Waverly Place is a narrow street, in the Greenwich Village section of the New York City borough of Manhattan, that runs from Bank Street to Broadway. Waverly changes direction roughly at its midpoint at Christopher Street, turning about 120 degrees from a street to a northwest/southeast street. At Christopher Street, the direction changes as well, from southbound to westbound. At the intersection where this occurs, Waverly branches into a Y. The two blocks which form the border of Washington Square Park – from MacDougal Street to Fifth Avenue. In the block from FIfth to University, there is a line of Greek Revival townhouses, sometimes called the Row. Some of the buildings at the Fifth Avenue end have retained their exterior facades, the street was named after Sir Walter Scotts novel Waverley in 1833, prior to that it was called Art Street. In the 1840s, New York Citys elite established Washington Square, far from the commercial environment of Lower Manhattan. Anchored by the mansion of William C, rhinelander at the center of Washington Square North, the Row of Greek Revival town houses on either side of Fifth Avenue presented the unified and dignified appearance of privilege.
When the center of New York City society moved north after the American Civil War, henry James, whose grandmother lived at 18 Washington Square North, depicted this nostalgic view in his 1880 tragicomedic novel, Washington Square. Today, the buildings all belong to New York University, the 1830s row house at 1–3 Washington Square North may be the most closely associated house in the city to a single artist. From 1913 until his death in May 1967, the artist Edward Hopper and his wife, lived in a studio on the buildings top floor. Chosen for its low rent and the belief that his hero. They decorated their rooms simply, with pieces of early American furniture, don Drapers bachelor pad is located on Waverly Place on Mad Men. The television series Wizards of Waverly Place is set there, one of the townhouses serves as the protagonists residence in the 2007 film I am Legend. List of places named for George Washington List of streets in Manhattan Waverly Place, A New York Songline – virtual walking tour
Preston Robert Tisch
Preston Robert Bob Tisch was an American businessman who was the chairman and—along with his brother Laurence Tisch—was part owner of the Loews Corporation. Tisch received a BA degree in economics from the University of Michigan in 1948, while in college Tisch was a member of Sigma Alpha Mu, a Jewish fraternity. On August 16,1986, he was appointed Postmaster General of the United States Postal Service, Tisch held the share until he died on November 15,2005 from brain cancer, Tischs death followed Maras death by three weeks. His share of the Giants passed to his son Steve, who co-owns the team with Maras son John, Bob began his career in business when he opened a hotel in 1946 with his brother, Larry. Bob was named president and Chief Operating Officer of Loews in 1968, Loews eventually diversified into fields such as insurance and natural gas. Tisch made substantial donations to his alma maters, leading to these institutions naming buildings, Tisch Hall, on the University of Michigan central campus, houses that universitys history department.
New York Universitys Tisch School of the Arts and NYU Medical Centers Tisch Hospital are named after Laurence A. nYUs Preston Robert Tisch Center for Hospitality and Sports Management was founded in 1995 and expanded in 1999 to meet the needs of a growing student population. In 1997, the Central Park Zoo opened the Tisch Childrens Zoo, given two months to live by his New York doctors, Tisch lived for 14 more months under care at Duke University Medical Center. In recognition of their efforts, the Tisch family donated $10 million to the Duke Brain Tumor Center which was renamed the Preston Robert Tisch Brain Tumor Center in October 2005. There is additionally a Preston R. Tisch Professorship in Judaic Studies, Tisch was a founding member of the Association for a Better New York, which took on the task of tackling city problems that had previously fallen to the city’s agencies. He additionally helped to found Citymeals on Wheels and personally served meals to the city’s elderly, there is a Tisch Center for the Arts at the 92Y in New York, and Tisch Galleries at the Metropolitan Museum of Arts.
