Saluda County, South Carolina
Saluda County is a county in the U. S. state of South Carolina. As of the 2010 census, the population was 19,875, its county seat is Saluda. The county was formed from eastern portions of Edgefield County. Saluda County is part of the Augusta-Richmond County Metropolitan Area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 462 square miles, of which 453 square miles is land and 9.0 square miles is water. Saluda County is in the Saluda River basin with a small portion of western Saluda in the Savannah River basin. Newberry County - north Lexington County - east Aiken County - south Edgefield County - southwest Greenwood County - northwest McCormick County - west Sumter National Forest As of the census of 2000, there were 19,181 people, 7,127 households, 5,295 families residing in the county; the population density was 42 people per square mile. There were 8,543 housing units at an average density of 19 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 65.80% White, 29.99% Black or African American, 0.23% Native American, 0.04% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 3.29% from other races, 0.64% from two or more races.
7.30% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 7,127 households out of which 31.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.20% were married couples living together, 14.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.70% were non-families. 22.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.65 and the average family size was 3.07. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.90% under the age of 18, 9.20% from 18 to 24, 27.60% from 25 to 44, 23.80% from 45 to 64, 14.50% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 98.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.30 males. The median income for a household in the county was $35,774, the median income for a family was $41,603. Males had a median income of $29,221 versus $21,395 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,328.
About 12.00% of families and 15.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.40% of those under age 18 and 16.30% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 19,875 people, 7,527 households, 5,393 families residing in the county; the population density was 43.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 9,289 housing units at an average density of 20.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 61.1% white, 26.3% black or African American, 0.4% American Indian, 0.3% Pacific islander, 0.2% Asian, 10.3% from other races, 1.4% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 14.4% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 17.8% were American, 14.7% were German, 8.6% were English, 8.2% were Irish. Of the 7,527 households, 32.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.6% were married couples living together, 15.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.4% were non-families, 24.2% of all households were made up of individuals.
The average household size was 2.61 and the average family size was 3.05. The median age was 39.6 years. The median income for a household in the county was $40,508 and the median income for a family was $45,173. Males had a median income of $31,264 versus $28,344 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,717. About 11.7% of families and 15.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.4% of those under age 18 and 15.0% of those age 65 or over. Batesburg-Leesville Monetta Ridge Spring Saluda Ward Mount Willing National Register of Historic Places listings in Saluda County, South Carolina Saluda County Official Website Saluda County Chamber of Commerce Saluda County Historical Society Geographic data related to Saluda County, South Carolina at OpenStreetMap
Sumter National Forest
The Sumter National Forest is one of two forests in South Carolina that are managed together by the United States Forest Service, the other being the Francis Marion National Forest. The Sumter National Forest consists of 370,442 acres which are divided into several non-contiguous sections in western South Carolina. Overall, in descending order of land area the forest is located in parts of Oconee, Newberry, McCormick, Abbeville, Chester, Fairfield and Saluda counties. Forest headquarters of both South Carolina forests are located together in the state's capital city of Columbia. In July, 1936, President Franklin D. Roosevelt proclaimed the Sumter a separate National Forest; the Sumter is named for Thomas Sumter, a leader of patriot regular and military forces in the South Carolina piedmont during the American Revolution and war hero. The lands that became the Sumter were predominantly eroding old farm fields and gullies or extensively logged forests. Once the lands became part of the Sumter, the process of controlling soil erosion, regulating the flow of streams and the production of timber began.
Over time, the land has been restored and has become productive again. The Andrew Pickens Ranger District is situated in the mountains of northwest South Carolina in Oconee County. Local place names and streams attest the Cherokee Indian heritage of the area, including the Chattooga, Cheohee, Toxaway, Oconee and Jocassee rivers or creeks; the Ranger District is named for Andrew Pickens, commander of South Carolina rebel militia during the American Revolution. The ranger district offices are located near Mountain Rest; the ranger district offices are located in Whitmire, just between Newberry. Interstate 26 runs along the southwest side of the district. US Hwy. 176 and SC Hwy. 72 crisscross the district. The Long Cane Ranger District of the Sumter National Forest is located in western South Carolina, along the Georgia border, it is spread around the towns of Abbeville, McCormick and Edgefield. The ranger district offices are located in Edgefield; the Sumter National Forest includes 2,859 acres of the Ellicott Rock Wilderness, the only wilderness to straddle three states.
