The Amazon Kindle is a series of e-readers designed and marketed by Amazon. Amazon Kindle devices enable users to browse, buy and read e-books, newspapers and other digital media via wireless networking to the Kindle Store; the hardware platform, developed by Amazon subsidiary Lab126, began as a single device in 2007 and now comprises a range of devices, including e-readers with E Ink electronic paper displays and Kindle applications on all major computing platforms. All Kindle devices integrate with Kindle Store content, as of March 2018, the store has over six million e-books available in the United States. In 2004, Amazon founder and CEO Jeff Bezos instructed the company's employees to build the world's best e-reader before Amazon's competitors could. Amazon used the codename Fiona for this e-reader; the Kindle name was devised by branding consultants Michael Karin Hibma. Lab126 asked them to name the product, so Cronan and Hibma suggested Kindle, meaning to light a fire, they felt. Kindle hardware has evolved from the original Kindle introduced in 2007 and the Kindle DX introduced in 2009.
The range includes devices with a keyboard, devices with touch-sensitive, lighted high-resolution screens, a tablet computer with the Kindle app, low-priced devices with a touch-sensitive screen. However, the Kindle e-reader has always been a single-purpose device for reading – rather than being multipurpose hardware that might create distractions while reading. Amazon has introduced Kindle apps for use on various devices and platforms, including Microsoft Windows, macOS, Android, iOS, BlackBerry 10 and Windows Phone. Amazon has a cloud reader to allow users to read e-books using modern web browsers; this article focuses on Amazon's E Ink e-readers. Amazon released the Kindle, its first e-reader, on November 19, 2007, for US$399, it sold out in five and a half hours. The device remained out of stock for five months until late April 2008; the device features a 6-inch 4-level grayscale E Ink display, with 250 MB of internal storage, which can hold 200 non-illustrated titles. It has a speaker and a headphone jack that allows the user to listen to audio files on Kindle.
It is the only Kindle via an SD card slot. The device's Whispernet feature was co-designed with Qualcomm, Kindle was the first device to include free U. S.-wide 3G data access to browse and download e-books from Amazon's Kindle Store. Amazon did not sell the first generation Kindle outside the U. S. On February 10, 2009, Amazon announced the second generation Kindle, it became available for purchase on February 23, 2009. The Kindle 2 features a text-to-speech option to read the text aloud, 2 GB of internal memory of which 1.4 GB is user-accessible. By Amazon's estimates, the Kindle 2 can hold about 1,500 non-illustrated books. Unlike the first generation Kindle, Kindle 2 does not have a slot for SD memory cards, it was slimmer than the original Kindle. The Kindle 2 features a Freescale 532 MHz, ARM-11 90 nm processor, 32 MB main memory, 2 GB flash memory and a 3.7 V 1,530 mAh lithium polymer battery. To promote the Kindle 2, in February 2009 author Stephen King released Ur, his then-new novella, available through the Kindle Store.
On July 8, 2009, Amazon reduced price of the Kindle 2 from $359 to $299 in October 2009, Amazon further reduced the price to $259. The Kindle 2 had a manufacturing materials cost estimated at $185.49, in 2009 by iSuppli. On October 22, 2009, Amazon stopped selling the original Kindle 2 and sold the Kindle 2 international version worldwide. On November 24, 2009, Amazon released a firmware update for the Kindle 2 that increased battery life by 85% and introduced native PDF file support for the device. On October 7, 2009, Amazon announced an international version of the Kindle 2 with the ability to download e-books wirelessly in over 100 countries, it became available October 19, 2009. The international Kindle 2 is physically the same as the U. S.-only Kindle 2. The original Kindle 2 used CDMA2000 for use on the Sprint network; the international version used standard GSM and 3G GSM, enabling it to be used on AT&T's U. S. mobile network and internationally in 100 other countries. The international version of the Kindle 2 is believed to have a higher display contrast, although Amazon did not advertise this.