Tisch founded the charity Take the Field, which raised $135 million in public, in 1948, he married Joan Hyman. They had three children, Steve Tisch is a producer who lives in Beverly Hills and he is the only Tisch child to leave the New York area and serves as the family’s point man in their shared ownership of the New York Giants. Jonathan Tisch is the face of the hotel division of Loews Corporation. In 1988, he married Laura Steinberg, the daughter of financier and insurance executive Saul Steinberg, in 2007, he married Lizzie Rudnick. Jonathan is an active Democratic Party fund-raiser and she is divorced from Donald Sussman, the founder of Paloma Partners, a hedge fund in Greenwich, Connecticut with $1. 5B under management. She founded the foundation, the Illumination Fund, dedicated to serving the children of New York City with an emphasis on arts education. Preston Robert Tisch at Find a Grave
Dance is a performance art form consisting of purposefully selected sequences of human movement. This movement has aesthetic and symbolic value, and is acknowledged as dance by performers and observers within a particular culture, Dance can be categorized and described by its choreography, by its repertoire of movements, or by its historical period or place of origin. Other forms of movement are sometimes said to have a dance-like quality, including martial arts, figure skating, synchronized swimming. Theatrical dance, called performance or concert dance, is intended primarily as a spectacle and it often tells a story, perhaps using mime and scenery, or else it may simply interpret the musical accompaniment, which is often specially composed. Examples are western ballet and modern dance, Classical Indian dance and Chinese and Japanese song, most classical forms are centred upon dance alone, but performance dance may appear in opera and other forms of musical theatre. Such dance seldom has any narrative, a group dance and a corps de ballet, a social partner dance and a pas de deux, differ profoundly.
Even a solo dance may be solely for the satisfaction of the dancer. On the other hand, some cultures lay down strict rules as to the dances in which, for example. Archeological evidence for early dance includes 9, 000-year-old paintings in India at the Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka and it has been proposed that before the invention of written languages, dance was an important part of the oral and performance methods of passing stories down from generation to generation. The use of dance in trance states and healing rituals is thought to have been another early factor in the social development of dance. References to dance can be found in very early recorded history, Greek dance is referred to by Plato, Plutarch, the Bible and Talmud refer to many events related to dance, and contain over 30 different dance terms. In Chinese pottery as early as the Neolithic period, groups of people are depicted dancing in a line holding hands, Dance is further described in the Lüshi Chunqiu. Primitive dance in ancient China was associated with sorcery and shamanic rituals, during the first millennium BCE in India, many texts were composed which attempted to codify aspects of daily life.
Bharata Munis Natyashastra is one of the earlier texts and it mainly deals with drama, in which dance plays an important part in Indian culture. It categorizes dance into four types - secular, abstract, the text elaborates various hand-gestures and classifies movements of the various limbs, steps and so on. A strong continuous tradition of dance has since continued in India, through to modern times, where it continues to play a role in culture, and, the Bollywood entertainment industry. Many other contemporary dance forms can likewise be traced back to historical, ceremonial, Dance is generally, though not exclusively, performed with the accompaniment of music and may or may not be performed in time to such music. Some dance may provide its own audible accompaniment in place of music, many early forms of music and dance were created for each other and are frequently performed together
Cinema of the United States
The cinema of the United States, often metonymously referred to as Hollywood, has had a profound effect on cinema across the world since the early 20th century. The dominant style of American cinema is Classical Hollywood Cinema, which developed from 1917-1960, while the French Lumière Brothers are generally credited with the birth of modern cinema, it is American cinema that soon became the most dominant force in an emerging industry. Since the 1920s, the American film industry has grossed more money every year than that of any other country, in 1878, Eadweard Muybridge demonstrated the power of photography to capture motion. In 1894, the worlds first commercial motion picture exhibition was given in New York City, the United States was in the forefront of sound film development in the following decades. Since the early 20th century, the U. S. film industry has largely been based in and around Hollywood, Los Angeles, director D. W. Griffith was central to the development of film grammar. Orson Welless Citizen Kane is frequently cited in critics polls as the greatest film of all time.
T, the Extra-Terrestrial, Jurassic Park, Avatar, The Avengers, Furious 7, Jurassic World, and Star Wars, The Force Awakens. Today, American film studios collectively generate several hundred movies every year, muybridges accomplishment led inventors everywhere to attempt to make similar devices that would capture such motion. In the United States, Thomas Edison was among the first to produce such a device, the history of cinema in the United States can trace its roots to the East Coast where, at one time, Fort Lee, New Jersey was the motion picture capital of America. The industry got its start at the end of the 19th century with the construction of Thomas Edisons Black Maria, in 1909, a forerunner of Universal Studios, the Champion Film Company, built the first studio. They were quickly followed by others who either built new studios or who leased facilities in Fort Lee, such notables as Mary Pickford got their start at Biograph Studios. In New York, the Kaufman Astoria Studios in Queens, was built during the silent film era, was used by the Marx Brothers, the Edison Studios were located in the Bronx.
