Thomas A. Scott
Thomas Alexander Scott was an American businessman, railroad executive, industrialist. President Abraham Lincoln in 1861 appointed him the U. S. Assistant Secretary of War, during the American Civil War railroads under his leadership played a major role in the war effort, he became the fourth president of the Pennsylvania Railroad, which became the largest publicly traded corporation in the world and received much criticism for his conduct in the Great Railway Strike of 1877 and as a "robber baron." Scott helped negotiate the Republican Party's Compromise of 1877 with the Democratic Party. In his final years, Scott made large donations to the University of Pennsylvania. Scott was born on December 23, 1823 in Peters Township near Fort Loudoun, in Franklin County, Pennsylvania, he was the 7th of eleven children. Scott joined the Pennsylvania Railroad in 1850 as a station agent, by 1858 was general superintendent. Scott had been recommended for promotion by Herman Haupt and took a special interest in mentoring aspiring railroad employees, such as Andrew Carnegie.
The 1846 state charter to the Pennsylvania Railroad diffused power within the company, by giving executive authority to a committee responsible to stockholders, not to individuals. By the 1870s, officers directed by J. Edgar Thomson and Scott had centralized power. Historians have explained the successful partnership of Thomas Scott and J. Edgar Thomson by the melding of their opposing personality traits: Thomson was the engineer, cool and introverted. In addition, they had common experiences and values, agreement on the importance of financial success, the financial stability of the Pennsylvania Railroad throughout their partnership, J. Edgar Thomson's paternalism. By 1860, when Scott became the first Vice President of the Pennsylvania Railroad, it had expanded from a company of railway lines within Pennsylvania through the 1840s and 1850s, to a transportation empire. At the outbreak of the American Civil War, Pennsylvania Governor Andrew Curtin called on Scott for his extensive knowledge of the rail and transportation systems of the state.
In May 1861, Scott received a commission as Colonel of Volunteers and placed in command of railroad and telegraph lines used by the Union armies. His friend, Secretary of War Simon Cameron in August 1861 appointed him Assistant Secretary of War, gave him responsibility for building railroad through Washington D. C. to connect the Alexandria Railroad with northern railroads. Scott advised creating transportation an telegraph bureaus and arranging draft exemptions for experienced civilian mechanics and locomotive engineers, for needed military railroad operations were compromised by the losss of experienced railroad men; the next year, despite Cameron's replacement by Edwin M. Stanton, Scott helped organize the Loyal War Governors' Conference in Altoona, Pennsylvania. On, Scott took on the task of equipping a substantial military force for the Union war effort, he assumed supervision of other transportation lines. He made the movement of supplies and troops more efficient and effective for the war effort on behalf of the Union.
In one instance, he engineered the movement of 25,000 troops in 24 hours from Nashville, Tennessee, to Chattanooga, turning the tide of battle to a Union victory. Scott advised President Lincoln to travel covertly by rail to avoid Confederate spies and assassins. During the American Reconstruction in the aftermath of the Civil War, the Southern states needed their economy and infrastructure restored, more investment in railroads, they had lagged behind the North in railroad miles. The Northern-based railroads competed to construct rail lines in the South. Federal assistance was sought by both special interest groups, but the Crédit Mobilier of America scandal made this difficult in 1872. Congress became unwilling to grant railroad companies land grants in the Southwestern United States. Mindful of the corruption allegations which had dogged his friend Cameron, Scott was notoriously secretive about his business dealings, conducting most of his business in private letters, instructing his business partners to destroy them after they were read.