A review by Gadget lab disputes that the contrast was higher and states that the font appears to be fuzzier than that of the first Kindle. The review goes on to say that changes to the Kindle 2 have made it harder to read the smaller font sizes that most books use; some writers discuss. Amazon announced the Kindle DX on May 6, 2009; this device supports PDF files. It is marketed as more suitable for displaying textbook content, it has an accelerometer, which enables the user to seamlessly rotate pages between landscape and portrait orientations when the Kindle DX is turned on its side and it includes built-in speakers. The device can only connect to Whispernet in the U. S. On January 19, 2010, the Kindle DX international version was released in over 100 countries; the Kindle DX international version is the same as the Kindle DX except for having support for international 3G data. On July 1, 2010, Amazon released the Kindle DX Graphite globally; the DXG has an E Ink display with 50% better contrast ratio due to
Old English, or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages. It was brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers in the mid-5th century, the first Old English literary works date from the mid-7th century. After the Norman conquest of 1066, English was replaced, for a time, as the language of the upper classes by Anglo-Norman, a relative of French; this is regarded as marking the end of the Old English era, as during this period the English language was influenced by Anglo-Norman, developing into a phase known now as Middle English. Old English developed from a set of Anglo-Frisian or Ingvaeonic dialects spoken by Germanic tribes traditionally known as the Angles and Jutes; as the Anglo-Saxons became dominant in England, their language replaced the languages of Roman Britain: Common Brittonic, a Celtic language, Latin, brought to Britain by Roman invasion. Old English had four main dialects, associated with particular Anglo-Saxon kingdoms: Mercian, Northumbrian and West Saxon.
It was West Saxon that formed the basis for the literary standard of the Old English period, although the dominant forms of Middle and Modern English would develop from Mercian. The speech of eastern and northern parts of England was subject to strong Old Norse influence due to Scandinavian rule and settlement beginning in the 9th century. Old English is one of the West Germanic languages, its closest relatives are Old Frisian and Old Saxon. Like other old Germanic languages, it is different from Modern English and difficult for Modern English speakers to understand without study. Old English grammar is similar to that of modern German: nouns, adjectives and verbs have many inflectional endings and forms, word order is much freer; the oldest Old English inscriptions were written using a runic system, but from about the 9th century this was replaced by a version of the Latin alphabet. Englisc, which the term English is derived from, means'pertaining to the Angles'. In Old English, this word was derived from Angles.
During the 9th century, all invading Germanic tribes were referred to as Englisc. It has been hypothesised that the Angles acquired their name because their land on the coast of Jutland resembled a fishhook. Proto-Germanic *anguz had the meaning of'narrow', referring to the shallow waters near the coast; that word goes back to Proto-Indo-European *h₂enǵʰ- meaning'narrow'. Another theory is that the derivation of'narrow' is the more connection to angling, which itself stems from a Proto-Indo-European root meaning bend, angle; the semantic link is the fishing hook, curved or bent at an angle. In any case, the Angles may have been called such because they were a fishing people or were descended from such, therefore England would mean'land of the fishermen', English would be'the fishermen's language'. Old English was not static, its usage covered a period of 700 years, from the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain in the 5th century to the late 11th century, some time after the Norman invasion. While indicating that the establishment of dates is an arbitrary process, Albert Baugh dates Old English from 450 to 1150, a period of full inflections, a synthetic language.
Around 85 per cent of Old English words are no longer in use, but those that survived are basic elements of Modern English vocabulary. Old English is a West Germanic language, it came to be spoken over most of the territory of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms which became the Kingdom of England. This included most of present-day England, as well as part of what is now southeastern Scotland, which for several centuries belonged to the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Northumbria. Other parts of the island – Wales and most of Scotland – continued to use Celtic languages, except in the areas of Scandinavian settlements where Old Norse was spoken. Celtic speech remained established in certain parts of England: Medieval Cornish was spoken all over Cornwall and in adjacent parts of Devon, while Cumbric survived to the 12th century in parts of Cumbria, Welsh may have been spoken on the English side of the Anglo-Welsh border. Norse was widely spoken in the parts of England which fell under Danish law. Anglo-Saxon literacy developed after Christianisation in the late 7th century.
