Roundheads were the supporters of the Parliament of England during the English Civil War. Known as Parliamentarians, they fought against King Charles I of England and his supporters, known as the Cavaliers or Royalists, who claimed rule by absolute monarchy and the principle of the'divine right of kings'; the goal of the Roundhead party was to give the Parliament supreme control over executive administration of the country/kingdom. Most Roundheads sought constitutional monarchy in place of the absolute monarchy sought by Charles. However, at the end of the English Civil War in 1649, public antipathy towards the king was high enough to allow republican leaders such as Oliver Cromwell to abolish the monarchy and establish the Commonwealth of England; the Roundhead commander-in-chief of the first Civil War, Thomas Fairfax, remained a supporter of constitutional monarchy, as did many other Roundhead leaders such as Edward Montagu, 2nd Earl of Manchester and Robert Devereux, 3rd Earl of Essex. England's many Puritans and Presbyterians were invariably Roundhead supporters, as were many smaller religious groups such as the Independents.

However many Roundheads were members of the Church of England. Roundhead political factions included the proto-anarchist Diggers, the diverse group known as the Levellers and the apocalyptic Christian movement of the Fifth Monarchists; some Puritans, but by no means all, wore their hair cropped round the head or flat and there was thus an obvious contrast between them and the men of courtly fashion, who wore long ringlets. During the war and for a time afterwards, Roundhead was a term of derision—in the New Model Army it was a punishable offence to call a fellow soldier a Roundhead; this contrasted with the term "Cavalier" to describe supporters of the Royalist cause. Cavalier started out as a pejorative term—the first proponents used it to compare members of the Royalist party with Spanish Caballeros who had abused Dutch Protestants during the reign of Elizabeth I—but unlike Roundhead, Cavalier was embraced by those who were the target of the epithet and used by them to describe themselves."Roundheads" appears to have been first used as a term of derision toward the end of 1641, when the debates in Parliament in the Clergy Act 1640 were causing riots at Westminster.

The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition quotes a contemporary authority's description of the crowd gathered there: "They had the hair of their heads few of them longer than their ears, whereupon it came to pass that those who with their cries attended at Westminster were by a nickname called Roundheads". The demonstrators included London apprentices, for whom Roundhead was a term of derision, because the regulations which they had agreed to included a provision for cropped hair. According to John Rushworth the word was first used on 27 December 1641 by a disbanded officer named David Hide. During a riot, Hide is reported to have drawn his sword and said he would "cut the throat of those round-headed dogs that bawled against bishops". However, Richard Baxter ascribes the origin of the term to a remark made by Queen Henrietta Maria, wife of Charles I, at the trial of Thomas Wentworth, 1st Earl of Strafford, earlier that year. Referring to John Pym, she asked; the principal advisor to Charles II, Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon, remarked on the matter, "and from those contestations the two terms of Roundhead and Cavalier grew to be received in discourse... they who were looked upon as servants to the king being called Cavaliers, the other of the rabble contemned and despised under the name of Roundheads."Ironically, after Anglican Archbishop William Laud made a statute in 1636 instructing all clergy to wear short hair, many Puritans rebelled to show their contempt for his authority and began to grow their hair longer though they continued to be known as Roundheads.

The longer hair was more common among the "Independent" and "high ranking" Puritans toward the end of the Protectorate, while the "Presbyterian" faction, the military rank-and-file, continued to abhor long hair. By the end of this period some Independent Puritans were again derisively using the term Roundhead to refer to the Presbyterian Puritans. Roundhead remained in use to describe those with republican tendencies up until the Exclusion Crisis of 1678–1681. During the Exclusion Bill crisis, the term Cavalier was replaced with "Tory", an Irish term introduced by their opponents, initially a pejorative term. Macaulay, Thomas Babington; the History of England from the Accession of James II. 1. New York: Harper & Brothers. P. 105. ISBN 0-543-93129-3. Hanbury, Benjamin. Historical Memorials Relating to the Independents Or Congregationalists: From Their Rise to the Restoration of the Monarchy. 3. Pp. 118, 635. Hunt, John. Religious Thought from the Reformation to the End of Last Century. 2. General Books LLC. p. 5.