Chelsea, Manhattan was frequently used, other major centers of film production included Chicago, Texas and Cuba. The film patents wars of the early 20th century led to the spread of film companies across the U. S and they started filming on a vacant lot near Georgia Street in downtown Los Angeles. While there, the decided to explore new territories, traveling several miles north to Hollywood. Griffith filmed the first movie shot in Hollywood, In Old California, a Biograph melodrama about California in the 19th century. Griffith stayed there for months and made several films before returning to New York, after hearing about Griffiths success in Hollywood, in 1913, many movie-makers headed west to avoid the fees imposed by Thomas Edison, who owned patents on the movie-making process. Nestor Studios of Bayonne, New Jersey, built the first studio in Hollywood in 1911, Californias more hospitable and cost-effective climate led to the eventual shift of virtually all filmmaking to the West Coast by the 1930s.
In Los Angeles, the studios and Hollywood grew, before World War I, movies were made in several U. S. cities, but filmmakers gravitated to southern California as the industry developed
The various category winners are awarded a copy of a golden statuette, officially called the Academy Award of Merit, which has become commonly known by its nickname Oscar. The awards, first presented in 1929 at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel, are overseen by AMPAS, the awards ceremony was first broadcast on radio in 1930 and televised for the first time in 1953. It is now live in more than 200 countries and can be streamed live online. The Academy Awards ceremony is the oldest worldwide entertainment awards ceremony and its equivalents – the Emmy Awards for television, the Tony Awards for theater, and the Grammy Awards for music and recording – are modeled after the Academy Awards. The 89th Academy Awards ceremony, honoring the best films of 2016, were held on February 26,2017, at the Dolby Theatre, in Los Angeles, the ceremony was hosted by Jimmy Kimmel and was broadcast on ABC. A total of 3,048 Oscars have been awarded from the inception of the award through the 88th, the first Academy Awards presentation was held on May 16,1929, at a private dinner function at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel with an audience of about 270 people.
The post-awards party was held at the Mayfair Hotel, the cost of guest tickets for that nights ceremony was $5. Fifteen statuettes were awarded, honoring artists and other participants in the industry of the time. The ceremony ran for 15 minutes, winners were announced to media three months earlier, that was changed for the second ceremony in 1930. Since then, for the rest of the first decade, the results were given to newspapers for publication at 11,00 pm on the night of the awards. The first Best Actor awarded was Emil Jannings, for his performances in The Last Command and he had to return to Europe before the ceremony, so the Academy agreed to give him the prize earlier, this made him the first Academy Award winner in history. With the fourth ceremony, the system changed, for the first six ceremonies, the eligibility period spanned two calendar years. At the 29th ceremony, held on March 27,1957, until then, foreign-language films had been honored with the Special Achievement Award. The 74th Academy Awards, held in 2002, presented the first Academy Award for Best Animated Feature, since 1973, all Academy Awards ceremonies always end with the Academy Award for Best Picture.
The Academy awards Nicholl Fellowships in Screenwriting, see § Awards of Merit categories The best known award is the Academy Award of Merit, more popularly known as the Oscar statuette. The five spokes represent the branches of the Academy, Writers, Producers. The model for the statuette is said to be Mexican actor Emilio El Indio Fernández, sculptor George Stanley sculpted Cedric Gibbons design. The statuettes presented at the ceremonies were gold-plated solid bronze
Doctor of Philosophy
A Doctor of Philosophy is a type of doctoral degree awarded by universities in many countries. Ph. D. s are awarded for a range of programs in the sciences, engineering. The Ph. D. is a degree in many fields. The completion of a Ph. D. is often a requirement for employment as a university professor, individuals with an earned doctorate can use the title of Doctor with their name and use the post-nominal letters Ph. D. The requirements to earn a Ph. D. degree vary considerably according to the country, institution, a person who attains a doctorate of philosophy is automatically awarded the academic title of doctor. A student attaining this level may be granted a Candidate of Philosophy degree at some institutions. A Ph. D. candidate must submit a project, thesis or dissertation often consisting of a body of academic research. In many countries, a candidate must defend this work before a panel of examiners appointed by the university. Universities award other types of doctorates besides the Ph. D.
such as the Doctor of Musical Arts, a degree for music performers and the Doctor of Education, in 2016, ELIA launched The Florence Principles on the Doctorate in the Arts. The Florence Principles have been endorsed are supported by AEC, CILECT, CUMULUS, the degree is abbreviated PhD, from the Latin Philosophiae Doctor, pronounced as three separate letters. In the universities of Medieval Europe, study was organized in four faculties, the faculty of arts. All of these faculties awarded intermediate degrees and final degrees, the doctorates in the higher faculties were quite different from the current Ph. D. degree in that they were awarded for advanced scholarship, not original research. No dissertation or original work was required, only lengthy residency requirements, besides these degrees, there was the licentiate. According to Keith Allan Noble, the first doctoral degree was awarded in medieval Paris around 1150, the doctorate of philosophy developed in Germany as the terminal Teachers credential in the 17th century.
