click links in text for more info

New York State Route 59

New York State Route 59 is an east–west state highway in southern Rockland County, New York, in the United States. The route extends for 14.08 miles from NY 17 in Hillburn to U. S. Route 9W in Nyack. In Suffern, it has a concurrency with US 202 for 0.05 miles. NY 59 runs parallel to the New York State Thruway its entire route; the routing of NY 59 was signed as NY 59 in the late 1920s. When NY 59 was first assigned, it began at NY 17 in Suffern. A western bypass of Suffern was designated as New York State Route 339 c. 1932. NY 339 was reassigned to NY 17's former routing between Hillburn and Suffern, but it was replaced again c. 1937 by an extended NY 59. In the 1960s, proposals surfaced for the Spring Valley Bypass, a highway that would utilize the NY 59 corridor between NY 306 in Monsey and NY 45 in Spring Valley; the proposed highway was never built. NY 59 begins at an intersection with NY 17 in Hillburn, just south of the village of Sloatsburg in southern Rockland County, it heads to the southeast as the Korean War Veterans Memorial Highway, crossing over the Ramapo River and the Metro-North Railroad's Port Jervis Line before following both into Suffern.

The river leaves NY 59 just inside the village line. Just south of the I-87 overpass, NY 59 meets US 202 at Wayne Avenue. US 202 joins NY 59 for a one block wrong way concurrency along Orange Avenue—as NY 59 eastbound is paired with US 202 westbound and vice versa—during which time both routes cross a Norfolk Southern Railway line at-grade. At the end of the overlap, US 202 continues south along Orange Avenue to the New Jersey state line while NY 59 forks eastward toward central Rockland County; as NY 59 leaves Suffern and enters Airmont, it passes Good Samaritan Hospital, a major hospital in Rockland County. While in Airmont, NY 59 intersects County Route 89 and CR 85. After leaving Airmont, NY 59 proceeds east through Monsey, where it intersects the southern terminus of NY 306; as NY 59 passes Spring Valley High School, it enters the village limits of Spring Valley. While in Spring Valley, NY 59 has an overlap with CR 35A for about a tenth of a mile and meets the Thruway at exit 14, with a pair of park and ride lots located at the interchange.

The route continues eastward into Nanuet, where NY 59 passes through a heavy commercialized area, crossing under NJ Transit/Metro-North Railroad's Pascack Valley Line. Before its busy intersection with CR 33, NY 59 passes The Shops at Nanuet to its south and the Rockland Plaza to its north. Upon entering West Nyack, NY 59 intersects the Palisades Interstate Parkway and NY 304; the route proceeds onward, passing Palisades Center, one of the largest shopping malls in the country. After passing the Palisades Center, NY 59 enters Central Nyack. Here it connects to NY 303 by way of an interchange. Before hitting the Nyack village line, NY 59 has its final interchange with the Thruway; the southbound entrance to the Tappan Zee Bridge is via Mountainview Avenue, the northbound entrance is via Polhemus Street. At the Nyack line, NY 59 becomes known as Main Street; as Main Street, NY 59 runs under the Thruway one final time before the Thruway heads over the bridge. The route continues toward downtown Nyack.

Main Street continues for several blocks into downtown Nyack. NY 59 originated as the Nyack Turnpike, the first major thoroughfare in Rockland County. A petition was filed in 1813 to construct the turnpike. Legislation stemming from the petition was passed on April 1816, allowing construction to begin; the Nyack Turnpike was completed from Suffern to Nyack in the 1830s, despite many years of local opposition to the highway. Its charter was renewed multiple times throughout the 19th century, it was designated as a toll road to help pay for its upkeep. In 1894, the turnpike was absorbed into the Rockland County road system; the turnpike was turned over from the county to the state of New York on July 14, 1911, added to the state highway system as part of Route 39-b, an unsigned legislative route extending from Nyack to Harriman via modern NY 59 and NY 17. The Route 39-b designation was eliminated on March 1, 1921, as part of a partial renumbering of New York's legislative route system; when the first set of posted routes in New York were assigned in 1924, the portion of former Route 39-b between Suffern and Harriman became part of NY 17.

The remainder of the route from Nyack to Suffern was not given a number. The Suffern–Nyack highway remained unnumbered until the late 1920s when was designated as NY 59. At the time, NY 59 was routed on West Nyack Road between Central Nyack; the route was rendered unchanged in the 1930 renumbering of state highways in New York. A western bypass of Suffern was designated as NY 339 c. 1932. The north–south highway left NY 17 at the hamlet of Ramapo and followed the modern New York State Thruway and I-287 corridors south through Hillburn to the New Jersey state line. In the mid-1930s, the alignments of NY 17 and NY 339 south of Ramapo were swapped, placing NY 17 on the bypass and NY 339 on the Ramapo–Suffern route. In Suffern, NY 339 ended at a junction with US 202 just one block north of NY 59's western terminus. NY 339 was replaced by an extended NY 59 c. 1937. In the early 1950s, construction began on a bypass of West Nyack Road between West Nyack; the highway was completed c. 1955 and became part of a realigned NY 59.