ISBN 1-150-98096-6. Roberts, Chris. Heavy Words Lightly Thrown: The Reason Behind Rhyme. Thorndike Press. ISBN 0-7862-8517-6. Worden, Blair; the English Civil Wars 1640–1660. London: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-100694-3. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Anonymous. "Roundhead". In Chisholm


A seashell or sea shell known as a shell, is a hard, protective outer layer created by an animal that lives in the sea. The shell is part of the body of the animal. Empty seashells are found washed up on beaches by beachcombers; the shells are empty because the animal has died and the soft parts have been eaten by another animal or have decomposed. A seashell is the exoskeleton of an invertebrate, is composed of calcium carbonate or chitin. Most shells that are found on beaches are the shells of marine mollusks because these shells are made of calcium carbonate, endure better than shells made of chitin. Apart from mollusk shells, other shells that can be found on beaches are those of barnacles, horseshoe crabs and brachiopods. Marine annelid worms in the family Serpulidae create shells which are tubes made of calcium carbonate cemented onto other surfaces; the shells of sea urchins are called "tests", the moulted shells of crabs and lobsters are exuviae. While most seashells are external, some cephalopods have internal shells.

Seashells have been used by humans for many different purposes throughout pre-history. However, seashells are not the only kind of shells; when the word "seashells" refers only to the shells of marine mollusks studying seashells is part of conchology. Conchologists or serious collectors who have a scientific bias are in general careful not to disturb living populations and habitats: though they may collect a few live animals, most responsible collectors do not over-collect or otherwise disturb ecosystems; the study of the entire molluscan animal is known as malacology. Seashells are found in beach drift, natural detritus deposited along strandlines on beaches by the waves and the tides. Shells are often washed up onto a beach empty and clean, the animal having died. Empty seashells are picked up by beachcombers. However, the majority of seashells which are offered for sale commercially have been collected alive and killed and cleaned for the commercial trade; this type of large-scale exploitation can sometimes have a strong negative impact on local ecosystems, sometimes can reduce the distribution of rare species.

The word seashell is used to mean only the shell of a marine mollusk. Marine mollusk shells that are familiar to beachcombers and thus most to be called "seashells" are the shells of marine species of bivalves, scaphopods and cephalopods; these shells are often the most encountered, both in the wild, for sale as decorative objects. Marine species of gastropods and bivalves are more numerous than land and freshwater species, the shells are larger and more robust; the shells of marine species often have more sculpture and more color, although this is by no means always the case. In the tropical and sub-tropical areas of the planet, there are far more species of colorful, shallow water shelled marine mollusks than there are in the temperate zones and the regions closer to the poles. Although there are a number of species of shelled mollusks that are quite large, there are vast numbers of small species too, see micromollusks. Not all mollusks are marine. There are numerous freshwater mollusks, see for example snail and freshwater bivalves.

In addition, not all mollusks have an external shell: some mollusks such as some cephalopods have an internal shell, many mollusks have no shell, see for example slug and nudibranch. Bivalves are the most common seashells that wash up on large sandy beaches or in sheltered lagoons, they can sometimes be numerous. The two valves become separated. There are more than 15,000 species of bivalves that live in both freshwater. Examples of bivalves are clams, scallops and oysters; the majority of bivalves consist of two identical shells. The animal's body is held protectively inside these two shells. Bivalves that do not have two shells either have one shell or they lack a shell altogether; the shells are formed in layers by secretions from the mantle. Bivalves known as pelecypods, are filter feeders; some bivalves have an open circulatory system. Bivalves are used all as a source of pearls; the larvae of some freshwater mussels can bore through wood. Shell Beach, Western Australia, is a beach, made up of the shells of the cockle Fragum erugatum.

Certain species of gastropod seashells can sometimes be common, washed up on sandy beaches, on beaches that are surrounded by rocky marine habitat. Chiton plates or valves wash up on beaches in rocky areas where chitons are common. Chiton shells, which are composed of eight separate plates and a girdle come apart not long after death, so they are always found as disarticulated plates. Plates from larger species of chitons are sometimes known as "butterfly shells" because of their shape. Only a few species of cephalopods have shells; some cephalopods such as Sepia, the cuttlefish, have a large internal shell, the cuttlefi

Kai Hansen

Kai Michael Hansen is a heavy metal guitarist and vocalist. Hansen is the founder, lead guitarist, vocalist of power metal band Gamma Ray, he is the co-founder and member of German metal band Helloween. He has sold millions of albums worldwide, he is regarded as "the godfather of power metal". In 2011, he joined the band Unisonic featuring former Helloween vocalist Michael Kiske. Hansen and Kiske reunited with Helloween in 2017 for a world tour with all current members, celebrating the 30-year anniversary of release of the albums Keeper of the Seven Keys Parts I and II. Kai Hansen was born Hamburg, Germany in 1963. At the age of ten, Kai started playing wash-drums, his parents however, bought him an acoustic guitar instead. He took a six-months course in classical guitar and following it, formed his first band with his classmates after he bought an electric guitar, a white Ibanez Les Paul. Hansen's musical career started in 1978 in a band called Gentry, alongside Iron Savior's co-founder and producer Piet Sielck.