After the Civil War, Scott was involved in investments in the fast-growing trans-Mississippi River route into Texas, with long-term plans for a southern transcontinental railway line connecting the Southern states and California. From 1871 to 1872, Scott was the president of the Union Pacific Railroad the first transcontinental railroad owner, he was the president of the Pennsylvania Railroad from 1874, upon the death of his partner Thomson, until 1880. The financial Panic of 1873 and subsequent economic depression made it impossible to finance Scott’s southern transcontinental railroad plans. In his "Scott Plan" of the 1870s, Scott proposed that the Democratic Southern politicians would give their votes in Congress and state legislatures for federal government subsidies to various infrastructure improvements, including in particular the Texas and Pacific Railway, which Scott headed. Scott employed the expertise of Grenville Dodge in buying the support of newspaper editors as well as various politicians i
Joseph Deems Taylor was an American composer, music critic, promoter of classical music. Nat Benchley, co-editor of The Lost Algonquin Roundtable, referred to him as "the dean of American music." Deems Taylor was born in New York City to Katherine Taylor. He attended New York University. Taylor married three times, his first wife was Jane Anderson. They married in 1910, but divorced in 1918. In 1921, he married Mary Kennedy, an actress and a writer, they had a daughter, Joan Kennedy Taylor, in 1926, divorced in 1934. Taylor married his third and final wife, costume designer Lucille Watson-Little, in 1945, they divorced eight years later. Taylor planned to become an architect; the result voices. In 1916 he wrote the cantata The Chambered Nautilus, followed by Through the Looking-Glass in 1918, earning him public praise and recognition. In 1921 Taylor secured a job as music critic for the New York World, a post he held when approached by the Metropolitan Opera to suggest a composer to write a new opera.
He put forth his own name, was accepted, the result being The King's Henchman, with the libretto by Edna St. Vincent Millay. Peter Ibbetson followed in 1929. Taylor's compositions were met with great initial enthusiasm; the number of Metropolitan Opera performances for The King’s Henchman and Peter Ibbetson is greater than any opera of any other American composer, he had as many large-scale works published as any of his American-born contemporaries. Taylor's music is witty, always deftly formed, well-timed, entertaining; the basic style of his works is academically post-Romantic, resisting any influence of progressive trends except in orchestration. This conservatism, lacking sharp individual profile or sense of deep conviction, may help to explain the initial enthusiastic acceptance of Taylor’s work but may explain the fact that his music was forgotten soon afterward. Taylor was a promoter of classical music throughout his life, his journalism career included posts as music critic for the New York World beginning in 1921, editor of Musical America from 1927 to 1929.
Taylor worked extensively in broadcasting, as intermission commentator for the New York Philharmonic. He appeared in Walt Disney's 1940 film Fantasia as the film's Master of Ceremonies, was instrumental in selecting the musical pieces that were used in the film, including the then-controversial Sacre du Printemps. In the long-unseen roadshow version of Fantasia, issued on DVD in 2000, re-released on the 2010 Fantasia/Fantasia 2000 Blu-ray release, all of Taylor's voice-over work was dubbed by veteran voice artist Corey Burton; the complete film was 124 minutes long, due entirely to the fact that Taylor's commentaries were more detailed in the roadshow version, but the original audio elements for these longer commentaries had deteriorated to the point that they could no longer be used, so Corey Burton was selected to re-record all of the dialogue for consistency. The general release version of Fantasia, running 115 minutes, is the version most audiences are familiar with. In that version, Taylor's commentaries were abridged.
The same year, 1940, he served the same role as Master of Ceremonies for the classical portion of a "Carousel of American Music", a famous concert series held in San Francisco on September 24. The concert had Irving Berlin, George M. Cohan, Jerome Kern, Hoagy Carmichael, WC Handy, Johnny Mercer - and many more of America's top songwriting talents performing their own compositions; the recording was added to the National Recording Registry in 2016. He provided the commentary of the technical story behind the recording of actual cannon fire and carillon for the famous 1954 Mercury Records album, by Antal Dorati and the Minneapolis Symphony Orchestra, of Tchaikovsky's 1812 Overture—still one of the most regarded recordings of that piece, the best-selling classical LP of the 1950s. Taylor recorded commentary for other Mercury recordings: Benjamin Britten's The Young Person's Guide to the Orchestra, he was a frequent guest on the radio quiz program Information Please. Taylor's work as a broadcaster and commentator overshadowed his work as a composer.