The oldest surviving text of Old English literature is Cædmon's Hymn, composed between 658 and 680. There is a limited corpus of runic inscriptions from the 5th to 7th centuries, but the oldest coherent runic texts date to the 8th century; the Old English Latin alphabet was introduced around the 9th century. With the unification of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms by Alfred the Great in the 9th century, the language of government and literature became standardised around the West Saxon dialect. Alfred advocated education in English alongside Latin, had many works translated into the English language. In Old English, typical of the development of literature, poetry arose before prose, but King Alfred the Great chiefly inspired the growth of prose. A literary standard, dating from the 10th century, arose under the influence of Bishop Æthelwold of Winchester, was followed by such writers as the prolific Ælfric of Eynsham. Th
Erin McKean is an American lexicographer, based in the San Francisco Bay Area. McKean was born in Charlotte, North Carolina, she graduated from the University of Chicago with a BA/MA in Linguistics. As an undergraduate, she worked in a junior capacity on the Chicago Assyrian Dictionary. McKean has served on the Visiting Committee to the University of Chicago's Regenstein Library and helped organize a dictionary-themed exhibit, The Meaning of Dictionaries, there in 2007. McKean is a founder of Reverb, she was the editor in chief of US Dictionaries for Oxford University Press and Principal Editor of The New Oxford American Dictionary, second edition. McKean is the author of seven books: Weird and Wonderful Words More Weird and Wonderful Words, Oxford, 2003) Totally Weird and Wonderful Words That’s Amore The Secret Lives of Dresses Aftercrimes and Thermogeddon: Plus 157 More Words From a Lexicographer's Notebook The Hundred Dresses McKean is the editor of VERBATIM: The Language Quarterly, edited a collection of work from that publication, Verbatim: From the bawdy to the sublime, the best writing on language for word lovers, grammar mavens, armchair linguists.
McKean's novel The Secret Lives of Dresses was a best-seller in Australia, has been optioned for film. She writes about dresses in A Dress A Day, she wrote for "The Word" column in The Boston Globe. From 2008 through 2011 and wrote "The Week in Words" for The Wall Street Journal from 2011 through mid-2013, she has written for The New York Times On Language column. She was a member of the advisory board of the Wikimedia Foundation and is an advisor to Credo Reference. McKean's 2007 TED talk, "Redefining the Dictionary", was the genesis for the founding of Wordnik.com. She has spoken at Pop! Tech, Gel conference, Thinking Digital, gave a Wordnik demo at the All Things Digital D8 conference in 2010. McKean sews her own clothes and makes "stunt dresses" for speeches, including the Tetris-themed dress she wore to speak at the Web 2.0 Summit in 2009. In 2010, McKean was named an honorary fellow of the Society for Technical Communication. McKean has formulated'McKean's law' known as Muphry's law: "Any correction of the speech or writing of others will contain at least one grammatical, spelling or typographical error.""Prettiness is not a rent you pay for occupying a space marked ‘female'.", a quote from McKean's blog, A Dress A Day, has been shared on social media.
Since the original post features a large picture of Diana Vreeland, the quote has been misattributed to her. Media related to Erin McKean at Wikimedia Commons McKean’s biography as member of the Wikimedia Advisory Board Erin McKean at TED
MacOS is a series of graphical operating systems developed and marketed by Apple Inc. since 2001. It is the primary operating system for Apple's Mac family of computers. Within the market of desktop and home computers, by web usage, it is the second most used desktop OS, after Microsoft Windows.macOS is the second major series of Macintosh operating systems. The first is colloquially called the "classic" Mac OS, introduced in 1984, the final release of, Mac OS 9 in 1999; the first desktop version, Mac OS X 10.0, was released in March 2001, with its first update, 10.1, arriving that year. After this, Apple began naming its releases after big cats, which lasted until OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion. Since OS X 10.9 Mavericks, releases have been named after locations in California. Apple shortened the name to "OS X" in 2012 and changed it to "macOS" in 2016, adopting the nomenclature that they were using for their other operating systems, iOS, watchOS, tvOS; the latest version is macOS Mojave, publicly released in September 2018.
