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New York City Subway

The New York City Subway is a rapid transit system owned by the City of New York and leased to the New York City Transit Authority, a subsidiary agency of the state-run Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Opened in 1904, the New York City Subway is one of the world's oldest public transit systems, one of the most-used, the one with the most stations; the New York City Subway is the largest rapid transit system in the world by number of stations, with 472 stations in operation. Stations are located throughout the boroughs of Manhattan, Brooklyn and the Bronx; the system offers service 24 hours per day, every day of the year, though some routes may operate only part-time. By annual ridership, the New York City Subway is the busiest rapid transit system in both the Western Hemisphere and the Western world, as well as the ninth-busiest rapid transit rail system in the world. In 2017, the subway delivered over 1.72 billion rides, averaging 5.6 million daily rides on weekdays and a combined 5.7 million rides each weekend.

On September 23, 2014, more than 6.1 million people rode the subway system, establishing the highest single-day ridership since ridership was monitored in 1985. The system is one of the world's longest. Overall, the system contains 245 miles of routes, translating into 665 miles of revenue track and a total of 850 miles including non-revenue trackage. Of the system's 28 routes or "services", 25 pass through Manhattan, the exceptions being the G train, the Franklin Avenue Shuttle, the Rockaway Park Shuttle. Large portions of the subway outside Manhattan are elevated, on embankments, or in open cuts, a few stretches of track run at ground level. In total, 40% of track is aboveground. Many lines and stations have both express and local services; these lines have four tracks. The outer two are used by local trains, while the inner one or two are used by express trains. Stations served by express trains are major transfer points or destinations; as of 2018, the New York City Subway's budgetary burden for expenditures was $8.7 billion, supported by collection of fares, bridge tolls, earmarked regional taxes and fees, as well as direct funding from state and local governments.

Its on-time performance rate was 65% during weekdays. Alfred Ely Beach built the first demonstration for an underground transit system in New York City in 1869 and opened it in February 1870, his Beach Pneumatic Transit only extended 312 feet under Broadway in Lower Manhattan operating from Warren Street to Murray Street and exhibited his idea for an atmospheric railway as a subway. The tunnel was never extended for financial reasons. Today, no part of this line remains as the tunnel was within the limits of the present day City Hall station under Broadway; the Great Blizzard of 1888 helped demonstrate the benefits of an underground transportation system. A plan for the construction of the subway was approved in 1894, construction began in 1900. Though the underground portions of the subway had yet to be built, several above-ground segments of the modern-day New York City Subway system were in service by then; the oldest structure still in use opened in 1885 as part of the BMT Lexington Avenue Line in Brooklyn and is now part of the BMT Jamaica Line.

The oldest right-of-way, part of the BMT West End Line near Coney Island Creek, was in use in 1864 as a steam railroad called the Brooklyn and Coney Island Rail Road. The first underground line of the subway opened on October 27, 1904 36 years after the opening of the first elevated line in New York City; the 9.1-mile subway line called the "Manhattan Main Line", ran from City Hall station northward under Lafayette Street and Park Avenue before turning westward at 42nd Street. It curved northward again at Times Square, continuing under Broadway before terminating at 145th Street station in Harlem, its operation was leased to the Interborough Rapid Transit Company and over 150,000 passengers paid the 5¢ fare to ride it on the first day of operation. By the late 1900s and early 1910s, the lines had been consolidated into two owned systems, the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company and the Interborough Rapid Transit Company; the city leased them to the companies. The first line of the city-owned and operated Independent Subway System opened in 1932.

This required it to be run'at cost', necessitating fares up to double the five-cent fare popular at the time. In 1940, the city bought the two private systems; some elevated lines ceased service while others closed soon after. Integration was slow, but several connections were built between the IND and BMT. Since the IRT tunnels, sharper curves, stations are too small and therefore can not accommodate B Division cars, the IRT remains its own division, the A Division. Many passenger transfers between stations of all three former companies have been created, allowing the entire network to be treated as a single unit. During the late 1940s, the system recorded high ridership, on December 23, 1946, the system-wide record of 8,872,249 fares was set; the New York City Transit Authority (NYCT

Media filter

A media filter is a type of filter that uses a bed of sand, shredded tires, crushed glass, geo-textile fabric, crushed granite or other material to filter water for drinking, swimming pools, irrigation, stormwater management, oil & gas operations, other applications. One design brings the water in the top of a container through a "header" which distributes the water evenly; the filter "media" start with fine sand on the top and graduatingly coarser sand in a number of layers followed by gravel on the bottom, in larger sizes. The top sand physically removes particles from the water; the job of the subsequent layers is to provide efficient drainage. As particles become trapped in the media, the differential pressure across the bed increases. Periodically, a backwash may be initiated to remove the solids trapped in the bed. During backwash, flow is directed in the opposite direction as normal flow. In multi-media filters, the layers in the media re-stratify due to density differences prior to resuming normal filtration.

