Rugby union known in most of the world as rugby, is a contact team sport which originated in England in the first half of the 19th century. One of the two codes of rugby football, it is based on running with the ball in hand. In its most common form, a game is between two teams of 15 players using an oval-shaped ball on a rectangular field with H-shaped goalposts at each end. Rugby union is a popular sport around the world, played by male and female players of all ages. In 2014, there were more than 6 million people playing worldwide, of whom 2.36 million were registered players. World Rugby called the International Rugby Football Board and the International Rugby Board, has been the governing body for rugby union since 1886, has 101 countries as full members and 18 associate members. In 1845, the first football laws were written by Rugby School pupils. An amateur sport, in 1995 restrictions on payments to players were removed, making the game professional at the highest level for the first time.
Rugby union spread from the Home Nations of Great Britain and Ireland and was absorbed by many of the countries associated with the British Empire. Early exponents of the sport included New Zealand, South Africa and France. Countries that have adopted rugby union as their de facto national sport include Fiji, Madagascar, New Zealand and Tonga. International matches have taken place since 1871 when the first game took place between Scotland and England at Raeburn Place in Edinburgh; the Rugby World Cup, first held in 1987, takes place every four years. The Six Nations Championship in Europe and The Rugby Championship in the Southern Hemisphere are other major international competitions, held annually. National club or provincial competitions include the Premiership in England, the Top 14 in France, the Mitre 10 Cup in New Zealand, the National Rugby Championship in Australia, the Currie Cup in South Africa. Other transnational club competitions include the Pro14 in Europe and South Africa, the European Rugby Champions Cup in Europe, Super Rugby, in the Southern Hemisphere and Japan.
The origin of rugby football is reputed to be an incident during a game of English school football at Rugby School in 1823, when William Webb Ellis is said to have picked up the ball and run with it. Although the evidence for the story is doubtful, it was immortalised at the school with a plaque unveiled in 1895. Despite the doubtful evidence, the Rugby World Cup trophy is named after Webb Ellis. Rugby football stems from the form of game played at Rugby School, which former pupils introduced to their university. Old Rugbeian Albert Pell, a student at Cambridge, is credited with having formed the first "football" team. During this early period different schools used different rules, with former pupils from Rugby and Eton attempting to carry their preferred rules through to their universities. A significant event in the early development of rugby football was the production of the first written laws of the game at Rugby School in 1845, followed by the Cambridge Rules drawn up in 1848. Other important events include the Blackheath Club's decision to leave the Football Association in 1863 and the formation of the Rugby Football Union in 1871.
The code was known as "rugby football". Despite the sport's full name of rugby union, it is known as rugby throughout most of the world; the first rugby football international was played on 27 March 1871 between Scotland and England in Edinburgh. Scotland won the game 1-0. By 1881 both Ireland and Wales had representative teams, in 1883 the first international competition, the Home Nations Championship had begun. 1883 is the year of the first rugby sevens tournament, the Melrose Sevens, still held annually. Two important overseas tours took place in 1888: a British Isles team visited Australia and New Zealand—although a private venture, it laid the foundations for future British and Irish Lions tours. During the early history of rugby union, a time before commercial air travel, teams from different continents met; the first two notable tours both took place in 1888—the British Isles team touring New Zealand and Australia, followed by the New Zealand team touring Europe. Traditionally the most prestigious tours were the Southern Hemisphere countries of Australia, New Zealand and South Africa making a tour of a Northern Hemisphere, the return tours made by a joint British and Irish team.
Tours would last for months, due to the number of games undertaken. Touring international sides would play Test matches against international opponents, including national and county sides in the case of Northern Hemisphere rugby, or provincial/state sides in the case of Southern Hemisphere rugby. Between 1905 and 1908, all three major Southern Hemisphere rugby countries sent their first touring teams to the Northern Hemisphere: New Zealand in 1905, followed by South Africa in 1906 and Australia in 1908. All three teams brought new styles of play, fitness levels and tactics, were far more successful than critics had expected; the New Zealand 1905 touri
Bradley Scott'Freddy' Fittler is an Australian rugby league coach and former professional player, the head coach of the New South Wales State of Origin team. He works as a commentator and as a television presenter. Fittler has been named among the finest rugby league footballers of the first century of rugby league in Australia. Nicknamed'Freddy', Fittler captained both New South Wales and Australia, in 2000 was awarded the Golden Boot, he retired as the most-capped New South Wales State of Origin player, inducted into the NSWRL Hall of Fame as an Immortal and third-most-capped Australian international player. Fittler is the only player to have won two Rugby League World Cups as a team captain. Fittler coached in the NRL for the Sydney Roosters between 2007 and 2009 and for the City New South Wales team in the City vs. Country clash from 2012 to 2017, he has coached at international level with the Lebanon national rugby league team at the 2017 Rugby League World Cup. He was appointed New South Wales' State of Origin coach in November 2017 and went on to win the 2018 State of Origin series.