The portion of NY 59's former routing that did not overlap

Jean-Pierre Lehmann

Jean-Pierre Lehmann was a Swiss economist, professor of international political economy at IMD and the founding director of The Evian Group at IMD. In August 2011, he was appointed senior fellow at the Fung Global Institute, a think-tank producing innovative thinking and research on global issues from Asian perspectives. Lehmann was born in Washington, D. C. on 29 August 1945. He spent most of his childhood and adolescence between Europe. In 1966 he obtained his bachelor's degree from Georgetown University's School of Foreign Service and subsequently he did his doctorate at Oxford University, where he was from 1967 to 1970. Lehmann's areas of special interest include globalisation, global governance and development, the role of business in reduction of poverty and inequality and the socio-economic and business dynamics of Asia, he acts in various leading capacities in a number of public policy institutes and organisations, as an adviser to governments and corporations, as a frequent commentator in the international media.

He is the author of several books and numerous articles and papers dealing with globalisation, modern East Asian history and East Asia and the international political economy. In 1995, Lehmann launched The Evian Group, an international coalition of corporate and opinion leaders, united by a common vision of enhancing global prosperity for the benefit of all by fostering an open and equitable global market economy in a rules-based multilateral framework; the Evian Group, based at IMD in Lausanne, has developed as a leading global voice on global trade and investment issues that acts as a forum for dialogue and a birthplace of ideas. Lehmann works with a number of international forums and think tanks, including the World Economic Forum where he is a member of two of its GACs, on Trade and on the Future of China. Prior to joining IMD, Lehmann's journalist and business careers encompassed activities in all Asian and Western European countries, as well as North America, he was founding director of the European Institute of Japanese Studies at the Stockholm School of Economics and Professor of East Asian Political Economy and Business.

He established and directed the East Asian operations of InterMatrix, a London-based business strategy research and consulting organization. During this time he was concurrently Affiliated Professor of International Business at the London Business School. Lehmann was associate professor of International Business at INSEAD, visiting professor at the Bologna Center of the Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies, twice visiting professor and Japan Foundation Fellow at the University of Tohoku, founding director of the Center for Japanese Studies at the University of Stirling, where he taught East Asian history, he directed the EC-ASEAN'Transfer of Technology and Socio-Economic Development Programs'. He died in Lausanne on 21 December 2017. Lehmann teaches both various electives in the IMD MBA program, he has been involved in annual MBA student project research field trips to Argentina, Bosnia-Herzegovina and South Africa. Professor Lehmann teaches in a number of IMD executive education programs, including OWP, LGE and EMBA.

He is a frequent contributor to IMD's Corporate Learning Network and will release a series of global leaders’ podcasts in early 2011. Lehmann writes articles on key issues of the day in journals and online publications; this includes diverse contributions to the IMD Tomorrow's Challenges series. He writes a monthly column for the Chinese language magazine China Entrepreneur. Many of his publications appear in YaleGlobal Online, The Globalist and Project Syndicate. Reflecting his PhD at Oxford's St Antony's College on Japanese economic history in the late Edo and earl Meiji eras, Lehmann has maintained his interest in Japan about which he has written several books, the most recent, in March 2009, was co-authored with John Haffner and Tomas Casas i Klett and is entitled Japan’s Open Future: An Agenda for Global Citizenship, he has edited with his son, Fabrice Lehmann, a work commissioned by the ICC Research Foundation, entitled World Peace and Prosperity Through World Trade – Achieving the 1919 Vision published by Cambridge University Press in October 2010.

The book is composed of individual short op-ed style chapters from 58 contributors from 26 different countries and from diverse professions and disciplines. Lehmann has been married for over 40 years to Françoise Lehmann née Domergue.