Between 1999 and 2009, Apple sold. The initial version, Mac OS X Server 1.0, was released in 1999 with a user interface similar to Mac OS 8.5. After this, new versions were introduced concurrently with the desktop version of Mac OS X. Beginning with Mac OS X 10.7 Lion, the server functions were made available as a separate package on the Mac App Store.macOS is based on technologies developed between 1985 and 1997 at NeXT, a company that Apple co-founder Steve Jobs created after leaving the company. The "X" in Mac OS X and OS X is pronounced as such; the X was a prominent part of the operating system's brand identity and marketing in its early years, but receded in prominence since the release of Snow Leopard in 2009. UNIX 03 certification was achieved for the Intel version of Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard and all releases from Mac OS X 10.6 Snow Leopard up to the current version have UNIX 03 certification. MacOS shares its Unix-based core, named Darwin, many of its frameworks with iOS, tvOS and watchOS.
A modified version of Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger was used for the first-generation Apple TV. Releases of Mac OS X from 1999 to 2005 ran on the PowerPC-based Macs of that period. After Apple announced that they were switching to Intel CPUs from 2006 onwards, versions were released for 32-bit and 64-bit Intel-based Macs. Versions from Mac OS X 10.7 Lion run on 64-bit Intel CPUs, in contrast to the ARM architecture used on iOS and watchOS devices, do not support PowerPC applications. The heritage of what would become macOS had originated at NeXT, a company founded by Steve Jobs following his departure from Apple in 1985. There, the Unix-like NeXTSTEP operating system was developed, launched in 1989; the kernel of NeXTSTEP is based upon the Mach kernel, developed at Carnegie Mellon University, with additional kernel layers and low-level user space code derived from parts of BSD. Its graphical user interface was built on top of an object-oriented GUI toolkit using the Objective-C programming language. Throughout the early 1990s, Apple had tried to create a "next-generation" OS to succeed its classic Mac OS through the Taligent and Gershwin projects, but all of them were abandoned.
This led Apple to purchase NeXT in 1996, allowing NeXTSTEP called OPENSTEP, to serve as the basis for Apple's next generation operating system. This purchase led to Steve Jobs returning to Apple as an interim, the permanent CEO, shepherding the transformation of the programmer-friendly OPENSTEP into a system that would be adopted by Apple's primary market of home users and creative professionals; the project was first code named "Rhapsody" and officially named Mac OS X. Mac OS X was presented as the tenth major version of Apple's operating system for Macintosh computers. Previous Macintosh operating systems were named using Arabic numerals, as with Mac OS 8 and Mac OS 9; the letter "X" in Mac OS X's name refers to a Roman numeral. It is therefore pronounced "ten" in this context. However, it is commonly pronounced like the letter "X"; the first version of Mac OS X, Mac OS X Server 1.0, was a transitional product, featuring an interface resembling the classic Mac OS, though it was not compatible with software designed for the older system.