Fittler was born in Australia of German descent. He played junior rugby league for a number of clubs in the Parramatta JRL District including, Sadleir Bulldogs, Ashcroft Stallions and Mt. Pritchard Community Club before moving to Cambridge Park in the Penrith JRL District. While attending Ashcroft High School, St Dominic's College later, McCarthy Catholic Senior High School Emu Plains, Fittler played for the Australian Schoolboys team in 1988 and 1989. Brad Fittler's first grade career started in 1989 at the Penrith Panthers while he was still attending McCarthy Catholic Senior High School in the western suburbs of Sydney. Fittler played in the centres in Penrith's 18-14 loss to the Canberra Raiders in the 1990 Grand Final and at the end of the season was selected for Australia and went on the 1990 Kangaroo tour of Great Britain and France. Fittler did not play in a test on the tour, but scored 8 tries. In 1991 he was part the Panthers' premiership winning-side. Fittler played in the centres as Penrith, under the coaching of Phil Gould won their first premiership.
At the end of the season he was selected for the Kangaroos five game tour of Papua New Guinea and made his test debut for Australia, playing at lock in Australia's two test series win against the Papua New Guinea Kumuls, scoring two tries on debut at the Danny Leahy Oval in Goroka. Fittler scored 4 tries. During the 1992 Great Britain Lions tour of Australia and New Zealand, he helped Australia retain The Ashes. Fittler, like the rest of the Penrith club, endured a tough 1992 season due to the death of his best mate, up-and-coming halfback/hooker Ben Alexander, the younger brother of Penrith captain Greg Alexander. Following Alexander's death in a car accident, Penrith's form dropped off in the second half of the season with the defending premiers finishing out of the finals in 9th place; as a result of Alexander's death which happened between the first and second Ashes tests, Fittler was left out of the second test team by his own request, but returned to the team in the deciding match in Brisbane which Australia won 16-10 to retain The Ashes.
At the end of the 1992 season, Fittler was selected in Australia's World Cup Final team to play Great Britain at Wembley Stadium. In front of a international record attendance of 73,631 the Australians retained the Rugby League World Cup with a hard fought 10-6 win. During the first half, Fittler suffered a fractured cheekbone after being hit with an elbow from Lions hooker Martin Dermott who had gone into tackle the Australian Five-eighth with his elbow cocked. After being checked by team doctor Nathan Gibbs, Fittler continued playing; the 1993 NSWRL season again saw the Panthers struggle, finishing 12th with a 7-15 record for the year. Fittler played all three games for NSW in their 2-1 Origin series win over Queensland, before playing in all three mid-year tests against New Zealand with Australia winning the series 2-0 after the first test at the Mount Smart Stadium in Auckland ended in a 14-all draw thanks to a late field goal by stand in Australian captain Laurie Daley. Penrith improved to a 10-10-2 record and an 8th-place finish in the 1994 NSWRL season, despite the late season walk-out of Phil Gould, replaced with Fittler's 1991 premiership team mate Royce Simmons.