Nico Lauenstein

Nico Lauenstein is a German footballer who plays as a goalkeeper for SV Rot-Weiß Hörden. Lauenstein made his professional debut for Eintracht Braunschweig in the 3. Liga on 4 March 2009, coming on as a substitute in the 68th minute for Jasmin Fejzić in the 1–2 away loss against Rot-Weiß Erfurt. Profile at Profile at Eintracht Braunschweig II statistics at Goslarer SC statistics at MTV Wolfenbüttel statistics at SV Rot-Weiß Hörden statistics at

Ch√Ęteau de Chalmazel

The Château de Chalmazel, or Château des Talaru is a castle situated in the commune of Chalmazel, in the Loire département of France. It is located between the towns of Saint-Étienne and Thiers, its name in medieval times was Saint-Jehan-des-Neiges. The castle dominates the valley of the Lignon and it was built to be an impregnable fortress on the instructions of the Count of Forez. Construction of the fortress began in 1231; the work was carried out by seigneur Arnaud de Marcilly to the order of Guy IV du Forez who financed it. The site was covered by forest and inaccessible, it functioned rather as a fortified house, but it was transformed into a genuine medieval fortress, intended to counteract the ambitions of the powerful neighbours of the seigneurie of Couzan in the hands of the Damas family, linked to the Germanic emperor. The castle appeared gloomy and severe, with four round towers dominated by a square keep, with no openings on the sides; when Antoine de Marcilly died aged 25 with no direct heirs in 1371, the castle passed to his sister Béatrix, last of the Marcilly line.

She had married Mathieu de Talaru in 1364. Following the destruction of the Château de Marcilly, the Talarus withdrew to the castle at Chamazel and, in 1400, they built the ramparts, in the form of a pentagonal enceinte and added machicolations to the keep. After the incorporation of Forez into the Kingdom of France, the Talarus served the king in his armies. During the Renaissance, the Marquis de Talaru, returning from the Italian Wars, added Renaissance style embellishments: openwork facade, galleries to the inner court, painting in the chapel, sculptures, but the winters were harsh, from 1533, the Talarus preferred to live in their Château d'Écotay or in Saint-Marcel-de-Félines, acquired by marriage in 1559. Chalmazel began to be neglected. In the 18th century, the Talarus inherited by marriage the Château de Chamarande, near Arpajon, to the south of Paris, they moved there to be closer to Versailles where Louis de Talaru held important posts in the royal court and the army, they abandoned the castle in 1650.

The castle began a sure deterioration. In 1850, Louis-Justin, last Marquis of Talaru, 25th lord of Chalmazel, peer of France and ambassador, with no heirs, left the castle and the forest to the nuns of the Sœurs de Saint-Joseph, in order to establish a hospital for the canton for the care of the sick; the nuns carried out decoration. They transformed it into a boarding school for children from the school at Chamazel; the nuns left the castle in 1972 and rented it to the commune, on condition that it was maintained and opened to the public during the summer months. The castle is now owned by new proprietors who intend to open it to visitors and to create chambres d'hôtes; the castle, with its medieval aspect, has kept the elements of a fortified house from the year 1231, but with all of the modifications and additions by the Talarus over the centuries: murder-holes, keep, round walk with machicolations - but it has Renaissance elements: the facade, the inner courtyard and chapel. The castle is open to visitors from June to September.

It is possible to rent a suite. The Château de Chalmazel is listed as a monument historique by the French Ministry of Culture. List of castles in France Château de Chalmazel - official site Ministry of Culture database entry for Château de Chalmazel Ministry of Culture photo

Downfall (game show)

Downfall is an American television game show series in which contestants try to answer trivia questions and win up to $1 million while on the roof of a 10-story building in Downtown Los Angeles. The series, hosted by Chris Jericho, premiered on June 22, 2010, on ABC. In April 2010, ABC named Downfall to its summer schedule. Scheduled to debut on June 29, the premiere date was moved to June 22. Casting for the show took place in May, in June Chris Jericho was announced as host; the series given a six-episode order by ABC but reduced to five, is produced by FremantleMedia with Scott St. John as executive producer; the building used in the first season is near Seventh and Alameda streets in Los Angeles and it is owned by MerueloMaddux. On July 15, 2010, published an article claiming that after the fifth episode of Downfall aired on July 20, the remaining episode would be replaced with a two-hour Wipeout special. The same day, on his official Twitter page host Chris Jericho claimed that only five episodes of the show were produced due to editing, a faster pace and a shortage of contestants.

He stated that more episodes are scheduled to be filmed in the fall, but no recordings have occurred. It is now listed. Contestants stand on top of a 10-story building in Downtown Los Angeles and are joined by Jericho along with what is billed as the "largest conveyor belt seen on TV"; the belt holds replicas of prizes that the contestants may win. The game consists of up to seven timed rounds during which contestants attempt to answer category-based trivia questions as they watch their potential winnings move along the belt; each contestant picks one of nine categories and must answer the questions as as possible before the cash and prize replicas fall off the building and are destroyed. Most rounds feature three prizes each; the first prize is located one-quarter of the way down the belt, the second is at the halfway mark, the third is three-quarters of the way down, the cash held in a transparent display case. Contestants can answer a question as many times as they wish, are not able to move on to the next question until it is answered or the contestant chooses to pass.