The Sumter has, as its western border, the Chattooga River, a Wild and Scenic River. The Andrew Pickens District is home to 15 waterfalls with drops ranging from 12 ft to 75 ft; the Enoree and Long Cane Ranger district support Southeastern mixed forests. The Andrew Pickens ranger district has Appalachian-Blue Ridge forests. Sumter national Forest offers a wide variety of activities such as hiking, canoeing, horse back riding, mountain biking, motorcycle and ATV riding, target shooting and fishing. Forest Service’s History of the Sumter National Forest Official Site of the Francis Marion and Sumter National Forests Map of the Andrew Pickens Ranger District
Germans are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry and history. German is the shared mother tongue of a substantial majority of ethnic Germans; the English term Germans has referred to the German-speaking population of the Holy Roman Empire since the Late Middle Ages. Since the outbreak of the Protestant Reformation within the Holy Roman Empire, German society has been characterized by a Catholic-Protestant divide. Of 100 million native speakers of German in the world 80 million consider themselves Germans. There are an additional 80 million people of German ancestry in the United States, Argentina, South Africa, the post-Soviet states, France, each accounting for at least 1 million. Thus, the total number of Germans lies somewhere between 100 and more than 150 million, depending on the criteria applied. Today, people from countries with German-speaking majorities most subscribe to their own national identities and may or may not self-identify as ethnically German.
The German term Deutsche originates from the Old High German word diutisc, referring to the Germanic "language of the people". It is not clear how if at all, the word was used as an ethnonym in Old High German. Used as a noun, ein diutscher in the sense of "a German" emerges in Middle High German, attested from the second half of the 12th century; the Old French term alemans is taken from the name of the Alamanni. It was loaned into Middle English as almains in the early 14th century; the word Dutch is attested in English from the 14th century, denoting continental West Germanic dialects and their speakers. While in most Romance languages the Germans have been named from the Alamanni, the Old Norse and Estonian names for the Germans were taken from that of the Saxons. In Slavic languages, the Germans were given the name of němьci with a meaning "foreigner, one who does not speak "; the English term Germans is only attested from the mid-16th century, based on the classical Latin term Germani used by Julius Caesar and Tacitus.
It replaced Dutch and Almains, the latter becoming obsolete by the early 18th century. The Germans are a Germanic people. Part of the Holy Roman Empire, around 300 independent German states emerged during its decline after the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 ending the Thirty Years War; these states formed into modern Germany in the 19th century. The concept of a German ethnicity is linked to Germanic tribes of antiquity in central Europe; the early Germans originated on the North German Plain as well as southern Scandinavia. By the 2nd century BC, the number of Germans was increasing and they began expanding into eastern Europe and southward into Celtic territory. During antiquity these Germanic tribes remained separate from each other and did not have writing systems at that time. In the European Iron Age the area, now Germany was divided into the La Tène horizon in Southern Germany and the Jastorf culture in Northern Germany. By 55 BC, the Germans had reached the Danube river and had either assimilated or otherwise driven out the Celts who had lived there, had spread west into what is now Belgium and France.
Conflict between the Germanic tribes and the forces of Rome under Julius Caesar forced major Germanic tribes to retreat to the east bank of the Rhine. Roman emperor Augustus in 12 BC ordered the conquest of the Germans, but the catastrophic Roman defeat at the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest resulted in the Roman Empire abandoning its plans to conquer Germania. Germanic peoples in Roman territory were culturally Romanized, although much of Germania remained free of direct Roman rule, Rome influenced the development of German society the adoption of Christianity by the Germans who obtained it from the Romans. In Roman-held territories with Germanic populations, the Germanic and Roman peoples intermarried, Roman and Christian traditions intermingled; the adoption of Christianity would become a major influence in the development of a common German identity. The first major public figure to speak of a German people in general, was the Roman figure Tacitus in his work Germania around 100 AD; however an actual united German identity and ethnicity did not exist and it would take centuries of development of German culture until the concept of a German ethnicity began to become a popular identity.