Typically, upon completion, the candidate undergoes an oral examination, always public, starting in 2016, in Ukraine Doctor of Philosophy is the highest education level and the first science degree. PhD is awarded in recognition of a contribution to scientific knowledge. A PhD degree is a prerequisite for heading a university department in Ukraine, upon completion of a PhD, a PhD holder can elect to continue his studies and get a post-doctoral degree called Doctor of Sciences, which is the second and the highest science degree in Ukraine. Scandinavian countries were among the early adopters of a known as a doctorate of philosophy
Variety is a weekly American entertainment trade magazine and website owned by Penske Media Corporation. The last daily printed edition was put out on March 19,2013, Variety originally reported on theater and vaudeville. Variety has been published since December 16,1905, when it was launched by Sime Silverman as a weekly periodical covering vaudeville with its headquarters in New York City, on January 19,1907, Variety published what is considered the first film review in history. In 1933, Sime Silverman launched Daily Variety, based in Hollywood, Sime Silverman had passed on the editorship of the Weekly Variety to Abel Green as his replacement in 1931, he remained as publisher until his death in 1933 soon after launching the Daily. His son Sidne Silverman, known as Skigie, succeeded him as publisher of both publications, both Sidne and his wife, stage actress Marie Saxon, died of tuberculosis. Their only son Syd Silverman, born 1932, was the heir to what was Variety Inc. Young Syds legal guardian Harold Erichs oversaw Variety Inc.
until 1956, after that date Syd Silverman was publisher of both the Weekly Variety in New York and the Daily Variety in Hollywood, until the sale of both papers in 1987 to the Cahners Corp. In L. A. the Daily was edited by Tom Pryor from 1959 until 1988, for twenty years its editor-in-chief was Peter Bart, originally only of the weekly New York edition, with Michael Silverman running the Daily in Hollywood. Bart had worked previously at Paramount Pictures and The New York Times, in April 2009, Bart moved to the position of vice president and editorial director, characterized online as Boffo No More, Bart Up and Out at Variety. From mid 2009 to 2013, Timothy M. Gray oversaw the publication as Editor-in-Chief, after over 30 years of various reporter, in October 2014, Eller and Wallenstein were upped to Co-Editors in Chief, with Littleton continuing to oversee the trades television coverage. This dissemination comes in the form of columns, news stories, video, Cahners Publishing purchased Variety from the Silverman family in 1987.
On December 7,1988, Barts predecessor, Roger Watkins, upon its launch, the new-look Variety measured one inch shorter with a washed-out color on the front. In October 2012, Reed Business Information, the periodicals owner, PMC is the owner of Deadline. com, which since the 2007–2008 Writers Guild of America strike has been considered Varietys largest competitor in online showbiz news. In October,2012, Jay Penske announced that the paywall would come down, the print publication would stay. A significant portion of the advertising revenue comes during the film-award season leading up to the Academy Awards. During this Awards Season, large numbers of colorful, full-page For Your Consideration advertisements inflate the size of Variety to double or triple its usual page count, paid circulation for the weekly Variety magazine in 2013 was 40,000. Each copy of each Variety issue is read by an average of three people, with a total readership of 120,000. Variety. com has 17 million unique monthly visitors, Variety is a weekly entertainment publication with a broad coverage of movies, theater and technology, written for entertainment executives
Along with Londons West End theatres, Broadway theatres are widely considered to represent the highest level of commercial theatre in the English-speaking world. The Theater District is a popular tourist attraction in New York City, the great majority of Broadway shows are musicals. They presented Shakespeare plays and ballad operas such as The Beggars Opera, in 1752, William Hallam sent a company of twelve actors from Britain to the colonies with his brother Lewis as their manager. They established a theatre in Williamsburg and opened with The Merchant of Venice, the company moved to New York in the summer of 1753, performing ballad operas and ballad-farces like Damon and Phillida. The Revolutionary War suspended theatre in New York, but thereafter theatre resumed in 1798, the Bowery Theatre opened in 1826, followed by others. Blackface minstrel shows, a distinctly American form of entertainment, became popular in the 1830s, by the 1840s, P. T. Barnum was operating an entertainment complex in lower Manhattan.