During the year he was selected at lock for a test against France at Sydney's Parramatta Stadium and at the end of the season he was selected for his second Kangaroo Tour. Fittler played at lock in all four tests against Great Britain and France on the tour, winning man of the match in Australia's 38-8 win in the second test at Old Trafford in Manchester to keep the Ashes series alive; the Kangaroos went on to win the third test 23-4 to retain the Ashes before demolishing France with a world record 74-0 win in Béziers. Fittler played in 12 games on tour, scoring two tries, he was named as Man of the Match playing at lock in Australia's non-test international played against Wales in Cardiff, scoring one of his tours two tries in the wet conditions. By 1995 Fittler was the world's highest-paid rugby league player earning $1.05 million for the season. This was during the period of the S
Sydney Showground (Moore Park)
The former Sydney Showground at Moore Park was the site of the Sydney Royal Easter Show in New South Wales, Australia from 1882 until 1997, when the Show was moved to the new Sydney Showground at Sydney Olympic Park, built for the Sydney 2000 Olympics. The old site was leased to News Corporation on a 99-year lease from the Government of New South Wales to be used for the site of Fox Studios Australia, is now part of The Entertainment Quarter. In 1811, Governor Macquarie proclaimed an area of 1,000 acres. In 1882, The Agricultural Society established its grounds within the site, which henceforth became the venue of the Sydney Royal Easter Show—an annual expression of national pride in Australian produce and industry; the period from 1902 to 1919 saw the expansion of the showgrounds to the south. From 1920–1937, the grounds were further expanded to the north, with the addition of new squares and judging rings; the dominant visual elements of the complex by this time were the peripheral walls, the Members’ Grandstand clock tower and the tower of the Anthony Hordern building.
The country’s sesqui-centenary celebrations of 1938 led to a further building program at the showground, including the Government Pavilion and the Commemorative Pavilion. Aside from the Royal Easter Show and rugby league matches, the venue was used for World Series Cricket games in the late 1970s when the Sydney Cricket Ground was unavailable. At its peak, the old showground could hold over 90,000 people; the Main Arena at the Sydney Showground was used as one of two Sydney Harness racing venues, the other being the Harold Park Paceway, located only 4 km from Moore Park in the suburb of Glebe. From 1926 until 1996 the Showground's Main Arena doubled as the Sydney Showground Speedway, a dirt track speedway known as Speedway Royale, the speedway attracted large spectator attendances throughout the summer months. Claimed to be the fastest speedway in the world in 1937, the 509 metres long "egg shaped" track was the site of some spectacular crashes and some tragic deaths. Although solo motorcycles were first to race at the Showgrounds they were soon joined by sidecars and Super Modifieds.
In the 1950s stock cars began to appear joined much by demolition derbies. Since the departure of the Sydney Royal Easter Show to the new showground, the old showground has been redeveloped as Fox Studios, a commercial venture designed at supporting Australia's film industry, it is in close proximity with some of Sydney's largest public venues, namely the Sydney Cricket Ground, Sydney Football Stadium, the Hordern Pavilion, a multipurpose entertainment venue. The showground was the venue for the first game of rugby football sanctioned by the breakaway New South Wales Rugby Football League premiership the first game of rugby league in Australia. Played by a New South Wales team against New Zealand's rebel 1907 tourists, it attracted a sellout crowd of 20,000. After that the Agricultural Ground hosted the first interstate matches between New South Wales and Queensland. Sydney's Royal Agricultural Showground was venue for the first Ashes test on Australian soil; the showground became the venue for the NSWRFL's grand finals until the late 1920s, hosted 183 first grade rugby league games.
The final Rugby League match played at the ground was on 11 April 1987 between North Sydney and St George in front of 24,000 spectators. Norths won the match 18-16; the venue hosted concerts by many famous artists, including Led Zeppelin, ABBA, David Bowie, AC/DC, The Police and KISS, among others. English rock band Led Zeppelin played to over 25,000 fans at the Sydney Showground in February 1972 as part of their 1972 Australasian Tour. Footage from the show is featured on disc two of the Led Zeppelin DVD released some thirty years after the event; the Sydney Showgrounds was the venue for the annual Sydney Big Day Out music festival held in January between 1992 and 1997. The 1997 event was titled'Six and Out - Big Day out' indicating the final Big Day Out Festival before its new beginning at the new Sydney Showground Homebush in 1999; the former Sydney Showground is featured in the Rage Against the Machine video clip for "Bulls on Parade", from when they performed live at the Big Day Out Festival on 25 January 1996
Albert Aaron Rosenfeld known by the nickname of "Rozzy", was a pioneer Australian rugby league footballer, a national representative whose club career was played in Sydney and in England. He played for New South Wales in the first rugby league match run by the newly created'New South Wales Rugby Football League' which had just split away from the established New South Wales Rugby Football Union. During his 16-year English career he set a number of try-scoring records including the standing world first-grade record of 80 tries in a season in 1913–14. Born in Sydney, the son of a Jewish tailor, Rosenfeld was a foundation player for the Eastern Suburbs club in the Australian inaugural season 1908 and in 1909, he played on Easter Monday 1908 in the Easts team that beat Newtown 32–16 on the first day of rugby league premiership football in Australia. A stand-off, Rosenfeld represented his country in four Test matches, he made his Test début in Australia's first international series against New Zealand in 1908 where he appeared in all three matches.