The Germanic peoples during the Migrations Period came into contact with other peoples. The Limes Germanicus was breached in AD 260. Migrating Germanic tribes commingled with the local Gallo-Roman populations in what is now Swabia and Bavaria; the arrival of the Huns in Europe resulted in Hun conquest of large parts of Eastern Europe, the Huns were allies of the Roman Empire who fought against Germanic tribes, but the Huns cooperated with the Germanic tribe of the Ostrogoths, large numbers of Germans lived within the lands of the Hunnic Empire of
1790 United States Census
The United States Census of 1790 was the first census of the whole United States. It recorded the population of the United States as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws. In the first census, the population of the United States was enumerated to be 3,929,214. Congress assigned responsibility for the 1790 census to the marshals of United States judicial districts under an act which, with minor modifications and extensions, governed census taking until the 1840 census. "The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president." Both Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson and President George Washington expressed skepticism over the results, believing that the true population had been undercounted.
If there was indeed an undercount, possible explanations for it include dispersed population, poor transportation links, limitations of contemporary technology, individual refusal to participate. Although the Census was proved statistically factual, based on data collected, the records for several states were lost sometime between 1790 and 1830. One third of the original census data have been lost or destroyed since their original documentation; these include some 1790 data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Vermont. No microdata from the 1790 population census are available, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves.
Under the direction of the current Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson, marshals collected data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory. The census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. At 17.8 percent, the 1790 Census's proportion of slaves to the free population was the highest recorded by any census. Media related to 1790 United States Census at Wikimedia Commons Historic US Census data 1790 Census of Population and Housing official reports Population of 24 Urban Places: 1790
Per capita income
Per capita income or average income measures the average income earned per person in a given area in a specified year. It is calculated by dividing the area's total income by its total population. Per capita income is national income divided by population size. Per capita income is used to measure an area's average income and compare the wealth of different populations. Per capita income is used to measure a country's standard of living, it is expressed in terms of a used international currency such as the euro or United States dollar, is useful because it is known, is calculable from available gross domestic product and population estimates, produces a useful statistic for comparison of wealth between sovereign territories. This helps to ascertain a country's development status, it is one of the three measures for calculating the Human Development Index of a country. In the United States, it is defined by the U. S. Census Bureau as the following: "Per capita income is the mean money income received in the past 12 months computed for every man and child in a geographic area."
Critics claim that per capita income has several weaknesses in measuring prosperity: Comparisons of per capita income over time need to consider inflation. Without adjusting for inflation, figures tend to overstate the effects of economic growth. International comparisons can be distorted by cost of living differences not reflected in exchange rates. Where the objective is to compare living standards between countries, adjusting for differences in purchasing power parity will more reflect what people are able to buy with their money, it does not reflect income distribution. If a country's income distribution is skewed, a small wealthy class can increase per capita income while the majority of the population has no change in income. In this respect, median income is more useful when measuring of prosperity than per capita income, as it is less influenced by outliers. Non-monetary activity, such as barter or services provided within the family, is not counted; the importance of these services varies among economies.
Per capita income does not consider whether income is invested in factors to improve the area's development, such as health, education, or infrastructure. List of countries by average wage List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP at market or government official exchange rates per inhabitant List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP calculated at purchasing power parity exchange per inhabitant List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by income equality Total personal income
Union County, South Carolina
Union County is a county located in the U. S. state of South Carolina. As of the 2010 census, the population was 28,961, its county seat is Union. The county was created in 1785. Union County is included in the Spartanburg, SC Metropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Greenville–Spartanburg–Anderson, SC Combined Statistical Area; the area that includes Union County was once controlled by the Cherokee Indians and they used it as a hunting ground. Up until recent years, one could find numerous arrowheads with little effort throughout the county; the first European settlers in Union County came from the backcountry of Pennsylvania. It has been suggested that the first group of pioneers arrived as early as 1751, they settled in the northwestern section of the county near a small river that would be named Fairforest Creek. According to tradition, Mr. McElwaine, a member of the party looked out at the thick woodlands and exclaimed, "What a fair forest!" At the time of their arrival, wild buffalo and horses abounded as well as panthers and cougars, which were called "tigers" or "tygers" by the settlers.
