New York Knicks

The New York Knickerbockers, more referred to as the Knicks, are an American professional basketball team based in the New York City borough of Manhattan. The Knicks compete in the National Basketball Association as a member of the Atlantic Division of the Eastern Conference; the team plays its home games at Madison Square Garden, an arena they share with the New York Rangers of the National Hockey League. They are one of two NBA teams located in New York City. Alongside the Boston Celtics, the Knicks are one of two original NBA teams still located in its original city; the team, established by Ned Irish in 1946, was one of the founding members of the Basketball Association of America, which became the NBA after merging with the rival National Basketball League in 1949. The Knicks were successful during their early years and were constant playoff contenders under the franchise's first head coach Joe Lapchick. Beginning in 1950, the Knicks made three consecutive appearances in the NBA Finals, all of which were losing efforts.

Lapchick resigned in 1956 and the team subsequently began to falter. It was not until the late 1960s when Red Holzman became the head coach that the Knicks began to regain their former dominance. Holzman guided the Knicks to two NBA championships, in 1970 and 1973; the Knicks of the 1980s had mixed success. The playoff-level Knicks of the 1990s were led by future Hall of Fame center Patrick Ewing. During this time, they were known for playing tough defense under head coaches Pat Riley and Jeff Van Gundy, making two appearances in the NBA Finals, in 1994 and 1999. However, they were unable to win an NBA championship during this era. Since 2000, the Knicks have struggled to regain their former glory, but won its first division title in 19 years in 2012–13, led by a core of forwards Carmelo Anthony and Amar'e Stoudemire, they were eliminated in the Eastern Conference semifinals by the Indiana Pacers, have failed to make the playoffs since. In 1946, basketball college basketball, was a growing and profitable sport in New York City.

Hockey generated considerable profits. Max Kase, a New York sportswriter, became the sports editor at the Boston American in the 1930s, when he met Boston Garden owner Walter A. Brown. Kase developed the idea of an organized professional league to showcase college players upon their graduation and felt it could become profitable if properly assembled. Brown, intrigued by the opportunity to attain additional income when the hockey teams were not playing or on the road, contacted several arena owners. On June 6, 1946, Kase and Brown and a group of seventeen others assembled at the Commodore Hotel in New York City, as the Basketball Association of America, where charter franchises were granted to major cities throughout the country. Ned Irish, a college basketball promoter, retired sportswriter and president of Madison Square Garden, was in attendance. Kase planned to own and operate the New York franchise himself and approached Irish with a proposal to lease the Garden. Irish explained that the rules of the Arena Managers Association of America stated that Madison Square Garden was required to own any professional teams that played in the arena.

On the day of the meeting, Kase made his proposal to the panel of owners. Irish wanted a distinct name for his franchise, representative of the city of New York, he called together members of his staff for a meeting to cast their votes in a hat. After tallying the votes, the franchise was named the Knickerbockers; the "Knickerbocker" name comes from the pseudonym used by Washington Irving in his book A History of New York, a name that became applied to the descendants of the original Dutch settlers of what became New York, by extension, to New Yorkers in general. In search of a head coach, Irish approached successful St. John's University coach Joe Lapchick in May 1946. Lapchick accepted after Irish promised to make him the highest-paid coach in the league. Irish obliged, hiring former Manhattan College coach Neil Cohalan as interim coach for the first year. With no college draft in the league's initial year, there was no guarantee that the Knicks or the league itself would thrive. Teams focused on signing college players from their respective cities as a way to promote the professional league.

The Knicks held their first training camp in the Catskill Mountains at the Nevele Country Club. Twenty-five players were invited to attend the three-week session. Players worked out twice a day and the chemistry between the New York natives was instant. With a roster assembled, the Knicks faced the Toronto Huskies at Toronto's Maple Leaf Gardens on November 1, 1946, in what would be the franchise's first game—as well as the first in league history. In a low-scoring affair presented in front of 7,090 spectators, the Knicks defeated the Huskies 68–66 with Leo Gottlieb leading the Knicks in scoring with 14 points. With Madison Square Garden's crowded schedule, the Knicks were forced to play many of their home games at the 69th Regiment Armory during the team's early years; the Knicks went on to finish their inaugural campaign with a 33–27 record and achieved a playoff berth under Cohalan despite a dismal shooting percentage of 28 pe