He narrated several television music series and documentaries. In the early 1950s, he was a repeat panelist on the NBC game show, Who Said That?, he was a repeat panelist on What's My Line?. Taylor was a friend of the Algonquin Round Table, a group of writers and critics that met daily from 1919-1929 at Manhattan's Algonquin Hotel, he dated Dorothy Parker. In the 1994 film Mrs. Parker and the Vicious Circle, Taylor was portrayed by the actor James LeGros. Taylor's other personal friendships ranged from composers George Gershwin and Jerome Kern to novelists F. Scott Fitzgerald and Ayn Rand. Taylor was the third president of ASCAP, held the post for six years; the ASCAP Deems Taylor Awards were established in 1967 to honor his memory. The Deems Taylor Award "recognizes books, articles and websites on the subject of music selected for their excellence." Pegolotti, James A. Deems Taylor: A Biography. Boston: Northeastern University Press. ISBN 1-55553-587-9. Stevenson, Robert. "Taylor, (
Charles E. Chapin was a New York newspaper editor, he was convicted of the murder of his wife and sentenced to a 20-year-to-life term in Sing Sing prison. Chapin was born in upstate Watertown, New York and began his career on a Kansas newspaper, aged 14, moving to Chicago to work for the Tribune, where he gained renown as a crime reporter, he excelled sufficiently to be hired in 1898 by the World, a New York daily, run by the Pulitzer family, which enjoyed one of the largest circulations in the country. Chapin was renowned as a hard taskmaster, he is said to have fired a total of 108 journalists during his tenure - one of them for daring to use the new-fangled word "questionnaire". Among his victims was his own publisher's son. Many newspapermen considered Chapin to be "the greatest city editor who lived"; those who worked for him, however hated him. When Irvin S. Cobb, the well-known World reporter, heard that his editor was sick, he is said to have looked up from his work and remarked, "I hope it’s nothing trivial."
According to Andy Logan, a noted correspondent to The New Yorker, Chapin was "terrible tempered" and in the opinion of many of his staff had "a legendary imperviousness to human suffering theirs." One of Chapin's most celebrated coups was the publication of a photograph captured by an Evening World photographer showing the moment when New York mayor William Jay Gaynor was shot by a would-be assassin. William Warnecke, the photographer, lining up a portrait of the mayor, snapped the shutter just as Gaynor crumpled to the ground, and exclusive, too!" Chapin's career in New York newspapers came to an end in September 1918 when, dogged by illness and debt, concerned for his fragile wife of 38 years, he shot and killed his spouse while she was sleeping. News of the shooting shocked many of the newsman's colleagues. "They had known he would be involved in a murder some day," Logan writes, "but had always assumed he would be the victim." Although he had intended to commit suicide himself following the murder, the famous editor was instead arrested, convicted of the shooting, sent to Sing Sing prison for a term of 20 years to life.
There he wrote a memoir and became renowned for the rose garden he cultivated in the grounds, acquiring the nickname of "The Rose Man." Chapin edited the prison newspaper at Sing Sing for a short time. He died in Sing Sing on December 13, 1930. Logan, Andy. Against the Evidence: The Becker-Rosenthal Affair. New York: McCall Publishing Company. ISBN 0-8415-0025-8. Morris, James McGrath; the Rose Man of Sing Sing: A True Tale of Life and Redemption in the Age of Yellow Journalism. New York: Fordham University Press. ISBN 0-8232-2267-5 The Rose Man at www.correctionhistory.org Correctionhistory.com article on Chapin's relationship with Sing Sing warden Lewis Lawes Text of the first chapter of McGrath's Chapin biography AmericanHeritage.com / CHARLES CHAPIN at www.americanheritage.com Biography of Chapin from American Heritage PBS Newshour interview with James Morris, author of "The Rose Man of Sing Sing"
Yellow journalism and the yellow press are American terms for journalism and associated newspapers that present little or no legitimate well-researched news while instead using eye-catching headlines for increased sales. Techniques may include exaggerations of scandal-mongering, or sensationalism. By extension, the term yellow journalism is used today as a pejorative to decry any journalism that treats news in an unprofessional or unethical fashion. In English, the term is chiefly used in the US. In the UK, a equivalent term is tabloid journalism, meaning journalism characteristic of tabloid newspapers if found elsewhere. Other languages, e.g. Russian, sometimes have terms derived from the American term. A common source of such writing is called checkbook journalism, the controversial practice of news reporters paying sources for their information without verifying its truth or accuracy. In the U. S. it is considered unethical, with most mainstream newspapers and news shows having a policy forbidding it.