Consumer releases of Mac OS X included more backward compatibility. Mac OS applications could be rewritten to run natively via the Carbon API; the consumer version of Mac OS X was launched in 2001 with Mac OS X 10.0. Reviews were variable, with extensive praise for its sophisticated, glossy Aqua interface but criticizing it for sluggish performance. With Apple's popularity at a low, the makers of several classic Mac applications such as FrameMaker and PageMaker declined to develop new versions of their software for Mac OS X. Ars Technica columnist John Siracusa, who reviewed every major OS X release up to 10.10, described the early releases in retrospect as'dog-slow, feature poor' and Aqua as'unbearably slow and a huge resource hog'. Apple developed several new releases of Mac OS X. Siracusa's review of version 10.3, noted "It's strange to have gone from years of uncertainty and vaporware to a steady annual supply of major new operating system releases." Version 10.4, Tiger shocked executives at Microsoft by offering a number of features, such as fast file s
Oxford American Dictionary
The Oxford American Dictionary is a single-volume dictionary of American English. It was the first dictionary published by the Oxford University Press to be prepared by American lexicographers and editors; the work was based on the Oxford Paperback Dictionary, published in 1979. It has been superseded by the New Oxford American Dictionary. Other Oxford Dictionaries: New Oxford American Dictionary Oxford English Dictionary Shorter Oxford English Dictionary Oxford Dictionary of English Concise Oxford English Dictionary Australian Oxford Dictionary Canadian Oxford Dictionary Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary
Oxford English Dictionary
The Oxford English Dictionary is the principal historical dictionary of the English language, published by Oxford University Press. It traces the historical development of the English language, providing a comprehensive resource to scholars and academic researchers, as well as describing usage in its many variations throughout the world; the second edition, comprising 21,728 pages in 20 volumes, was published in 1989. Work began on the dictionary in 1857, but it was only in 1884 that it began to be published in unbound fascicles as work continued on the project, under the name of A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles. In 1895, the title The Oxford English Dictionary was first used unofficially on the covers of the series, in 1928 the full dictionary was republished in ten bound volumes. In 1933, the title The Oxford English Dictionary replaced the former name in all occurrences in its reprinting as twelve volumes with a one-volume supplement. More supplements came over the years until 1989.
Since 2000, compilation of a third edition of the dictionary has been underway half of, complete. The first electronic version of the dictionary was made available in 1988; the online version has been available since 2000, as of April 2014 was receiving over two million hits per month. The third edition of the dictionary will most only appear in electronic form: the Chief Executive of Oxford University Press has stated that it is unlikely that it will be printed; as a historical dictionary, the Oxford English Dictionary explains words by showing their development rather than their present-day usages. Therefore, it shows definitions in the order that the sense of the word began being used, including word meanings which are no longer used; each definition is shown with numerous short usage quotations. This allows the reader to get an approximate sense of the time period in which a particular word has been in use, additional quotations help the reader to ascertain information about how the word is used in context, beyond any explanation that the dictionary editors can provide.
The format of the OED's entries has influenced numerous other historical lexicography projects. The forerunners to the OED, such as the early volumes of the Deutsches Wörterbuch, had provided few quotations from a limited number of sources, whereas the OED editors preferred larger groups of quite short quotations from a wide selection of authors and publications; this influenced volumes of this and other lexicographical works. According to the publishers, it would take a single person 120 years to "key in" the 59 million words of the OED second edition, 60 years to proofread them, 540 megabytes to store them electronically; as of 30 November 2005, the Oxford English Dictionary contained 301,100 main entries. Supplementing the entry headwords, there are 157,000 bold-type derivatives; the dictionary's latest, complete print edition was printed in 20 volumes, comprising 291,500 entries in 21,730 pages. The longest entry in the OED2 was for the verb set, which required 60,000 words to describe some 430 senses.
As entries began to be revised for the OED3 in sequence starting from M, the longest entry became make in 2000 put in 2007 run in 2011. Despite its considerable size, the OED is neither the world's largest nor the earliest exhaustive dictionary of a language. Another earlier large dictionary is the Grimm brothers' dictionary of the German language, begun in 1838 and completed in 1961; the first edition of the Vocabolario degli Accademici della Crusca is the first great dictionary devoted to a modern European language and was published in 1612. The official dictionary of Spanish is the Diccionario de la lengua española, its first edition was published in 1780; the Kangxi dictionary of Chinese was published in 1716. The dictionary began as a Philological Society project of a small group of intellectuals in London: Richard Chenevix Trench, Herbert Coleridge, Frederick Furnivall, who were dissatisfied with the existing English dictionaries; the Society expressed interest in compiling a new dictionary as early as 1844, but it was not until June 1857 that they began by forming an "Unregistered Words Committee" to search for words that were unlisted or poorly defined in current dictionaries.
