officers, who were Presbyterians, were inclined to favour peace with King Charles, were conducting operations half-heartedly as a result.
The Earl of Manchester was one of the prominent members favouring peace, but his Lieutenant General, Oliver Cromwell advocated fighting the war to the finish. Manchester and Cromwell clashed publicly over this issue several times. Parliament's senior commander, the Earl of Essex, was suspected of lack of determination and was on poor terms with his subordinates; the tensions among the Parliamentarian generals became a bitter public argument after the Second Battle of Newbury. Some of them believed that King Charles's army had escaped encirclement after the battle through inaction on the part of some commanders. On 19 November 1644, the Parliamentarian Eastern Association of counties announced that they could no longer meet the cost of maintaining their forces, which at the time provided about half the field force available to Parliament. In response, Parliament directed the Committee of Both Kingdoms, the cabinet-like body that oversaw the conduct of the War, to review the state of all Parliament's forces.
On 19 December, the House of Commons passed the Self-denying Ordinance, which prevented members of the Houses of Lords and Commons from holding any military office. A separate matter from the establishment of the New Model Army, it soon became intimately linked with it. Once the Self-denying Ordinance became Law, the Earls of Manchester and Essex, other Presbyterian members of Parliament and peers, were removed from command in the field. On 6 January 1645, the Committee of Both Kingdoms established the New Model Army, appointing Sir Thomas Fairfax as its Captain-General and Sir Philip Skippon as Sergeant-Major General of the Foot; the Self-denying Ordinance took time to pass the House of Lords, but came into force on 3 April 1645, about the same time as the New Model Army first took the field. Although Oliver Cromwell handed over his command of the Army's cavalry when the Ordinance was enacted, Fairfax requested his services when another officer wished to emigrate. Cromwell was commissioned Colonel of Vermuyden's former regiment of horse, was appointed Lieutenant General of the Horse in June.
Cromwell and his son-in-law Henry Ireton were two of the only four exceptions to the Self-denying Ordinance, the other two being local commanders in Cheshire and North Wales. They were allowed to serve under a series of three-month temporary commissions that were continually extended. Parliament decreed the consolidation of most of their forces outside the New Model Army into two other locally recruited armies, those of the Northern Association under Sydenham Poyntz and the Western Association under Edward Massey, they were intended to reduce the remaining Royalist garrisons in their areas and prevent Royalist incursions. Some of their regiments were reorganised and incorporated into the New Model Army during and after the Second English Civil War; the New Model Army consisted on paper of 22,000 soldiers, comprising eleven regiments of cavalry each of 600 men for a total of 6,600, twelve regiments of infantry each of 1,200 men for a total of 14,400, one regiment of 1,000 dragoons. Units from the
The Gospel According to Lazarus is a 2019 novel by Richard Zimler. The novel is set in the time of Jesus. Reviewing Lazurus for The Guardian, novelist Peter Stanford called it "a brave and engaging novel... a page-turner. I had to keep going to the end in order to know on earth what would happen." In her article in The Jewish Week, Sandee Brawarsky observed that "Zimler’s writing is richly detailed, his characters compelling. If readers know how this story will unfold, there are surprising turns in these pages." In his Tikkun review, Jacob Staub wrote that "Zimler is masterful at immersing his readers in the ambience and symbols of each period, in the alleyways and culinary scents of each of his settings, so that the human lessons he elicits are credible and grounded in the past. He views Jewish history as a sacred text"; the novel tells the story of Lazarus of Bethany from his own point of view. One of the author's goals was to return to Lazarus and Jesus their Judaism and, in consequence, both men are referred to by their Hebrew names: Yeshua ben Yosef and Eliezer ben Natan.
The book presents Yeshua ben Yosef as an early Jewish mystic and explores the deep friendship between Eliezer and Yeshua, who - within the fictional setting - have been best friends since childhood. In June 2019 Zimler published an essay in the Guardian entitled, "I have never met antisemitism in Britain... until now." It explained how Zimler, a acclaimed, bestselling novelist, had been rejected for appearances by two cultural organizations after they inquired whether he "was Jewish." He concluded the essay by writing, "if you fail to be welcoming to Jewish writers and artists because you fear a backlash your cowardice makes it possible for the haters to have their way – to spread their irrational dislike of Jews and make shunning them seem acceptable. Is that the'new normal' you want for Great Britain?"According to The Bookseller, a trade publication that covers the British publishing industry, both The Observer and The Guardian confirmed that the arts organizations had decided not to sponsor appearances by Zimler after confirming that he is Jewish.
The organizations feared that would suffer from a backlash if they sponsored a talk by a Jewish writer
MindCite was a technology company that produces text analysis and link analysis software for homeland security and commercial organizations. The software solutions developed by MindCite use Semantic Ontology driven technologies. MindCite software is used by intelligence organizations, law enforcement agencies, regulatory bodies, related government organizations as well as banks and enterprises. In early 2012, MindCite was acquired by NICE Systems. Among MindCite software products are -- CiteLink. Citer is text analysis software that enables organizations to manage and interact with massive amounts of information from open sources, public domain, internal data and external information sources in a coherent structure. Citer gathers and retrieves large amounts of structured, semi-structured and unstructured data from targeting information sources. CiteLink is link analysis software that allows organizations to uncover complex connections and elaborate relations hidden inside targeted information sources.
CiteLink visualizes targeted information and links entities stored inside disparate databases and open information sources. MindCite software applications use pure Semantic technology and are Ontology-driven; these technologies create a common language between human intentions. MindCite's use of these technologies enables its software to uniquely analyze and present dissimilar data in a common structure. MindCite technology is compliant with W3C standards. MindCite software is the basis for the following solutions: Open source intelligence Actionable intelligence Risk analysis Market intelligence Competitive analysis Hadar Himmelman CEO parted the company and was replaced with Avi Shoham who has served as CEO since 2010. Avi acted as the Vice President of Marketing and Sales at Azimuth Technologies, a leading defense company based in Israel. Avi earned his MBA at the University of Tel Aviv. Oren Yosifon has been the company's CTO since 2007 and has held other technology management positions since the company's inception in 2000.
Oren has designed numerous open source intelligence solutions for intelligence organizations and law enforcement agencies around the world. His area of expertise is the application of Semantic Web technologies in text and link analysis processes. MindCite’s Board of Directors includes Benjamin Kahn. Benjamin was honored by Time Magazine in October 2007 as a Hero of the Environment. MindCite was founded in 2000 by Shahaf Gal. MindCite web site Jerusalem Post article about MindCite