click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

New South Wales Legislative Council

The New South Wales Legislative Council referred to as the upper house, is one of the two chambers of the parliament of the Australian state of New South Wales. The other is the Legislative Assembly. Both sit at Parliament House in Sydney, it is normal for legislation to be first deliberated on and passed by the Legislative Assembly before being considered by the Legislative Council, which acts in the main as a house of review. The Legislative Council has 42 members, elected by proportional representation in which the whole state is a single electorate. Members serve eight-year terms, which are staggered, with half the Council being elected every four years coinciding with elections to the Legislative Assembly; the parliament of New South Wales is Australia's oldest legislature. It had its beginnings when New South Wales was a British colony under the control of the Governor and was first established in 1823 by the New South Wales Act. A small, 5-member appointed Legislative Council began meeting on 24 August 1824 to advise the Governor on legislative matters.

It grew to seven members in 1825, between ten and fifteen in 1829. Under the Constitution Act 1843, the Legislative Council was expanded to 36 members, of which 12 were appointed by the Governor in the name of the Crown, the remainder elected from among eligible landholders. In 1851 the Council was enlarged to 54 members with 36 of its members elected by adult males who met certain property requirements and 18 appointed members. In 1856, under a new Constitution, the Parliament became bicameral with a elected Legislative Assembly and a appointed Legislative Council with a Government taking over most of the legislative powers of the Governor; the right to vote was extended to all adult males in 1858. On 22 May 1856, the newly constituted New South Wales Parliament sat for the first time. With the new 54-member Legislative Assembly taking over the council chamber, a second meeting chamber for the 21-member upper house had to be added to the Parliament building in Macquarie Street. In 1901, New South Wales became a sovereign state of the Commonwealth of Australia and many government functions were transferred to the new Commonwealth government.

In 1902, women gained the right to vote and the current Constitution of New South Wales was adopted, in 1918, reforms permitted women to be members of parliament. In 1925, 1926 and 1929, Premier Jack Lang made attempts to abolish the Legislative Council, following the example of the Queensland Legislative Council in 1922, but all were unsuccessful; the debate did, result in another round of reforms, in 1933, the law was changed so that a quarter of the Legislative Council was elected every three years by members of the Legislative Assembly and the Legislative Council, rather than being appointed by the Governor. In 1962 Indigenous Australians gained the right to vote in all state elections. In 1978, the Council became a directly elected body in a program of electoral reform introduced by the Wran Labor government; the number of members was reduced to 45, although transitional arrangements meant that there were 43 members from 1978 to 1981, 44 from 1981 to 1984. Further reform in 1991 by the Greiner Liberal-National government saw the size of the Legislative Council cut to 42 members, with half being elected every 4 years.

In 1991, the Legislative Assembly reduced from 109 to 99 Members and to 93 members in 1999. As with the federal parliament and other Australian states and territories, voting in the election to select members for the Council is compulsory for all New South Wales citizens over the age of 18; as the result of a 1995 referendum, every four years half the seats in the Council come up for election on the fourth Saturday in March, barring exceptional circumstances. The Queen of Australia has a throne in the Legislative Council, Queen Elizabeth II has opened the New South Wales Parliament on two occasions, on 4 February 1954, as part of her first visit to Australia, the first occasion in which the monarch of Australia had opened a session of any Australian parliament; the other occasion was on 20 February 1992, during her visit to Sydney to celebrate the sesquicentenary of the incorporation of the City of Sydney, on which occasion she stated: From 1846 to 1856 the title of the presiding officer was Speaker of the Legislative Council, after that date it has been President of the Legislative Council.

The Legislative Council chamber is a prefabricated cast-iron building, intended as an "iron store and dwelling with ornamental front", manufactured in Scotland and shipped to Victoria. In 1856, when plans for a new chamber for the Legislative Council were not ready in time, this building was purchased and shipped to Sydney, where it was erected as an extension to Parliament House; the Legislative Council chamber is furnished in red, which follows the British tradition for the upper house. Proportional representation, with the whole state as a single electorate, means that the quota for election is small; this guarantees the representation of minor parties in the Legislative Council, including micro-parties that might attract less than 2% of the primary vote but are elected through preferences. In the 1999 elections, a record number of parties contested seats in the Council, resulting in an unwieldy ballot paper, a complex exchange of preferences between the numerous parties running candidates.