In November, Trench's report was not a list of unregistered words. The Society realized that the number of unlisted words would be far more than the number of words in the English dictionaries of the 19th century, shifted their idea from covering only words that were not in English diction
Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary
The Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary was the first advanced learner's dictionary of English. It was first published in 1948, it is the largest English-language dictionary from Oxford University Press aimed at a non-native audience. Users with a more linguistic interest, requiring etymologies or copious references prefer the Concise Oxford English Dictionary, or indeed the comprehensive Oxford English Dictionary, or other dictionaries aimed at speakers of English with native-level competence. Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary of Current English was first published in 1948; the following editions exist: First edition first published in 1948 Second edition first published in 1963 Third edition first published in 1974 ISBN 0194311015/ISBN 9780194311014 The book's cover title was changed beginning with 4th edition. However, the old name was still being referenced by foreign language versions of the dictionary up to 6th edition. Fourth edition first published in 1989 ISBN 0194311104/ISBN 9780194311106Fifth edition first published in 1995 CD-ROM edition: includes 63,000 references, 90,000 examples, 65,000 definitions, 11,600 idioms and phrasal verbs, 1700 words illustrated, 2000 new words and meanings.
Sixth edition first published in 2000:ISBN 0-19-431424-3, ISBN 0-19-431510-X, ISBN 0-19-431550-9 ISBN 0-19-431585-1/ISBN 978-0-194-31585-2 China The Commercial Press edition: Includes 4500 new words and definitions over the original English publication. Reduced number of letters used in definition from 3500 to 3000.?th impression Seventh edition first published in 2005: Includes 183500 words, short phrases explanations. ISBN 0-19-479904-2/ISBN 978-0-194-79904-1 English Mac OS X edition: Published by Oxford University Press ELT. Version 8.6.946: Includes in-app purchase where sample entries from the dictionary are included, News feature. Version 8.7.21 Japan Android edition: Supports Android 2.2. Published by BIGLOBE Inc. Japan iOS edition: Supports iOS 4.3 and above. Published by BIGLOBE Inc. Version 1.4 China The Commercial Press edition: 3 revisions, 8 impressions.1st impression Revision 3, 8th impression Ninth edition first published in 2015: Includes over 185,000 words and meanings. Added Express yourself notes, Wordfinder notes.
DVD software support Windows 7, Mac OS X 10.6. DVD includes dictionary and American English audio, Oxford iSpeaker, Oxford iWriter, topic wordlists, teacher resources. Basic online contents includes dictionary and American English audio, word origins, usage notes, Oxford 3000 and Academic Word lists, Oxford Text Checker. Premium Online service includes My Wordlists. Oxford University Press edition paperback + Oxford iSpeaker/Oxford iWriter DVD + Premium Online Access Code hardback + Oxford iSpeaker/Oxford iWriter DVD + Premium Online Access Code 1-year Premium Online subscription iOS edition CD-ROM edition: latter includes many etymologies. Android version: Published by Oxford University Press ELT Division. Supports Android 4.0.3. Free download gives 100 sample entries from the OALD 9th edition. Owner of 8th edition Android apps can be upgraded to 9th edition at discount.184.108.40.206 Android code version: Published by Oxford University Press ELT Division. It is a version for users from educational institutions.3.5.42 iOS version: Published by Oxford University Press ELT Division.
Developed with Paragon Software.2.2.1: Free download version includes 100 sample entries from the new OALD 9th edition. English, Russian language support. Oxford Fajar Sdn. Bhd. edition 1st? Impression Obunsha edition: Includes 185,000 references. China The Commercial Press edition: 4 revisions, 8 impressions. Revision 4, 8th impression Foreign Language Limited edition (2015-09-??, ISBN 978-0-19-479879-2