In contrast, tabloid newspapers and tabloid television shows, which rely more on sensationalism engage in the practice. Joseph Campbell describes yellow press newspapers as having daily multi-column front-page headlines covering a variety of topics, such as sports and scandal, using bold layouts, heavy reliance on unnamed sources, unabashed self-promotion; the term was extensively used to describe certain major New York City newspapers around 1900 as they battled for circulation. Frank Luther Mott identifies yellow journalism based on five characteristics: scare headlines in huge print of minor news lavish use of pictures, or imaginary drawings use of faked interviews, misleading headlines, a parade of false learning from so-called experts emphasis on full-color Sunday supplements with comic strips dramatic sympathy with the "underdog" against the system; the term was coined in the mid-1890s to characterize the sensational journalism in the circulation war between Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal.
The battle peaked from 1895 to about 1898, historical usage refers to this period. Both papers were accused by critics of sensationalizing the news in order to drive up circulation, although the newspapers did serious reporting as well. An English magazine in 1898 noted, "All American journalism is not'yellow', though all strictly'up-to-date' yellow journalism is American!"The term was coined by Erwin Wardman, the editor of the New York Press. Wardman was the first to publish the term but there is evidence that expressions such as "yellow journalism" and "school of yellow kid journalism" were used by newsmen of that time. Wardman never defined the term exactly, it was a mutation from earlier slander where Wardman twisted "new journalism" into "nude journalism". Wardman had used the expression "yellow kid journalism" referring to the then-popular comic strip, published by both Pulitzer and Hearst during a circulation war. In 1898 the paper elaborated: "We called them Yellow because they are Yellow."
Joseph Pulitzer purchased the New York World in 1883 after making the St. Louis Post-Dispatch the dominant daily in that city. Pulitzer strove to make the New York World an entertaining read, filled his paper with pictures and contests that drew in new readers. Crime stories filled many of the pages, with headlines like "Was He a Suicide?" and "Screaming for Mercy." In addition, Pulitzer only charged readers two cents per issue but gave readers eight and sometimes 12 pages of information. While there were many sensational stories in the New York World, they were by no means the only pieces, or the dominant ones. Pulitzer believed that newspapers were public institutions with a duty to improve society, he put the World in the service of social reform. Just two years after Pulitzer took it over, the World became the highest circulation newspaper in New York, aided in part by its strong ties to the Democratic Party. Older publishers, envious of Pulitzer's success, began criticizing the World, harping on its crime stories and stunts while ignoring its more serious reporting — trends which influenced the popular perception of yellow journalism.
Charles Dana, editor of the New York Sun, attacked The World and said Pulitzer was "deficient in judgment and in staying power."Pulitzer's approach made an impression on William Randolph Hearst, a mining heir who acquired the San Francisco Examiner from his father in 1887. Hearst read the World while studying at Harvard University and resolved to make the Examiner as bright as Pulitzer's paper. Under his leadership, the Examiner devoted 24 percent of its space to crime, presenting the stories as morality plays, sprinkled adultery and "nudity" on the front page. A month after Hearst took over the paper, the Examiner ran this headline about a hotel fire: HUNGRY, FRANTIC FLAMES, they Leap Madly Upon the Splendid Pleasure Palace by the Bay of Monterey, Encircling Del Monte in Their Ravenous Embrace From Pinnacle to Foundation. Leaping Higher, Higher, With Desperate Desire. Running Madly Riotous Through Cornice and Facade. Rushing in Upon the Trembling Guests with Savage Fury. Appalled and Panic-Stricken the Breathless Fugitives Gaze Upon the Scene of Terror.
The Magnificent Hotel and Its Rich Adornments Now a Smoldering heap of Ashes. The Examiner Sends a Special Train to Monterey to Gather Full Details of the Terrible Disaster. Arrival of the Unfortunate Victims on the Morning's Train — A History of Hotel del Monte — The Plans for Rebuilding the Celebrated Hostelry — Part
Texas and Pacific Railway
The Texas and Pacific Railway Company was created by federal charter in 1871 with the purpose of building a southern transcontinental railroad between Marshall and San Diego, California. The T&P had a significant foothold in Texas by the mid-1880s. Construction difficulties delayed westward progress, until American financier Jay Gould acquired an interest in the railroad in 1879; the T&P never reached San Diego. The Missouri Pacific Railroad controlled by Gould, leased the T&P from 1881 to 1885 and continued a cooperative relationship with the T&P after the lease ended. Missouri Pacific gained majority ownership of the Texas and Pacific Railway's stock in 1928 but allowed it to continue operation as a separate entity until they were merged on October 15, 1976. On January 8, 1980, the Missouri Pacific Railroad was purchased by the Union Pacific Railroad; because of lawsuits filed by competing railroads, the merger was not approved until September 13, 1982. However, due to outstanding bonds of the Missouri Pacific, the actual merger with the Union Pacific Railroad took place on January 1, 1997.