That season he was selected for Australia's inaugural Kangaroo Tour of 1908–09, making one Test appearance and playing in 13 minor representative matches. Whilst on tour Rosenfeld signed with English club Huddersfield after falling in love with Ethel a local mill manager's daughter whom he married, he became a try scoring sensation. In the English season of 1911–12 he set a new try scoring record for one season with 78 tries only to better it the following but one season by scoring 80. To date neither mark has been beaten in Australia; the nearest anyone has come was 72 by, coincidentally another Australian and former Eastern Suburbs player, playing in England Brian Bevan in the 1952–53 season. In England he played for Huddersfield, Wakefield Trinity and Bradford Northern and made the following Cup Final appearances or internationals: right wing, scored a try in Huddersfield's 21-0 victory over Batley in the 1909–10 Yorkshire County Cup Final during the 1909–10 season at Headingley Rugby Stadium, Leeds on 27 November 1909, right wing in the 2-8 defeat by Wakefield Trinity in the 1910–11 Yorkshire County Cup Final during the 1910–11 season at Headingley Rugby Stadium, Leeds on 3 December 1910, right wing, scored a try in the 22-10 victory over Hull Kingston Rovers in the 1911–12 Yorkshire County Cup Final during the 1911–12 season at Belle Vue, Wakefield on 25 November 1911, right wing, scored a try in the 19-3 victory over Bradford Northern in the 1913–14 Yorkshire County Cup Final during the 1913–14 season at Thrum Hall, Halifax on 29 November 1913, right wing, scored a try in the 31-0 victory over Hull F.
C. in the 1914–15 Yorkshire County Cup Final during the 1914–15 season at Headingley Rugby Stadium, Leeds on 28 November 1914 left wing, scored a try in the 24-5 victory over Leeds in the 1919–20 Yorkshire County Cup Final during the 1919–20 season at Thrum Hall, Halifax on 29 November 1919. Right wing, in Wakefield Trinity's 3-29 defeat by Australia in the 1921–22 Kangaroo tour of Great Britain match at Belle Vue, Wakefield on 22 October 1921. Rosenfeld's phenomenal try-scoring record is all the more extraordinary considering his career was interrupted by three years of active service, he enlisted in the British Army in 1916 and saw service in the Mesopotamian campaign, he was discharged in 1919. Rosenfeld played rugby league until he was thirty-nine and still married to Ethel he lived out his life in Huddersfield, He owned a tobacco shop and worked variously as a van driver and in a local dye house. Aged 85 years, Rosenfeld was the last of the inaugural Kangaroo Tourists to die. During his career, Rosenfeld scored.
His try scoring feats earned him in 1988 a place in the British Rugby League Hall of Fame. In 2005, Rosenfeld was accepted into the International Jewish Sports Hall of Fame with his official induction to take place at the 2009 Maccabiah games, he is one of only two rugby league players to be so honoured. Albert Rosenfeld was awarded Life Membership of the New South Wales Rugby League in 1914. In February 2008, Rosenfeld was named in the list of Australia's 100 Greatest Players, commissioned by the NRL and ARL to celebrate the code's centenary year in Australia. Huddersfield Giants Harold Wagstaff Rosenfeld List of select Jewish rugby league players Statistics at rugbyleagueproject.org Albert Rosenfeld at rugbyleaguehistory.co.uk Rugby League Hall of Fame International Jewish Sports Hall of Fame Photograph "Albert Rosenfeld - The great Albert Rosenfeld, who scored 80 tries for Huddersfield in the 1913/14 season, played for Northern in the 1923/24 and 1924/25 seasons scoring onle one try. - 01/01/1924" rlhp.co.uk
1907–08 New Zealand rugby tour of Australia and Great Britain
The 1907–1908 New Zealand rugby tour of Australia and Great Britain was made by a group of New Zealand rugby footballers who played matches in Australia, Ceylon and Wales between 1907 and 1908. Most of the matches were played under the rules of the Northern Union, a sport, today known as rugby league; as such, the team were the immediate predecessors of the New Zealand national rugby league team. The tour had a large role in establishing rugby league in both Australia and New Zealand, gave birth to international rugby league; the tour party has come to be known as the professional All Blacks or All Golds, although at the time they were referred to as the All Blacks—a named popularised by the New Zealand rugby union team that toured the Northern Hemisphere in 1905. The idea for a professional rugby tour was conceived by Albert Baskiville, a player from the Wellington region of New Zealand. Baskiville managed to recruit a significant number of international and provincial representatives for the team.