In 1829, at Broadway and Prince Street, Niblos Garden opened, the 3, 000-seat theatre presented all sorts of musical and non-musical entertainments. In 1844, Palmos Opera House opened and presented opera for four seasons before bankruptcy led to its rebranding as a venue for plays under the name Burtons Theatre. The Astor Opera House opened in 1847, booth played the role for a famous 100 consecutive performances at the Winter Garden Theatre in 1865, and would revive the role at his own Booths Theatre. Other renowned Shakespeareans who appeared in New York in this era were Henry Irving, Tommaso Salvini, Fanny Davenport, lydia Thompson came to America in 1868 heading a small theatrical troupe, adapting popular English burlesques for middle-class New York audiences. Thompsons troupe called the British Blondes, was the most popular entertainment in New York during the 1868–1869 theatrical season, the six-month tour ran for almost six extremely profitable years. Theatre in New York moved from downtown gradually to midtown beginning around 1850, in 1870, the heart of Broadway was in Union Square, and by the end of the century, many theatres were near Madison Square.
Broadways first long-run musical was a 50-performance hit called The Elves in 1857, New York runs continued to lag far behind those in London, but Laura Keenes musical burletta The Seven Sisters shattered previous New York records with a run of 253 performances. It was at a performance by Keenes troupe of Our American Cousin in Washington, the production was a staggering five-and-a-half hours long, but despite its length, it ran for a record-breaking 474 performances. The same year, The Black Domino/Between You, Me and the Post was the first show to call itself a musical comedy, Tony Pastor opened the first vaudeville theatre one block east of Union Square in 1881, where Lillian Russell performed. Comedians Edward Harrigan and Tony Hart produced and starred in musicals on Broadway between 1878 and 1890, with book and lyrics by Harrigan and music by his father-in-law David Braham. They starred high quality singers, instead of the women of repute who had starred in earlier musical forms. Plays could run longer and still draw in the audiences, leading to better profits, as in England, during the latter half of the century, the theatre began to be cleaned up, with less prostitution hindering the attendance of the theatre by women
David Oppenheim (clarinetist)
David Jerome Oppenheim was an American clarinetist, and classical music and television producer. Oppenheim directed the Masterworks division of Columbia Records from 1950 to 1959, during this time he worked with numerous notable figures in the music world including Igor Stravinsky, with whom he formed a friendship, producing for him. In the 1960s, he worked for the production company Robert Saudek Associates. His 1964 documentary about cellist Pablo Casals, Casals at 88, dean of the New York University School of the Arts from 1969 to 1991, in 1985, he was the principal architect of the Tisch School of the Arts. One of his achievements was developing the NYU arts programs into a major institution with courses offered in photography, musical theater, dramatic acting. Oppenheim was born in Detroit in 1922 to Louis Oppenheim and Julia Nurko Oppenheim and his father owned a department store. He had one sibling, a brother, Stanley, at the age of 13, upon the death of his father, he and his family relocated to New York City, where he spent most of his life.
He began playing the clarinet after this move and by age 20 was considered to be an accomplished player and he attended Juilliard and graduated from the Eastman School of Music in 1943. During World War II he served as an anti-tank gunner, david Diamonds Quintet for clarinet,2 violas and 2 cellos was written for Oppenheim and was first performed in 1952. Throughout the 1950s, Oppenheim directed the Masterworks division of Columbia Records and he recorded Leonard Bernsteins Clarinet Sonata, overseen by Aaron Copland. Also in 1955, he worked with Stravinsky who conducted his Story of a Soldier, the two became friends, and Oppenheim produced several of his works and documentaries. In the 1960s, he worked for the production company under Robert Saudek, and helped produce Leonard Bernstein. He produced the Omnibus TV series, and worked as a writer and producer for CBS from 1962 until 1967, in 1964, Oppenheim wrote and directed Casals at 88, a documentary about the cellist, which garnered the Prix Italia.