Municipal drinking water systems use a rapid sand filter and/or a slow sand filter for purification. Media filters are used to protect water quality in streams and lakes, they can be effective at removing pollutants in stormwater such as phosphorus. Sand is the most common filter material. In other filters, sometimes called "organic filters," wood chips or leaf mold may be used. Media filters are used for cleaning the effluent from septic tanks and primary settlement tanks; the materials used are sand and natural stone fibre. The oil & gas industry uses media filters for various purposes in both upstream and downstream operations. Nut shell filters are used as a tertiary oil removal step for produced water treatment. Sand filters are used to remove fine solids following biological treatment and clarification of refinery wastewater. Multi-media filters are used for removing suspended solids from both produced water and refinery wastewater; the materials used in multi-media filters are gravel, sand and anthracite.

Biofilter Bioretention Rapid sand filter Slow sand filter

Silvano Ward Brown

Silvano Ward Brown, known as The Panamá Strangler, is a Panamanian serial killer who killed 3 women from 1959 to 1973. The first serial killer in the country's history, he was released after serving out his sentence on June 24, 1993, is living a normal life and working as a security guard. Brown was born in Puerto Armuelles into a family of Afro-Panamanians, studied in a primary school until the 4th grade. According to him, he had a wonderful childhood until the age of nine, when his father left the house; as there was now a lack of a male authority figure in his life, Silvano's behavior became problematic. At some point in his youth, he had to serve two years in a juvenile prison for an unspecified offence. In 1959, at the age of 18, Brown was looking for a house to break into in San Francisco, when he came upon the house of 18-year-old Caballero. After observing the woman undressing herself, he surprised Paula, causing to her to scream "Oh my God, my mother, my God!". Using a knife he carried for cutting fabrics from doors and windows while breaking into houses, Brown fatally stabbed her chest on the left side.

Caballero managed to walk a few steps, before collapsing dead on the ground. The panicked Silvano ran away without looking back, but was captured by authorities, sentenced to 12 years imprisonment on Coiba's island prison. While in there, he was examined by a medical and forensic psychiatrist. Kaled predicted that when released, it was likely that Brown would kill again. On December 4, 1969, Silvano was released from prison and remained under the radar for a few years before striking again. On June 7, 1973, Brown left his job on the "Spanish Man" boat, decided to go with a friend to the town of Colón. After returning to Panamá around 1:30 AM, he left his friend and began driving along Central Avenue, passing by the National Bank. At 2:00 AM, he noticed a woman walking in the direction of the Economic Development Institute, but decided to move along, he continued down the intersection, turned to the old Canal Zone and left through a street to Gorgas Hospital, opposite the "Ancón Inn" bar and old "Great Morrison" warehouse.

However, Brown changed his mind, decided to go after the woman from before. He found the woman, 22-year-old prostitute Dalila Gaitán Troya, on the Los Mártires Avenue, began caressing her. Brown led her to an apartment in the Transistmica and gave her $15 in advance for her services, because of his impotence, he had erection problems. Dalila wanted to finish and mocked Brown, angering him in the process, he asked her to give the money back, as he felt he shouldn't pay just to see her in her underwear, but she refused and slapped him. After, Silvano punched her in the jaw, Dalila slumped on the bed, she got up, but had her client wrap his hands around her neck, strangling her. When she was "more or less still", Brown took her sweater and wrapped it around her neck, he proceeded to put on his pants, wash the bloodied sheets and pillows in the sink, pick up the body. He put Dalila's corpse in the backseat of his car, drove to the street next to the Paris Garden, throwing away the woman's wallet and shoes onto a nearby bridge.

While on the road leading to a Bahá'í temple in the San Miguelito District, Brown stopped the car, undressed Dalila's corpse and pushed it onto the road, where it was found by a couple who were passing by. Only eight days after the last encounter, Brown met up with another prostitute, 23-year-old Colombian Rose María Gómez Orlas, he took her to the same place as Dalila, but yet again had difficulties with his impotence. Despite this, Rose agreed to return later. However, he had problems the second time as well; the now-angered Brown began hitting her in the face, before strangling her with his bare hands. To make sure she was dead, he tied the sash. Like the previous murder, Brown undressed the deceased prostitute in order to prevent her identification, abandoned her body in the forest, near a road connecting Chilibre and the Transistmica from the old Canal Zone, her body was found on June 19, 1973. The National Research Department led by Darío Arosemena connected the two murders due to the similar circumstances.

Only ten days after Rose's murder, Silvano Ward Brown was detained by the authorities, after they found the Rose's sash in the back of his car. He soon confessed in detail including the murder he committed at 18 years old, his story was published in an article by the newspaper'Crítica, dated June 29, 1973 and titled "Confessions of a strangler". In a subsequent psychiatric examination, Brown was determined to be a cold and calculated individual, with a high IQ, he was diagnosed as an amoral psychopath, mixed with a perverse sexual psyche, whose condition led him to act out his frustration in a violent and murderous way. He was sentenced to 20 years imprisonment in Model Jail, was released after serving out his sentence on June 24, 1993. Brown now works as a security guard, lives with relatives in the nation's capital