Yuendumu is a town in the Northern Territory of Australia. It ranks as one of the larger remote communities in central Australia and has a thriving community of Aboriginal artists. Yuendumu lies 293 km northwest of Alice Springs on the Tanami Road, is a community made up of the Warlpiri and Anmatyerr Aboriginal people, with a population of 759 at the 2016 Australian census. Yuendumu is located within the Yuendumu Aboriginal Lands Trust area on traditional Anmatyerr land and includes numerous outstations, it was established in 1946 by the Native Affairs Branch of the Australian Government to deliver rations and welfare services. In 1947 the Australian Baptist Home Mission was established there. By 1955 many of the Aboriginal people had settled in the town. Today, some of the services and facilities available in Yuendumu include three community stores, Yuendumu Mediation Centre, airstrip, swimming pool, the Warlukurlangu art centre, an Aboriginal media organisation, a church, an elderly people's program, women's centre and safe house.

Yuendumu retains links with other communities within the region, including Yuelumu, Lajamanu and Nyirripi. Yuendumu hosts its annual sports weekend in the first week of August; the event includes football and softball competitions, attracting teams from other communities around the region. There is a'Battle of the Bands' night which showcases local bands. In the early 1980s the Yuendumu elders painted ceremonial designs on canvas, which begun the art movement at Yuendumu; the first painting there was on the door of the Yuendumu school, painted by P. Japaljarri Stewart and Kumanjayi Japaljarri Sims, who are some of the most well known artists at the community. In 1985 the Warlukurlangu Artists Association was founded at Yuendumu. Notable artists who have painted with Warlukurlangu include Kumanjayi Nelson Napaljarri, Norah Nelson Napaljarri, Sheila Brown Napaljarri, Dolly Nampijinpa Daniels and Judy Watson Napangardi. Contemporary Indigenous Australian artist Kumanjayi Napaljarri Kennedy was a senior woman at Yuendumu, a member of the community council, was made a Member of the Order of Australia in 1994, for services to the Yuendumu community.

Artist Maggie Napaljarri Ross has received the Order of Australia for her work in establishing the Yuendumu Night Patrol. Yuendumu elders founded the Mt Theo Program in 1993 which has become a model for substance misuse prevention and youth diversion/development in remote Australian communities. In 2007, Johnny Japangardi Miller'Hooker Creek', Peggy Nampijimpa Brown and Andrew Stojanovski were awarded the Order of Australia Medal for their efforts in founding the program and'for service to the community of Yuendumu and the surrounding region of the Northern Territory through programs addressing substance abuse among Indigenous youth'. Yuendumu leaders who were awarded the Centenary Medal in 2001, which commemorates 100 years of Federation and recognises "citizens and other people who made a contribution to Australian society or government" include Wendy Nungarrayi Brown and Rex Granites. Yuendumu is the home community of indigenous activist and former NT Government minister Bess Nungarrayi Price.

For over 25 years the community has been home to PAW Media, most famously producing Bush Mechanics, Aboriginal Rules which explored the social meaning of football in remote communities. Yuendumu is home of the Yuendumu Magpies football team, who play in the Central Australian Football League. Yuendumu won the inaugural season of the new Alice Springs competition in 2008. Yuendumu player Liam Jurrah was drafted into the AFL soon after by the Melbourne Football Club; the town is mentioned in the Midnight Oil song "Beds are Burning": Four wheels scare the cockatoos/From Kintore east to Yuendumu. In The 2005 PlayStation 2 Video Game Sly 3: Honor Among Thieves, the second chapter "Rumble Down Under" takes place in a fictional Yuendumu in the Australian outback, a mining and digging site. Midnight Oil and Warumpi Band's tour to Yuendumu is documented in Andrew McMillan's book Strict Rules: The BlackfellaWhitefella Tour. Bush Mechanics Campbell, Liam Darby: One hundred years of life in a changing culture, Sydney, ABC Books.