Oppenheim became the dean of the NYU School of the Arts. Under his tenure, the school expanded from four departments to 16, in 1985 he obtained a $7.5 million grant from the Tisch brothers and Preston, which helped centralize the school in one location, a 12-story building at 721 Broadway. Oppenheim was the architect on the renovation project. His first marriage was to actress Judy Holliday, from 1948 to 1957 and they had a son, who became a film editor whose work includes Paris Is Burning, Children Underground, and Arguing the World. Oppenheims second marriage was to Ellen Adler, daughter of Stella Adler and they had a daughter, and a son, who became president and artistic director of Stella Adler Studio of Acting
Republic Polytechnic is a tertiary institution located in Singapore. It was the first school system in Singapore to use Problem-based learning pedagogy for all its diploma programmes, as an industry-oriented alternative to a broader based high school education, polytechnic graduates in Singapore are sought after for work or many continue to complete university degrees. In contrast to polytechnics in the United States and UK, polytechnics in Singapore admit majority of their students after middle school, diplomas in a specialized area of study, for example Biomedical Science, are awarded after completing 3 years of studies. RPs project team began operating in the premises of Data Storage Institute, on 1 July 2002, it shifted into Tanglin Campus which was previously occupied by the Ministry of Education, Singapore. It opened its doors to the first intake of students in 2003 before moving to the current Woodlands campus in 2007, on 31 July 2007, RPs Woodlands campus was officially opened by Singapores Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong.
The campus was designed by Japanese architect, Fumihiko Maki and DP Architects, completed in 2006, the new campus is able to cater 13,000 students. It is conceived as a campus with a nucleus which contains 11 learning Pods which are unified by 2 elliptical decks of common facilities, namely The Lawn. Also known as a Paperless Campus, RPs Woodlands campus is backed by IT-supported network for both academic and administrative functions and it employs state-of-the-art technology, through its solid wireless IT infrastructure supported by a comprehensive hardware-software system. In line with its approach, environmentally friendly features such as fritted glasses, flooring made from recycled nylon and tyres. Replacing the conventional air-conditioning system, the campus is equipped with tanks containing chilled water and this significantly reduces overall electric consumption. In 2008, RP earned the ASEAN Best Practices for Energy Efficient Buildings Competition under the New, while in November 2009, RP was awarded the Green Office Label under Project Eco-Office by the Singapore Environment Council.
The Green Office Label reaffirms RP as a friendly work place. RP was honoured with the President*s Design Award in 2010, the campus was the first to win the First-ever Singapore Green Mark Plantinum award for its eco friendly design. RP partners with local and overseas universities for advanced standing arrangements for its diploma programmes, graduates who are interested in continuing their education overseas typically can obtain up to 1.0 -1.5 years exemptions from a degree programme. In line with Singapore’s SkillsFuture movement, it provides learners with opportunities to new skills to remain employable. These part-time programmes - short courses and certificates offered by the Academy of Continuing Education – allow learners to stay relevant in the current knowledge-based global economy. Students are given problem statements in class, which are presented in real world contexts related to their modules or their diploma programmes. Working in teams, students will explore and develop a solution or a response to the problem statement, RP regularly review the breadth and depth of its curriculum to keep abreast of industry developments
Game design is the art of applying design and aesthetics to create a game to facilitate interaction between players for entertainment or for educational, exercise, or experimental purposes. Game design can be applied both to games and, increasingly, to interactions, particularly virtual ones. Academically, game design is part of studies, while game theory studies strategic decision making. Games have historically inspired seminal research in the fields of probability, artificial intelligence, applying game design to itself is a current research topic in metadesign. Sports and board games are known, respectively, to have existed for at least nine thousand, six thousand, and four thousand years. Tabletop games played today whose descent can be traced from ancient times include chess, go, backgammon, mancala, the rules of these games were not codified until early modern times and their features gradually evolved and changed over time, through the folk process. Given this, these games are not considered to have had a designer or been the result of a process in the modern sense.
For example, the public domain games Generala, Yacht. Today, many games, such as Taboo, Pictionary. Adapting traditional games to become commercial properties is an example of game design, many sports, such as soccer and baseball, are the result of folk processes, while others were designed, such as basketball, invented in 1891 by James Naismith. Technological advances have provided new media for games throughout history, the printing press allowed packs of playing cards, adapted from Mahjong tiles, to be mass-produced, leading to many new card games. Accurate topographic maps produced as lithographs and provided free to Prussian officers helped popularize wargaming, cheap bookbinding led to mass-produced board games with custom boards. Inexpensive lead figurine casting contributed to the development of miniature wargaming, cheap custom dice led to poker dice. Flying discs led to disc golf and Ultimate, personal computers contributed to the popularity of computer games, leading to the wide availability of video game consoles and video games.
Smart phones have led to a proliferation of mobile games, the first games in a new medium are frequently adaptations of older games. Pong, one of the first widely disseminated video games, adapted table tennis, games will often exploit distinctive properties of a new medium. Adapting older games and creating original games for new media are both examples of game design, Game studies or gaming theory is a discipline that deals with the critical study of games, game design and their role in society and culture. Prior to the century, the academic study of games was rare and limited to fields such as history