In 1983, he and Michael Weikath founded Helloween, where he was guitarist and singer until Michael Kiske took over the microphone for the albums Keeper of the Seven Keys Part 1 and Keeper of the Seven Keys Part 2. Hansen left the band due to the extensive touring in 1988–89 and went on to form his own power metal band Gamma Ray. Hansen joined Iron Savior as guitarist in 1997, but quit after a few years to focus his efforts on Gamma Ray, he has now forged a successful career with Gamma Ray, releasing several albums and playing sold-out tours across the globe. Hansen participated in a large number of other projects, he appeared as a guest vocalist on Blind Guardian's albums Follow the Blind and Tales from the Twilight World. Around the same time, he and fellow Gamma Ray bandmate Dirk Schlächter collaborated on Angra's first full-length album Angels Cry, both playing guitar solos in the song "Never Understand", he collaborated on Angra's album Temple of Shadows released in 2004 doing vocals for the song "The Temple of Hate".

With ANGRA He participated as a guest guitarist on Michael Kiske's debut solo album Instant Clarity. Together with HammerFall he recorded a cover version of Helloween's "I Want Out". Hansen played the role of Regrin the dwarf in Avantasia's Metal Opera albums by Tobias Sammet, he was featured in the album The Scarecrow playing guitar in the song "Shelter from the Rain". He was one of the guest musicians in Avantasia's 2010 world tour, which have put him to play live together with fellow ex-bandmate Michael Kiske, after more than twenty years since he left Helloween. After this tour it was announced, via Michael Kiske's official website, that Hansen would join his new band Unisonic, as they "instantly felt the magic of Helloween years again and had a lot of fun together on and off stage". In 2005, he toured with the young German power/Viking metal band Stormwarrior from his home town of Hamburg as lead singer, playing material from his classic Helloween debut album Walls of Jericho – the favorite album and greatest influence of Stormwarrior.

"Stormwarrior featuring Kai Hansen" returned in 2007 to play at the Magic Circle Festival in Bad Arolsen and at the Wacken Open Air Festival. In 2008, Hansen played with Stormwarrior at Sweden Rock Festival 2008. In 2011, Hansen joined the hard-rock band Unisonic, as second guitarist and reunited with old friend and ex-Helloween vocalist Michael Kiske, who formed the band in 2009; the band embarked on its first world tour. Hansen stated in an interview that despite being a member of Unisonic, he will not have less focus on Gamma Ray, that the next Gamma Ray album should arrive in 2013. Unisonic's second album, Light Of Dawn, was released in 2014 and a European and Japanese tour followed. In 2015, following the Best of the Best Party Tour, Hansen hired Frank Beck as their second vocalist for the Gamma Ray. In 2016, Hansen released his first solo album titled XXX – Three Decades in Metal; the album was released via earMUSIC on September 16 of the same year. In 2017 Kai Hansen played minitour - four shows in Slovakia and Czech republic with the band Ravenclaw, with special set for Ravenclaw 15-Years Anniversary - Ravenclaw feat.

Kai Hansen. On November 14, 2016 was announced the Pumpkins United World Tour - a concert tour of the German power metal band Helloween. Both original members Michael Kiske and Kai Hansen joined the current members for this tour for 2017, 2018 and 2019. During his earlier years Hansen's singing style was reminiscent of many thrash metal vocalists. Rather than using a smooth and clear style Hansen sang with a raspy sound, interluded by high-pitched screams for dramatic effect. Kiske was brought in as a singer because Hansen had trouble singing and playing the guitar though in his career he seems to have overcome these problems. Beginning from 1995 onward, Hansen has provided the vocals for his current band Gamma Ray. Around that time, Hansen's vocal style became more melodic and clearer, more in the traditional power metal sense, while still retaining the slight nasal tone and rasp of his early years. For 20 years, Hansen has played ESP Guitars, he first started using them during his days with Helloween after hearing testimonials of ESP from artists such as George Lynch and Kirk Hammett of Metallica.

Before Helloween, he had owned a white Ibanez guitar, a Les Paul saved up for a Marshall amplifier by delivering newspapers. His main ESPs are red and pink ESP Custom guitars based on Jackson's Randy Rhoads model and two custom V models based on the classic Gibson Flying V shape. Du