New Zealand Division

The New Zealand Division was an infantry division of the New Zealand Expeditionary Force raised for service in the First World War. It was formed in Egypt in early 1916 when the New Zealand and Australian Division was renamed after the detachment of its Australian personnel left the New Zealand Infantry Brigade, together with reinforcements from New Zealand, as the basis of the division, it was commanded by Major General Andrew Hamilton Russell for the duration of the war. The division saw service on the Western Front in France and Belgium, fighting in major battles at the Somme and Broodseinde Ridge throughout 1916 and 1917. All were notable successes for the New Zealanders but the division suffered a serious defeat at Passchendaele on 12 October 1917, its most costly day of the war. In early 1918, the division helped blunt the German Spring Offensive at the Somme, before the Allies went on the offensive in August. During the Hundred Days' Offensive that followed, it was one of the lead divisions of the Third Army and advanced 100 kilometres in 75 days.

The division's last major engagement of the war was at Le Quesnoy in early November 1918. During the latter stages of the war, the New Zealand Division was one of the strongest divisions of the Dominion serving on the Western Front. After the armistice, it served on occupation duties in Germany before being disbanded in 1919. Following the outbreak of the First World War, the New Zealand government authorised the formation of the New Zealand Expeditionary Force, under the command of Major General Alexander Godley, for service abroad. By October 1914, there were sufficient volunteers to form two brigades, the New Zealand Infantry Brigade and the New Zealand Mounted Brigade; these two formations formed the main body of the NZEF and, together with the Australian 4th Infantry Brigade and the 1st Light Horse Brigade, were the basis of the New Zealand and Australian Division, which fought in the Gallipoli campaign against the Turks. In December 1915, the much depleted New Zealand and Australian Division was evacuated from Gallipoli, was placed in reserve near the Suez Canal.

Although there were concerns that the Turks might attack the canal, it was envisaged that the division would soon be called upon to serve elsewhere. Commanded by Major General Andrew Hamilton Russell, it was replenished with reinforcements from Australia and New Zealand and began a program of intensive training. Since the deployment of the main body of the NZEF, the numbers of volunteers had increased to the point that they could no longer be integrated into either of the two existing brigades. In January 1916, the commander of the Mediterranean Expeditionary Force in Egypt, Lieutenant General Sir Archibald Murray, proposed the number of available New Zealand personnel warranted the establishment of two new brigades which, together with the existing brigade, would form a New Zealand infantry division for service on the Western Front; the New Zealand government concerned by the prospect of maintaining three infantry brigades, concurred after Murray reassured it that the number of personnel in Egypt were sufficient to keep the new division up to strength in the short term.

The New Zealand Division came into being at Moascar, Egypt, on 1 March 1916, when the New Zealand and Australian Division was so renamed. Russell, a well regarded senior officer of the Territorial Force who had performed well during the Gallipoli Campaign, was appointed the commander of the new formation; the former New Zealand Infantry Brigade was to be the first of three infantry brigades of the division. The 1st Brigade was commanded by Brigadier General Francis Earl Johnston, who had led the original brigade at Gallipoli; the 2nd Brigade was formed from reinforcements in Egypt. The third infantry brigade, known as the Rifle Brigade, was commanded by Brigadier General Harry Fulton; the division included the Otago Mounted Rifles Regiment. There were three brigades of field artillery and one of howitzers. In total, the division had some 15,000 men in its ranks. Along with the Australian 1st and 2nd Divisions, the New Zealand Division was to form part of I ANZAC Corps, under the command of Godley.

In early March, the New Zealand Division assumed responsibility for the section of the Suez Canal guarded by the 2nd Division, which began to embark for France. After three weeks of sentry duty, the New Zealand Division returned to its Moascar base before it too was shipped to France in early April; the divisions of I ANZAC Corps, now commanded by Lieutenant General William Birdwood with Godley taking over II ANZAC Corps, were based in the Armentières sector where they would undergo intensive training in trench warfare on the Western Front. The Armentières front line was regarded by the Allies as a nursery sector where new units could undergo familiarisation without being called upon for intensive offensive operations, it was not an easy introduction to the front for the New Zealanders. On arriving in their sector, they found the defensive arrangements to be poor and set about improving the trenches and wire emplacements. Although the bulk of the division's personnel manned secondary defences rearward of the front line to avoid the German artillery, the forward areas had to be patrolled as a deterrent to an attack and to give the impression they were manned.

The static nature of the war meant that the Divisional Mounted Troops, intended to be used as scouts, were redundant and, along with two Light Horse squadrons from the


Kechnec is a village in eastern Slovakia. The village lies at an altitude of 180 metres and covers an area of 10.211 km². The municipality is part of Košice Region, it has a population of about 1080 people. The village was first mentioned in 1220 as a settlement called Felnemet. Being on the Hungarian Queen’s land at the lower stream of the River Hornád, the territory of Kechnec was settled by German immigrants at the turn of the 12th and 13th centuries. We know that from the Varadin’s Register of 1220. In 1295 the Queen Agnes gave the town of Kechnec, together with another 7 small towns to Menne, a surrogate breastfeeder of King Ladislaus IV of Hungary. An old document dated to 1338 says that in this town there was a mill, located near the present town of Seňa, preserved to the modern times; this documents active life of local farmers. The King Sigmund, another major player in the history of the town, gave Kechnec to the Marmoss administrator Peter of Perin, it was a gift for his loyalty and military merits.

This fact documents the importance of Kechnec at that time. The donation and merit document is interesting due to its bilingual name – Felnemethy alio domine Kemnech. Although before the time of arrival of German colonists the town of Kechnec had had its own Slavic name, which the Germans adopted, it got its official Hungarian name Felnémeti. In 1560 the town was named Kenyhecz Nempty, in 1605 Kenyhecz, in 1808 Kechnec, the last mentioned name has been preserved until now. According to the conscriptions of local priests and churches, in 1746 people in Kechnec spoke Slovak. A number of major landowners were resident in the town, from among which it is worth to mention the Kenyheczi and Czikovics families. János Czikovics obtained Kechnec from King Leopold I in 1689 in Vienna. Nowadays, Kechnec is becoming an industrial centre of this region. Kechnec Industrial Zone is a green field of 332 hectares with a newly constructed public infrastructure. New investors are coming here, that gives new opportunities for work.

Kechnec is twinned with: Isaszeg, Hungary The records for genealogical research are available at the state archive "Statny Archiv in Kosice, Slovakia" Roman Catholic church records: 1714-1895 Greek Catholic church records: 1791-1896 Reformated church records: 1794-1901 List of municipalities and towns in Slovakia Surnames of living people in Kechnec

Frankville School

Frankville School known as the Frankville Museum, is a historic structure located in the unincorporated community of Frankville, United States. It was built in 1872 by W. H. Hopper, replacing an older building from the mid-1850s, it is a two-story, stone vernacular structure, capped with a gable roof. The stone is rock-faced ashlar limestone; the stones on the front facade are dressed compared with those on the other elevations. The lintels and window sills are blocks of rock-faced stone, except for those on the front. On the front dressed stone voussoirs and keystones are used for the round arches for the main entrance and the window above. High school classes were added in the 1920s. In 1958 the school was reduced to 7th and 8th grades, it closed in 1962. The following year the Winneshiek County Historical Society acquired the building and operated a museum in it, it remains in the community's park. The building's relative uniqueness is derived from its stone construction; the vast majority of Iowa's 19th-century schoolhouses were of frame or log constriction, followed by brick.

By 1874 at the peak of schoolhouse construction only 268 were stone, compared to 8,000 frame structures and about 650 that were brick. The building was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1978