Daly A and Barrett G. Independent Cost Benefit Analysis of the Yuendumu Mediation and Justice Committee Alice Springs: Central Desert Regional Council. Http:// Dussart, Francoise The politics of ritual in an aboriginal settlement: kinship and the currency of knowledge, Washington D. C. Smithsonian Institution Press. Meggitt, Mervyn J. Desert people: A study of the Walpiri Aborigines of Central Australia, Angus & Robertson, London. Musharbash, Yasmine Yuendumu everyday: intimacy and mobility in a remote Aboriginal settlement, Canberra: Aboriginal Studies Press Musharbash, Yasmine "Yuendumu CDEP: The Warlpiri work ethic and Kardiya staff turnover", pp. 153 – 166 in F. Morphy and W. G. Sanders, The Indigenous Welfare Economy and the CDEP Scheme Research Monograph No. 21, Centre for Aboriginal Economic Policy Research, The Australian National University E Press O'Grady, Francis of Central Australia, Wentworth Books. Warlpiri Youth Development Aboriginal Corporation - Mt Theo Program PAW Media and Communications - Warlpiri Media Association Bush Mechanics Warlukurlangu Artists Aboriginal Association Yuendumu artists Yuendumu community council Yuendumu Magpies Football Club The Northern Myth

Jane Beetham Read

Jane Beetham Read was an English portrait painter who began by working in her mother, Isabella Beetham's studio painting silhouette portraits in the 1790s. She studied under John Opie and exhibited her works at the Royal Academy of Arts between 1794 and 1797. Jane Beetham was born about 1773 to Isabella Beetham, she was the granddaughter of William Betham of Little Strickland in England. Mary Matilda Betham was her cousin. Jane was the first of six children, her brother, William was born in 1774. Her other siblings were Harriet, Charles and Alfred; the Beethams first lived in Cow Lane, Clerkenwell and Little Queen Street, London. They moved to 26 and 27 Fleet Street in 1785, her mother operated a silhouette portrait studio and her father sold his patented washing machines in the buildings that housed their residence. Read painted portraits from the 1790s until 1815, she painted silhouettes on glass, for her mother from the early 1790s until 1797. Read's work was influenced by her mother's style and was framed in pearwood or papier-mache.

Her name appeared on the sixth of seven trade labels issued by Isabella's business. The sixth label was used in the 1790s. In the late 1790s, Jane developed her own business with her own trade label, she added ormolu frames as her career progressed. She was the only female student that he taught, he painted her portrait between 1790 and 1800. Using a painting made by Opie, Read painted a portrait of Dr. Priestly, they may have had a romantic relationship. It was a concern of her uncle, Rev. William Betham who warned Isabella about Jane and Opie spending too much time together, his comments soured William's relationship with the Beetham's. Opie's wife, the former Mary Bunn, ran off with another man and the Opies were divorced on 23 December 1796. Opie was adamantly rejected. Soon after, Jane married John Read; as she began painting miniature portraits, she developed her own personal style. She framed sitter's faces with dark foliage of landscaped backgrounds, she used a combination of techniques to depict bone structure, used stippling and hatching to capture the subject's features, used a combination of thick and thin paint brush strokes.

Her tools included two sizes of needles, for details, two sizes of brushes. Read created works using her own aquatint method. Read exhibited portraits at the Royal Academy of Arts for four consecutive years, from 1794 to 1797. A total of 15 paintings were shown, including Cordelia Angelica Read, A Lady Reading a Letter, Andromeda and King Lear and Cordelia, she married John Read, a solicitor from London around 1797 or in 1798. He was much older and eccentric, they lived on Lamb's Conduit Street. Jane's father died in 1809 and his estate was divided amongst her mother and the six Beetham children. John died in 1847. Jane and Cordelia, known as the "old sisters" for their eccentric behavior, lived together in Stamford Street, London; the house was suggested to be haunted, according to newspaper articles. Cordelia remained. Jane died in London on 16 January 1857. Upon her death in December 1871, Cordelia left her mother's pictures and a legacy of ₤100,000 to the Brompton Consumption Hospital, used to build an extension to the hospital.

A memorial slab was laid in her honor under a central window. The hospital received the Read's art collection which included a number of paintings by Opie and by Beetham. Cordelia had lived as if she was negligent in the care of material items. Many of the paintings needed to be refurbished and preserved, funded by selling off some of the paintings; the hospital kept the paintings that Opie painted of his mother and her sisters Cecelia and Harriet. They sold the painting of Admiral William Bligh's wife. Another ₤100,000 was given to a relative in accordance with Cordelia's will. Media related to Jane Beetham Read at Wikimedia Commons