The team played their first match in Sydney in 1907 against New South Wales. The success of the team's three matches in Sydney prompted the formation of the New South Wales Rugby League, saw them recruit Australian Dally Messenger for their tour of Wales and England. After stopping over in Ceylon, the team arrived in England on 30 September 1907; the team played 35 matches in England and Wales, including a Test match against Wales, three Tests against England. They returned via Australia where they played a further ten matches, including three Test matches against Australia, they won a total of 26 of their 46 matches. The tour established rugby league in both New Zealand and Australia, was commemorated by a centenary tour in 2007—the 2007 All Golds Tour. Rugby union had established itself as the national winter game in New Zealand before the 1905 tour of The Originals; this tour was a success both on the field and commercially off the field, with the New Zealand Rugby Union making a profit of £12,000.
However, in New Zealand some discontent about the state of rugby union's rules and the lack of ability to compensate players for time lost from work were beginning to rise. These tensions were similar to the ones that had led to the 1895 schism in England that had created the Northern Union. In addition the Originals were only paid 3/- a day expenses while on tour, a token amount when the Rugby Union was making such a profit. Albert Baskiville was well known in rugby circles, playing for the Oriental club and on the verge of Wellington provincial selection, he had in 1907 published a book entitled Modern Rugby Football: New Zealand Methods which explained how to play the game and was read. He was inspired to launch a tour to play the clubs in the Northern Union by an article in the Daily Mail written by F W Cooper; the article, written by a Northern Union advocate, said that while the Originals tour had been successful it was a shame that they had not played any of the northern clubs, which at the time of the 1895 break away were regarded as some of the strongest clubs in England.
Baskiville had conversations with several prominent rugby players, including the famous Original George William Smith who had talked to Northern Union officials and J J Giltinan about starting the code in Sydney. Smith's role in starting the game in Australasia was crucial as he had a wide set of connections and was a well known sporting celebrity, being an Original, a world class sprinter and a champion jockey. In early 1907 Baskiville wrote to the Northern Rugby Football Union asking if they would wish to host a tour of a New Zealand rugby team; as the North of England had not had any international rugby since the tour of the 1888-1889 New Zealand Native football team, the NRFU was enthusiastic. On 26 March 1907 it advised its member clubs that it was "very favourably disposed" to the tour and suggested that the tourists be paid 70% of the gates with a guarantee of £3000; the Northern Union informed Baskiville that the tour should go ahead and by May plans were underway in New Zealand. Baskiville resigned his job at the New Zealand Post Office to plan the tour full-time.
News of the tour was first publicly broken by the New Zealand Herald which ran a story on 13 May 1907 about a possible professional rugby tour. It was extraordinary the level of secrecy that the New Zealand organisers had achieved, with the news being broken via England. Opposition to the tour was vocal with the New Zealand Rugby Union condemning the tour and the media being supportive of the amateur game and its ideals of amateurism. However, as the co-operative nature of the tour became more known the touring party gained some public sympathy and the Rugby Union appeared to be the one out of touch with public opinion. Baskiville assembled a team of selectors. Knowing the rule changes that the Northern Union had made to their game the selectors knew line-out specialists would not be required and decided to favour players with ample amounts of speed and acceleration, they needed players that were prepared to invest some money into the venture and accept a lifetime ban from rugby union. In the end no less than 160 of the 200 rugby union players involved in provincial rugby in New Zealand applied to go on the tour, a huge blow to the Rugby Union who had anticipated a low amount of interest.
It was from these applications that the final team was selected, with players who had indicated early they were prepared to tour being favoured. At least two rugby union internationals did not
1910 Great Britain Lions tour of Australia and New Zealand
The 1910 Great Britain Lions tour of Australia and New Zealand was the first international tour of the Great Britain national rugby league team, "The Lions". They played the second Ashes series against Australia, first as visiting team, before travelling to Auckland to take on New Zealand; the tour was a huge promotional and financial success for what was known as the "Northern Union" game and helped set the pattern for regular, alternating test match series between Britain and Australia. It is regarded as one of the most important events in the history of rugby league. Despite the selection of several Welsh players in the touring squad, the team is sometimes referred to as "England", they went south From Manchester in early April to London travelled by ship for six weeks before reaching Australia. Led by Salford captain James Lomas, the tour was a huge success for the Lions who won all their test matches with Lomas topping the tour scoring charts with 136 points in 13 games; the team scheduled to tour consisted of eighteen internationals: nine English, eight Welsh and one Scottish.