This may be. The early settlers established Fairforest Presbyterian Church, the first house of worship in Union County. Around 1754, the Brown's Creek area was first settled, about four miles northeast of the present city of Union. A log church or meetinghouse was built and shared among several denominations that could not yet afford their own separate structures; the county and county seat were named for this "Union" church. Quakers arrived in the mid 1750s and settled the southern portion of the county, establishing Cane Creek Church in the Santuc community, Padgett's Creek Church in the Cross Keys community; the Quakers left in the early 1800s because of their opposition to slavery. Baptists from North Carolina, under the leadership of Rev. Philip Mulkey, reached the Broad River in Fairfield County, SC in 1759, they relocated to Union County in 1762, in 1771 formally organized into the first Baptist church in the South Carolina upcountry known as Fairforest Baptist Church. Many Baptist churches throughout the upcountry are descended from this original congregation.
The congregation moved to a site on present day SC Hwy 18 between Union and Jonesville where it remains to this day. During the first part of the American Revolution, the South Carolina backcountry was quiet. Following the fall of Charleston in 1780, the British began focusing their attention on the Carolinas. At least five battles were fought in or near Union County, including Musgrove Mill and Blackstock; the county produced many notable heroes including Lt. Col. James Steen; the war divided the population between Patriots. This settlers moving out of the area. Personal property was damaged by both sides. Following the war, the county seat was established at Unionville and a courthouse was constructed. In 1791, the South Carolina Legislature established a district court that included Spartanburg, Union and York counties; the area was called the Pinckney District and its headquarters was established at a central location in Union County. Land was cleared and streets were laid out for a new town that would be called Pinckneyville.
A courthouse and jail were built for the new judicial district and a college was to be established in the town. Local tradition states that Pinckneyville was to be home to the United States Military Academy, but lost to West Point by one vote in Congress. Instead, local historians say; this was the source of the legend. In 1799, the General Assembly decided to restructure the state court system. Subsequently, the Pinckney District was abolished. During the early 1800s settlers developed large-scale cotton growing in the fertile soil of southern Union County, based on the use of enslaved labor; the demand for slaves in the Deep South drove the domestic market, more than one million slaves were forcibly transported to the South in the antebellum years. There were numerous plantations in the county, several that are still standing, such as Rose Hill Plantation and the Cross Keys House. Rose Hill was the home of South Carolina's "Secession Governor," William Henry Gist; the northern section of the county was home to yeoman farmers and small scale planters who owned fewer slaves.
The county grew during the antebellum period but remained fully agrarian. Stores and other businesses were established in the town of Union and a new courthouse and jail were designed for the town in 1823 by famed architect Robert Mills, designer of the Washington Monument; the courthouse was demolished in 1911, but the jail is still standing and in use by the City of Union. It is located beside the present courthouse, constructed in 1913; the Civil War brought a standstill to the county's progress. Many local men rushed to enlist in the Confederate Army and numerous units of Union County soldiers served on battlefields across the South. On April 20, 1861 a strange object appeared in the sky above the Kelly-Kelton community of northeastern Union County. A large hot air balloon called the Enterprise descended to the ground, piloted by Professor T. S. C. Lowe, who had left Cincinnati, Ohio the day before, he had attempted to fly from Ohio to Washington, D. C. but instead was swept southward across Virginia into South Carolina.
The locals crowded around this mysterious object, many insisting that Lowe be "shot on the spot," as they believed him to be a Northern spy. Local tradition states that Professor Lowe gave
1930 United States Census
The Fifteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 Census. The 1930 Census collected the following information: address name relationship to head of family home owned or rented if owned, value of home if rented, monthly rent whether owned a radio set whether on a farm sex race age marital status and, if married, age at first marriage school attendance literacy birthplace of person, their parents if foreign born: language spoken at home before coming to the U. S. year of immigration whether naturalized ability to speak English occupation and class of worker whether at work previous day veteran status if Indian: whether of full or mixed blood tribal affiliationFull documentation for the 1930 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in 1949. The microfilmed census is located on 2,667 rolls of microfilm, available from the National Archives and Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, digital indices. Microdata from the 1930 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1930 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com 1931 U. S Census Report Contains 1930 Census results Historic US Census data 1930Census.com: 1930 United States Census for Genealogy & Family History Research 1930 Interactive US Census Find stories and more attached to names on the 1930 US census