Several reminders of the Texas and Pacific remain to this day two towering buildings which help define the southern side of Fort Worth's skyline—the original station and office tower and a warehouse located to the west. In 2001, the passenger platforms at the T&P station were put into use for the first time in decades as the westernmost terminus for the Trinity Railway Express, a commuter rail line connecting Fort Worth and Dallas; the warehouse still exists. The passenger terminal and corporate offices have been converted into luxury condominiums. Major named passenger trains of the Texas and Pacific: Louisiana Eagle -- New Orleans - Dallas - Fort Worth Texas Eagle -- St. Louis - various Texas points: western section going to El Paso, with connecting Southern Pacific service to Los Angeles. Note: This is a different Southern Pacific Railroad company from the one referred to above. March 21, 1872 - The Southern Pacific is purchased. March 30 - Southern Trans-Continental Railway Company is purchased.
1872 - Thomas A. Scott, president of the Pennsylvania Railroad, becomes president of the Texas & Pacific. May 2, 1872 - an Act of Congress changes the name to Texas and Pacific Railway Company June 12, 1873 - Memphis, El Paso and Pacific Railroad Company purchased. July 1, 1873 - First rail line opened between Longview and Dallas, Texas December 28, 1873 - Rail line from Marshall, Texas, to Texarkana, placed in service. 1881 - Abilene, TX connected to the line. 1925 - Lima Locomotive Works delivers 2-10-4 locomotives to the T&P. The type is nicknamed "Texas" as a result. October 15, 1976 - merged with the Missouri Pacific"T&P" includes its subsidiary roads; the Texas and Pacific was unable to finance construction to San Diego, as a result the Southern Pacific was able to build from California to Sierra Blanca, Texas. In doing so, Southern Pacific used land designated for, surveyed by Texas and Pacific, in its rail line from Yuma, Arizona, to El Paso, Texas; this resulted in lawsuits, which were settled with agreements to share tracks, to cooperate in the building of new tracks.
Most of the features advantageous to Texas and Pacific were disallowed by legislation. Under the influence of General Buell the TPRR was to be 3 ft 6 in gauge, but this was overturned when the state legislature passed a law requiring 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in gauge. From 1873 to 1881 the Texas and Pacific built a total of 972 miles of track. T&P, received land only for the construction of track east of Fort Worth; this meant. The State of Texas did not award the additional area because, it said, the construction had not been completed within the time required by the firm's charter; the state Attorney General Charles A. Culberson filed suit to recover 301,893 acres on the grounds that "the road had been granted land on sidetracks and on land not subject to location." The state recovered 256,046 acres giving a net grant to the T&P of 4,917,074 acres, or 7,683 square miles. By comparison, the state of Connecticut is 5,543 square miles; the Texas Pacific Land Trust was created in 1888 in the wake of the bankruptcy of the T&P in order to provide an efficient and orderly way to sell the railway's land, receiving at the time in excess of 3.5 million acres.
As of 31 December 2006 the Trust was still the largest private land owner in the State of Texas, owning the surface estate of 966,392 acres spread across 20 counties in the western part of the state. The Trust generates income from oil & gas royalties through its 1/128 non-participating royalty interest under 85,414 acres and 1/16 non-participating royalty i
1876 United States presidential election
The United States presidential election of 1876 was the 23rd quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 7, 1876. It was one of the most contentious and controversial presidential elections in American history, is known for being the catalyst for the end of Reconstruction. Republican nominee Rutherford B. Hayes faced Democrat Samuel J. Tilden. After a controversial post-election process, Hayes was declared the winner. After President Ulysses S. Grant declined to seek a third term despite being expected to do so, Congressman James G. Blaine emerged as the front-runner for the Republican nomination. However, Blaine was unable to win a majority at the 1876 Republican National Convention, which settled on Governor Hayes of Ohio as a compromise candidate; the 1876 Democratic National Convention nominated Governor Tilden of New York on the second ballot. The results of the election remain among the most disputed although it is not disputed that Tilden outpolled Hayes in the popular vote.