All players were from clubs that participated in the 1909–10 Northern Rugby Football Union season's Championship. The players were accompanied by joint managers, J. H. Houghton and J. Clifford as well as trainer D. Murray. Tom Helm, forward for Oldham The Australian leg of the tour took place during the 1910 NSWRFL season, the third season of rugby league football in Australia since the game's split from rugby union; the two Ashes series tests took place at the following venues. Before the test series, the British played three matches against New South Wales, losing the first 14 – 28 and the second 20 – 27. 10,000 people saw the match on 29 May. This was the third match and first win of the visitors' series against New South Wales, with their captain, Jim Lomas featuring prominently. Sydney's Royal Agricultural Showground was the venue for the first Ashes test on Australian soil. Five former Wallaby team mates made their rugby league test debuts for Australia in this match: Charles Russell, John Barnett, Bob Craig, Jack Hickey, Chris McKivat.
This day featured a goal-kicking contest between the two sides' captains, Dally Messenger and Jim Lomas, won 3-2 by Lomas This match featured a goal-kicking contest, between Dally Messenger, Jim Lomas and Herb Brackenrigg, which the latter won. Queensland's Bill Heidke was awarded the captaincy for this match, the first non-New South Welshman to achieve this honour. In the second test, Australia had gotten off to an early lead over the visitors at 11 nil. Jim Leytham's four tries in this match would remain an unbeaten Ashes record; the British had thus won the series in two tests. It was decided that after the Ashes series, a combined "Australasia" team, comprising the best players of Australia and New Zealand would play a series of matches against the touring Britons; the Australian jersey's sky blue with maroon hoops had black hoops added to it for these matches. The British team were conveyed on to the ground by a group of "Jack tars" in port at Sydney who took the place of the horses that were to pull the drag.
The first points came from an individual effort from Viv Farnsworth that led to him scoring in the corner. Great Britain replied with a penalty goal through Jim Lomas. Courtney got the next try, which Brackenrigg failed to convert, it was the visitors' turn to score, with a try to Leytham out wide. Lomas missed the kick, so Australasia were leading 8 – 5 at the half time break, they extended their lead to 13 – 5 before The British made a strong comeback to level the scores with a late try before full-time. At one stage Great Britain were leading 15 – 5 but at half time were trailing 15 – 17, they scored no more points in the second half, as Australasia overran them. In the evening following the match, the touring Britons left for New Zealand on the Maheno; the next time the two sides would meet was during the 1911–12 Kangaroo tour of Great Britain. The British team arrived in Auckland on 17 July and were met by officials of the newly formed New Zealand Rugby League before being given a mayoral reception the following morning.
During the tour the Lions donated the Northern Union Cup, awarded to Auckland for inter-provincial competition and is still contested today. The first match was played in weather described as atrocious against a New Zealand Māori team captained by Whiri Winiata and featuring Albert Asher who had played with the victorious Australasia team back in Australia; the first international try scored on New Zealand soil was by Halifax winger, Joe Riley and this was followed by a hat-trick of tries by Wigan centre Bert Jenkins. Great Britain led 23 – 0 at half-time. In the second half, Fred Smith scored a fourth try for the visitors; the Auckland side was. Emergencies. New Zealand wore the colours of Yellow with Black bands for the Test match, it was the only time. The touring British side had been invited to play another match in Australia, so left Auckland for Sydney on 1 August on the SS Maheno after a hearty send-off. On their way back to England, a portion of the touring Britons stopped in Sydney for one more game against a New South Wales second XIII, as there was a New South Wales team playing against Queensland in Brisbane.