As a result, party registration requirements have since been made more restrictive, the replacement of party preference arrangements with optional preferential voting. This red

Linares International Chess Tournament

The Linares International Chess Tournament was an annual chess tournament played around the end of February, which takes its name from the city of Linares in the Jaén province of Andalusia, Spain, in which it was held. It is sometimes described as the Wimbledon of chess, being one of the strongest annual tournaments held on the de facto chess tour, along with the "Tata Steel", Tal Memorial and Dortmund events; the Linares tournament began in 1978 and was held annually from 1988 to 2010. Since 2010, the tournament has not been held for financial reasons; the event, sponsored by Spanish businessman Luis Rentero, was first held in 1978. At that time it was not an elite event and was won by the unknown Swede Jaan Eslon). After the following year's event, it was held every other year until 1987 when no tournament took place, that being the year that Linares hosted the Candidates' Final, a match to determine a challenger for Kasparov's world title featuring Anatoly Karpov and Andrei Sokolov; the postponed 1987 event was deferred to 1988 and the tournament from that point onwards became an annual event, with the exception of 1996, when the Women's World Chess Championship was held.

Rentero was a strong opponent of short draws in chess, to the point that he offered cash bonuses for playing longer games. It's said that participants in these so-called "grand master draws" were sometimes penalised with a no invitation for the next year's edition! The 1994 tournament had an average Elo rating of 2685, the highest at that time; the field, in eventual finishing order, consisted of Karpov, Shirov, Kramnik, Anand, Topalov, Gelfand, Judit Polgár, Beliavsky. Karpov won with an undefeated 11/13. Jeff Sonas considered Karpov's performance the best tournament result in history; the 1994 tournament was noted for an incident in which Garry Kasparov "took a move back" against Judit Polgár. Kasparov's fingers released a knight before he realized the move was a blunder. Polgár did not protest and the arbiter did not intervene. Kasparov went on to win the game. In 1998, the format of the tournament changed from a single round-robin tournament to a double round-robin event. Kasparov announced his retirement from chess after the 2005 tournament.

From 2006 through 2008, the first half of the tournament took place in the Mexican city of Morelia. The second half took place in Linares; the event is sometimes referred to as Morelia-Linares. In 2009 and 2010 the whole event took place in Linares; the Linares tournament of 2011 was cancelled, for reasons including general economic problems. The tournament was cancelled again with no return since. 1978 Jaan Eslon 1979 Larry Christiansen 1980 no tournament 1981 Anatoly Karpov and Larry Christiansen 1982 no tournament 1983 Boris Spassky 1984 no tournament 1985 Ljubomir Ljubojević and Robert Hübner 1986 no tournament 1987 no tournament 1988 Jan Timman 1989 Vassily Ivanchuk 1990 Garry Kasparov 1991 Vassily Ivanchuk 1992 Garry Kasparov 1993 Garry Kasparov 1994 Anatoly Karpov 1995 Vassily Ivanchuk 1996 no tournament 1997 Garry Kasparov 1998 Viswanathan Anand 1999 Garry Kasparov 2000 Garry Kasparov and Vladimir Kramnik 2001 Garry Kasparov 2002 Garry Kasparov 2003 Peter Leko 2004 Vladimir Kramnik 2005 Garry Kasparov 2006 Levon Aronian 2007 Viswanathan Anand 2008 Viswanathan Anand 2009 Alexander Grischuk 2010 Veselin TopalovOnly five players won the Linares Tournament multiple times: Garry Kasparov, Vassily Ivanchuk, Viswanathan Anand, Vladimir Kramnik and Anatoly Karpov.