Every time a question is passed, the belt gets faster. In addition, the starting speed of the belt increases as the contestant advances to rounds. If a contestant completes a round by answering the requisite number of questions before the cash prize falls off the belt, the contestant wins the cash plus any prizes still on the belt. If the contestant completes round 3, he or she is guaranteed $25,000 in cash, but prizes are always at risk. After each round, the contestant is given the choice of quitting and keeping the cash and prizes won, or risking it to continue to the next round. If the cash prize falls, the contestant loses and the game is over. In addition to losing any prizes won, the contestant is dropped from the building. In the final round, worth $1 million, the contestant is placed on the belt with the money and must answer all the questions before falling off the edge. A contestant who feels he or she cannot answer the remaining questions before all prizes fall may hit the "panic button" at the podium to reset the current round.

The contestant replays the level with a new category from the list. All non-cash prizes are forfeited if the contestant chooses to use the panic button if the prizes are not dropped before the button is pressed; the button may be used twice: once to allow the contestant to "surrender a personal possession" and once to get help from a friend or family member. When a contestant chooses to surrender a possession, an item of great importance to him or her is placed before the cash on the belt and, in order to salvage the item, the contestant must complete the round before the item falls; when help from a companion is desired, the partner is strapped into a safety harness and placed in front of the cash on the belt. The contestant's companion can help by shouting answers but all final answers must come from the contestant. If the companion falls, he or she can no longer be of use but the round continues until the cash falls. There is a short span of time between the companion going over the edge and the companion dropping.

During this time, the companion can still assist. All prizes salvaged up to that point in the game are won if the contestant chooses to walk away with the earned money. If the contestant fails, all non-cash prizes are lost; the chart below details the sequence of prize values for each round of the game. 1The credits state that the "million dollar prize is paid in either 40 annual installments or as net present value." Official website Downfall on IMDb

Republic New York

Republic New York Corporation was the holding company for Republic National Bank of New York Safra Republic Holdings Safra Republic BankThe company was controlled by billionaire Edmond Safra, killed in a fire in his Monte Carlo penthouse apartment by his nurse Ted Maher. Republic New York Corporation was sold shortly after its chairman's death to HSBC Bank USA, the US subsidiary of HSBC of the UK. Joseph Safra, the brother of Edmond Safra and owns independently the Safra Group of banks and financial institutions. 1966: Republic National Bank of New York is founded by Edmond Safra. Safra had opened the Trade Development Bank in Geneva, which acquired a 36% stake in Republic.1973: Republic New York Corporation was established as a one-bank holding company for Republic National Bank. 1974: Acquires Kings Lafayette Bank, which has 18 branches. 1975: Acquires American Swiss Credit Company, Ltd. part of Franklin National Bank. 1977: Opens Republic Factors Corporation. 1978: Opens Republic International Bank of New York in Miami, Florida.

1980: Republic is listed on the New York Stock Exchange. Opens Republic International Bank of New York in Los Angeles, California. 1983: Edmond Safra sells Trade Development Bank to American Express. Several years American Express tries to smear Safra, after he attempts to open a competing business. 1987: Acquires The Williamsburg Savings Bank. 1988: Edmond Safra organizes Safra Holdings S. A. in Geneva, 49% owned by Republic. 1990: Acquires Manhattan Savings Bank. 1992: Establishes Republic New York Securities Corporation. 1993: Acquires SafraCorp California and renames it Republic Bank California N. A. Acquires Bank Leumi of Canada. Acquires Mase Westpac Limited, a member of the London Gold Fixing. Acquires Citibank's World Banknote Services operations. 1995: Acquires Crossland Federal Savings Bank 1999: HSBC acquires Republic New York for US$9.8-billion.2001: Republic pleads guilty to fraud and agrees to restitution of $606 million in connection with cheating Japanese customers by its Republic New York Securities Corporation subsidiary.

Their partner at the time Martin Armstrong was spent 11 years in prison. 2015: Safra Group purchased Chiquita Brands International Safra Republic Holdings issued $250 million of 1,000 year bonds in 1997, at a time when there were "a number of 100-year bond issues by corporations." Republic National Bank of New York operated without the "Of New York" part of its full name though the name "Republic National Bank of" had at times been used elsewhere. When Republic was taken over by HSBC Bank USA, which had acquired the former Marine Midland Bank, the combination retained what Republic had achieved: "the third-biggest retail branch network in the New York region." Two competitive parts of their operation were "low-cost checking and free automated teller machine services."