Ashes Series 1910 at rugbyleagueproject.org
Australia national rugby league team
The Australian national rugby league team have represented Australia in senior men's rugby league football competition since the establishment of the'Northern Union game' in Australia in 1908. Administered by the Australian Rugby League, the Kangaroos are ranked first in the RLIF World Rankings; the team is the most successful in Rugby League World Cup history, having contested all 15 and winning 11 of them, failing to reach the final only once, in the inaugural tournament in 1954. Only four nations have beaten Australia in test matches, Australia have an overall win percentage of 67%. Dating back to 1908, Australia are the fourth oldest national side after England, New Zealand and Wales; the team was first assembled in 1908 for a tour of Great Britain. The majority of the Kangaroos' games since have been played against Great Britain and New Zealand. In the first half of the 20th century, Australia's international competition came from alternating tours to Great Britain and New Zealand, with Australia playing host to these teams in non-tour years.
Great Britain dominated in the early years, Australia did not win a Test against the Lions until 11 November 1911 under captain Chris McKivat. Australia did not win a series at home against Great Britain until 1920 or abroad until 1958. Since 1908, the team has been nicknamed the Kangaroos. Only used when touring Great Britain, France, this has been the official nickname of the team since 7 July 1994. In 1997 Australia was represented by a Super League Australia team, drawing on players from that year's Super League competition. While in the past players for the side had been selected from clubs in various leagues around the country, in recent years the side has consisted of players from clubs of the National Rugby League. Rugby football has been played in Australia since the 1860s. In 1863 Sydney University became the first rugby club to be formed in Sydney, played games amongst themselves or against the crews of visiting British ships; the Sydney Football Club and the Wallaroos followed, inter-club competition commenced.
By 1880, there were 100 clubs across the country, rugby became the dominant winter sport for Sydney. In 1888 an English team visited Australasia, playing rugby rules in Queensland, New South Wales and New Zealand, Australian rules football in Victoria and South Australia. In 1899, an Australian team was formed for the first time using players from Queensland and New South Wales, they played a series of Tests against a British team. By 1907, Sydney club rugby games were attracting up to 20,000 people, with all profits going to the Southern Rugby Football Union, as the sport at the time was an amateur one; this caused discontent among players, in 1908 the New South Wales Rugby Football League and Queensland Rugby League were formed. An Australian national rugby league team was first formed during the first season of rugby league in Australia, the 1908 NSWRFL Premiership season; the team, made of players from the NSWRFL with a few Queensland rugby rebels added, first played against the "professional All Blacks" on the return leg of their tour of Australia and Great Britain.
That year the Australian team arranged to go on a tour of its own. The first Kangaroos arrived in England on 27 September 1908, played their first test against the Northern Union in December in London, it finished 22 all in front of a crowd of 2,000. The second test in Newcastle in January 1909 attracted a crowd of 22,000, the Northern Union won 15–5; the third test was played at Villa Park, the Northern Union winning again 6–5 before a crowd of 9,000. The Australians suggested that the series should be named'The Ashes' after the cricket series of the same name. In 1909, when the new "Northern Union" code was still in its infancy in Australia, a match between the Kangaroos and the Wallabies was played before a crowd of around 20,000, with the Rugby League side winning 29–26; the first British tour of the Southern Hemisphere began on 4 June 1910, when the Northern Union played New South Wales in front of 33,000 spectators in Sydney, losing 28–14. But they won the first test in Sydney against Australia 27–20 in front of 42,000.
They won the second test in Brisbane 22–17. In Auckland, on 30 July, they defeated New Zealand 52–20; the 1910 Great Britain Lions tour of Australia and New Zealand was the first and Australia were beaten for the Ashes in two tests, faring better as "Australasia" with two Kiwis added to their squad. The 1911–12 Kangaroo tour of Great Britain was undertaken by an'Australasian' squad which included four New Zealanders, they won the Ashes for the first time and for the next half a century no other touring team did do so on British soil. The 1914 Great Britain Lions tour of Australia and New Zealand was the second time the British toured down under; the Australians, captained by Sid Deane for all three tests, got one victory but lost the series in the famous decider, the "Rorke's Drift Test". Australia went on a tour of New Zealand in 1919; the 1920 Great Britain Lions tour saw. The 1921–22 Kangaroo tour of Great Britain included a New Zealander and was ostensibly an Australasian side. In January 1922, an "England" side defeated Australia 6–0 at The Willows, Salford, to win back the Ashes, lost in 1920.
They did not lose again until 1950. The Australian national team first wore green and gold in a hooped design, on Saturday 23 June 1928, when they met Great Britain in the first Test at the Brisbane Exhibition Ground. Britain led 10–2 after 25 minutes, 13–7 at half time and, after a nervous second half claimed the Test 15–12; the England team won both the 1928 series in