After a first count of votes, Tilden won 184 electoral votes to Hayes' 165, with 20 votes from four states unresolved. In Florida and South Carolina, each party reported its candidate had won the state, while in Oregon one elector was replaced after being declared illegal for being an "elected or appointed official"; the question of who should have been awarded these electoral votes is the source of the continued controversy. An informal deal was struck to resolve the dispute: the Compromise of 1877, which awarded all 20 electoral votes to Hayes. In return for the Democrats' acquiescence to Hayes' election, the Republicans agreed to withdraw federal troops from the South, ending Reconstruction; the Compromise ceded power in the Southern states to the Democratic Redeemers, who proceeded to disenfranchise black voters thereafter. The 1876 election is the second of five presidential elections in which the person who won the most popular votes did not win the election, the only such election in which the popular vote winner received a majority of the popular vote.
To date, it remains the election that recorded the smallest electoral vote victory and the election that yielded the highest voter turnout of the eligible voting age population in American history, at 81.8%. Despite not becoming president, Tilden was the first Democratic presidential nominee since James Buchanan in 1856 to win the popular vote and the first since Franklin Pierce in 1852 to do so in an outright majority, it was assumed during the year 1875 that incumbent President Ulysses S. Grant would run for a third term as president in spite of the poor economic conditions, the numerous political scandals that had developed since he assumed office in 1869, a long-standing tradition set by the first president, George Washington, not to stay in office longer than two terms. Grant's inner circle advised him to go for a third term and he did, but the House, by a sweeping 233 to 18 vote, passed a resolution declaring that the two-term tradition was to prevent a dictatorship. Late in the year, President Grant ruled himself out of running in 1876.
When the Sixth Republican National Convention assembled in Cincinnati, Ohio, on June 14, 1876, it appeared that James G. Blaine would be the nominee. On the first ballot, Blaine was just 100 votes short of a majority, his vote began to slide after the second ballot, however, as many Republicans feared that Blaine could not win the general election. Anti-Blaine delegates could not agree on a candidate until Blaine's total rose to 41% on the sixth ballot. Leaders of the reform Republicans met and considered alternatives, they chose Ohio's reform governor, Rutherford B. Hayes. On the seventh ballot, Hayes was nominated with 384 votes to 351 for Blaine and 21 for Benjamin Bristow. William A. Wheeler was nominated for vice-president by a much larger margin over his chief rival, Frederick Theodore Frelinghuysen, who served as a member of the electoral commission that awarded the election to Hayes. Democratic candidates: Samuel J. Tilden, governor of New York Thomas A. Hendricks, governor of Indiana Winfield Scott Hancock, United States Army major general from Pennsylvania William Allen, former governor of Ohio Thomas F. Bayard, U.
S. senator from Delaware Joel Parker, former governor of New Jersey The 12th Democratic National Convention assembled in St. Louis, Missouri, in June 1876, the first political convention held by one of the major American parties west of the Mississippi River. Five thousand people jammed the auditorium in St. Louis with hopes for the Democratic Party's first presidential victory in 20 years; the platform called for immediate and sweeping reforms in response to the scandals that had plagued the Grant administration. Tilden won more than 400 votes on the nomination by a landslide on the second. Tilden defeated Thomas A. Hendricks, Winfield Scott Hancock, William Allen, Thomas F. Bayard, Joel Parker for the presidential nomination. Tilden overcame strong opposition from "Honest John" Kelly, the leader of New York's Tammany Hall, to obtain the nomination. Thomas Hendricks was nominated for vice-president, since he was the only person put forward for the position; the Democratic platform pledged to replace the corruption of the Grant administration with honest, efficient government and to end "the rapacity of carpetbag tyrannies" in the South.