Final Results of 1998: Final Results of 1999: FIDE World Champion Alexander Khalifman was a late replacement for Alexander Morozevich. Final Results of 2000: Final Results of 2001: Final Results of 2002: Final Results of 2003: Final Results of 2004: Final Results of 2005: GM Alejandro Ramírez won the III Morelia Open tournament. Official website – a brief history and news of the 2008 event. – winners, crosstables from 1990–2006. Chess Tournaments at Linares at Chessgames.com

Doctor Doctor (season 2)

The second season of Doctor Doctor, an Australian drama television series, premiered on Nine Network on 16 August 2017. Rodger Corser as Hugh Knight Nicole da Silva as Charlie Knight Ryan Johnson as Matt Knight Tina Bursill as Meryl Knight Hayley McElhinney as Penny Cartwright Chloe Bayliss as Hayley Matt Castley as Ajax Belinda Bromilow as Betty Bell Brittany Clark as Mia Halston Charles Wu as Ken Steve Bisley as Jim Knight AACTA Awards Nominated: AACTA Award for Best Lead in a Television Drama — Tina BursillLogie Awards Nominated: Gold Logie Award for Most Popular Personality on Australian Television — Rodger Corser Nominated: Logie Award for Best Actor — Rodger Corser Nominated: Logie Award for Most Outstanding Actor — Rodger Corser Nominated: Logie Award for Most Popular Drama Program — Doctor Doctor Nominated: Logie Award for Best Drama Program — Doctor Doctor

Kitchen garden

Kailyard redirects here. For the grouping of Scottish literature see Kailyard school The traditional kitchen garden known as a potager or in Scotland a kailyaird, is a space separate from the rest of the residential garden – the ornamental plants and lawn areas. Most vegetable gardens are still miniature versions of old family farm plots, but the kitchen garden is different not only in its history, but its design; the kitchen garden may serve as the central feature of an ornamental, all-season landscape, or it may be little more than a humble vegetable plot. It is a source of herbs and fruits, but it is also a structured garden space with a design based on repetitive geometric patterns; the kitchen garden has year-round visual appeal and can incorporate permanent perennials or woody shrub plantings around the annuals. A potager is a French term for an ornamental kitchen garden; the historical design precedent is from the Gardens of the French Renaissance and Baroque Garden à la française eras.

Flowers and herbs are planted with the vegetables to enhance the garden's beauty. The goal is to make the function of providing food aesthetically pleasing. Plants are chosen as much for their functionality as for their form. Many are trained to grow upward. A well-designed potager can provide food as well as cut flowers and herbs for the home with little maintenance. Potagers can disguise their function of providing for a home in a wide array of forms—from the carefree style of the cottage garden to the formality of a knot garden. A vegetable garden is a garden that exists to grow vegetables and other plants useful for human consumption, in contrast to a flower garden that exists for aesthetic purposes, it is a small-scale form of vegetable growing. A vegetable garden includes a compost heap, several plots or divided areas of land, intended to grow one or two types of plant in each plot. Plots may be divided into rows with an assortment of vegetables grown in the different rows, it is located to the rear of a property in the back garden or back yard.

About a third of adults in the UK and America grow food in private or community kitchen or vegetable gardens. In World War II, many people had a "victory garden" which provided food and thus freed resources for the war effort. With worsening economic conditions and increased interest in organic and sustainable living, many people are turning to vegetable gardening as a supplement to their family's diet. Food grown in the back yard consumes little if any fuel for shipping or maintenance, the grower can be sure of what was used to grow it. Organic horticulture, or organic gardening, has become popular for the modern home gardener; the herb garden is a separate space in the garden, devoted to growing a specific group of plants known as herbs. These gardens may be informal patches of plants, or they may be designed to the point of arranging and clipping the plants to form specific patterns, as in a knot garden. Herb gardens may be purely functional or they may include a blend of functional and ornamental plants.

The herbs are used to flavour food in cooking, though they may be used in other ways, such as discouraging pests, providing pleasant scents, or serving medicinal purposes, among others. A kitchen garden can be created by planting different herbs in pots or containers, with the added benefit of mobility. Although not all herbs thrive in pots or containers, some herbs do better than others. Mint, a fragrant yet invasive herb, is an example of an herb, advisable to keep in a container or it will take over the whole garden. Culinary herbs in temperate climates are to a large extent still the same as in the medieval period. Herbs have multiple uses. For example, mint may be used for cooking and pest control. Among the many uses of herbs are: Annual culinary herbs: basil, summer savory Perennial culinary herbs: mint, thyme, sage Herbs used for potpourri: lavender, lemon verbena Herbs used for tea: mint, lemon verbena, thyme, hibiscus, lemon balm, Holy Basil, catnip Herbs used for other purposes: stevia for sweetening, feverfew for pest control in the garden.