It called for treaty protection for naturalized United States citizens visiting their homelands, restrictions on Asian immigration, tariff reform, opposition to land grants for railroads. It has been claimed that the voting Democrats received Tilden's nomination w
The San Francisco Examiner
The San Francisco Examiner is a daily newspaper distributed in and around San Francisco, published since 1863. The longtime "Monarch of the Dailies" and flagship of the Hearst Corporation chain, the Examiner converted to free distribution early in the 21st century and is owned by the San Francisco Media Company LLC; the San Francisco Examiner was sold to Black Press Group, a Canadian media publisher, in 2011. As of 2014, The San Francisco Media Company LLC is held under Oahu Publications Inc. a subsidiary of Black Press Group Ltd. The Examiner was founded in 1863 as the Democratic Press, a pro-Confederacy, pro-slavery, pro-Democratic Party paper opposed to Abraham Lincoln, but after his assassination in 1865, the paper's offices were destroyed by a mob, starting on June 12, 1865, it was called the Daily Examiner. In 1880, mining engineer, entrepreneur and US Senator George Hearst bought the Examiner. Seven years after being elected to the U. S. Senate, he gave it to his son, William Randolph Hearst, 23 years old.
The elder Hearst "was said to have received the failing paper as partial payment of a poker debt."William Randolph Hearst hired S. S. Chamberlain, who had started the first American newspaper in Paris, as managing editor and Arthur McEwen as editor, changed the Examiner from an evening to a morning paper. Under him, the paper's popularity increased with the help of such writers as Ambrose Bierce, Mark Twain, the San Francisco-born Jack London, through the Examiner's version of yellow journalism, with ample use of foreign correspondents and splashy coverage of scandals such as two entire pages of cables from Vienna about the Mayerling Incident. William Randolph Hearst created the masthead with the "Hearst Eagle" and the slogan Monarch of the Dailies by 1889 at the latest. After the great earthquake and fire of 1906 destroyed much of San Francisco, the Examiner and its rivals — the San Francisco Chronicle and the San Francisco Call — brought out a joint edition; the Examiner offices were destroyed on April 18, 1906, but when the city was rebuilt, a new structure, the Hearst Building, arose in its place at Third and Market streets.
It opened in 1909, in 1937 the facade and lobby underwent an extensive remodeling designed by architect Julia Morgan. Through the middle third of the twentieth century, the Examiner was one of several dailies competing for the city's and the Bay Area's readership. Strident competition prevailed between the two papers in the 1960s. Circulation battles ended in a merging of resources between the two papers. For 35 years starting in 1965, the San Francisco Chronicle and Examiner operated under a Joint Operating Agreement whereby the Chronicle published a morning paper and the Examiner published in the afternoon; the Examiner published the Sunday paper's news sections and glossy magazine, the Chronicle contributed the features. Circulation was 100,000 on weekdays and 500,000 on Sundays. By 1995, discussion was brewing in print media about the possible shuttering of the Examiner due to low circulation and an disadvantageous revenue sharing agreement for the Chronicle. In its stylebook and by tradition, the Examiner refers to San Francisco as "The City", both in headlines and text of stories.
San Francisco slang has traditionally referred to the newspaper in abbreviated slang form as "the Ex". When the Chronicle Publishing Company divested its interests, the Hearst Corporation purchased the Chronicle. To satisfy antitrust concerns, Hearst sold the Examiner to ExIn, LLC, a corporation owned by the politically connected Fang family, publishers of the San Francisco Independent and the San Mateo Independent. San Francisco political consultant Clint Reilly filed a lawsuit against Hearst, charging that the deal did not ensure two competitive newspapers and was instead a generous deal designed to curry approval. However, on July 27, 2000, a federal judge approved the Fangs' assumption of the Examiner name, its archives, 35 delivery trucks, a subsidy of $66 million, to be paid over three years. From their side, the Fangs paid Hearst US$100 for the Examiner. On February 24, 2003, the Examiner became a free daily newspaper, printed Sunday through Friday. On February 19, 2004, the Fang family sold the Examiner and its printing plant, together with the two Independent newspapers, to Philip Anschutz of Denver, Colorado.
His new company, Clarity Media Group, launched The Washington Examiner in 2005 and published The Baltimore Examiner from 2006 to 2009. In 2006, Anschutz donated the archives of the Examiner to the University of California, Berkeley Bancroft Library, the largest gift to the library. Under Clarity ownership, the Examiner pioneered a new business model for the newspaper industry. Designed to be read the Examiner is presented in a compact size without story jumps, it focuses on local news, business and sports with an emphasis on content relevant to local readers. It is delivered free to select neighborhoods in San Francisco and San Mateo counties, to single-copy outlets throughout San Franc