List of garden types Kailyard school The Victorian Kitchen Garden Bartley, Jennifer R.. Designing the New Kitchen Garden: An American Potager Handbook. Portland: Timber Press. ISBN 978-0-88192-772-6. Davies, Jennifer; the Victorian Kitchen Garden. London: BBC Books. ISBN 978-0-563-20442-8. M. D. "Formation of the Fruit and Kitchen Garden", in: Thompson, Robert The Gardener's Assistant. Vol. IV, pp. 1–32. London: Gresham Publishing Company. Shewell-Cooper, W. E; the A. B. C. of Vegetable Gardening London: English Universities Press. Wilson, C. A.. The Country House Kitchen Garden 1600-1950: How Produce Was Grown and How it Was Used. Sutton Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7509-1423-9. Kitchen Gardeners International: A nonprofit group promoting kitchen gardens worldwide Walled Kitchen Gardens Network Kitchen Gardens, Science Tracer Bullet, Library of Congress The History of Kitchen Gardens in America, Cornell University, Mann Library Herb Society of America National Herb Garden, United States National Arboretum Medicinal Herb Garden, University of Washington, USA

Jon Fogarty

Jon Fogarty is an American racing driver, who competes in the United SportsCar Championship for GAINSCO/Bob Stallings Racing. He won the 2007 and 2009 GRAND-AM Rolex Sports Car Series Daytona Prototype drivers' championship and is a two-time Atlantic Championship champion as well. Fogarty competed in the Barber Dodge Pro Series from 1996 until 2000, finishing series runner-up twice. Following a year where he was injured in Indy Lights in 2001, he moved into Toyota Atlantic in 2002 and edged Michael Valiante for the series championship, he was unsuccessful in a bid to find a Champ Car ride for 2003 and came back to earn his second Toyota Atlantic championship in 2004, with six wins to his credit. Following an unsuccessful search for a Champ Car ride, Fogarty moved into sports car racing, driving for Flying Lizard Motorsports in the American Le Mans Series in 2005, finishing third in the GT2 drivers' championship with Johannes van Overbeek, he made only a handful of starts in 2006. Fogarty moved to the Rolex Sports Car Series in 2006, driving for GAINSCO/Bob Stallings Racing in the Daytona Prototype division.

Teamed with Alex Gurney, the pairing combined for a series-record seven wins and ten poles in 2007, en route to the Daytona Prototype drivers' championship. Fogarty and Gurney finished second in the championship standings in 2008, with one victory and eight top-five finishes. In 2009, they earned their second Daytona Prototype championship in a season that saw the number 99 GAINSCO Riley Pontiac score four victories and six pole positions. In 2010, Fogarty finished third in the Daytona Prototype points standings with one win, while collecting two victories en route to a fourth-place finish in the championship standings with Gurney in 2011. Fogarty and Gurney returned to GAINSCO/Bob Stallings Racing in 2012, with its Riley-Chevrolet sporting new Corvette-themed bodywork introduced by GM. * Season still in progress. Jon Fogarty career summary at DriverDB.com

Apostolic Nunciature to Sri Lanka

The Apostolic Nunciature of the Holy See to Sri Lanka is the diplomatic mission of the Holy See to Sri Lanka, equivalent to an embassy. It is located at 220 Bauddhaloka Mawatha, Colombo 7; the position of Apostolic Nuncio has been vacant since 2 January 2020 The Apostolic Nunciature to Sri Lanka is an ecclesiastical office of the Catholic Church in Sri Lanka, with the rank of ambassador. The nuncio serves both as the ambassador of the Pope to the President of Sri Lanka, as delegate and point-of-contact between the Catholic hierarchy in Sri Lanka and the Pope. Luciano Storero Carlo Curis Nicola Rotunno Ambrose Battista De Paoli François Bacqué Osvaldo Padilla Thomas Yeh Sheng-nan Mario Zenari Joseph Spiteri Pierre Nguyên Van Tot Holy See – Sri Lanka relations GCatholic Catholic-Hierarchy