Gosforth is an affluent, well established area of Newcastle upon Tyne, situated to the north of the city centre. Gosforth constituted an urban district from 1895 to 1974, when it became part of the City of Newcastle upon Tyne, it has a population of 23,620. There are three electoral wards that bear the Gosforth name: Dene and South Gosforth and West Gosforth, Gosforth. Modern-day Gosforth includes other wards such as Parklands; the origin of the area's name is thought to have come from the title Gese Ford, meaning "the ford over the Ouse", referring to a crossing over the local River Ouse or Ouseburn, but others think that it comes from the Old English Gosaford, meaning "a ford where the geese dwell", it is first recorded as Goseford in 1166. Richard Welford notes that the names of North and South Gosforth come from the north and south of the River Ouse. Gosforth is first mentioned in 1166, thus some think the settlement developed at this time and South Gosforth dates back past 1319, when it has been noted that the English Army retreated there from a siege on Berwick.
According to the 19th century publication, A Topographical Dictionary of England, the township of Gosforth was held of the crown by the Surtees family from 1100 to 1509, when it passed by marriage to Robert Brandling. In 1777, Gosforth contained 7 townships of North Gosforth, South Gosforth, Kenton, East Brunton and West Brunton. By order of the Local Government Board on 20 September 1872, the parishes of South Gosforth and Coxlodge were constituted into a district, governed by the South Gosforth Local Board. After the 1894 Local Government Act, it became the South Gosforth Urban District Council. A year by a Northumberland County Council order dated 14 March 1895, the title was changed again to Gosforth Urban District Council. On 15 July 1903, the District Council applied for an order from Northumberland County Council, to extend its boundaries to include the parishes of North Gosforth, East Brunton, West Brunton and the greater part of Kenton. On 9 September 1903, an inquiry was held into the Gosforth Scheme.
The parishes of Coxlodge and South Gosforth were amalgamated into the parish of Gosforth in 1908. Gosforth extended its boundaries after the County of Northumberland Review Order 1935, to include part of Castle Ward Rural District; this comprised parts of East Brunton and North Gosforth civil parishes. The Gosforth Urban District Council was abolished on 1 April 1974 to become part of the City of Newcastle Metropolitan Borough Council. In the 19th century, Gosforth was the location of a number of collieries, including Gosforth and Coxlodge Collieries. Gosforth Colliery was located in South Gosforth, while Coxlodge Colliery was west of the Great North Road. Coxlodge Colliery comprised three pits; the modern-day centre of Gosforth, straddling the Great North Road, originated in 1826 as a settlement known for several decades as Bulman Village. It consisted of a number of properties large enough to qualify occupiers for the franchise, built by the Bulman family in an attempt to provide voters for their cause in the 1826 elections.
A stone bearing the name'Bulman Village' survives and was incorporated in the façade of a building, the Halifax Bank building north of the Brandling Arms public house. The Blacksmith's Arms public house on Gosforth High Street stands on the site of the original blacksmith's forge. At the 2001 census there were 23,620 people living in Gosforth. In the 19th century Gosforth's population was deemed by the coal trade. In 1801 there were 1,385 inhabitants, most of whom lived in Kenton, were employed in the colliery there. In 1831 the population had risen to 3,546 due to the opening of the Fawdon and Coxlodge collieries. Between 1831 and 1871 the population only grew by a small amount to 3,723, due to the pits at Fawdon and Kenton having ceased to function. There have been a number of archaeological finds in Gosforth, with the earliest piece being a prehistoric flint flake, found in 1959. In 1863 a 2nd-century Greek Colonial coin was found in a garden in Bulman Village. A Roman altar was found in North Gosforth.
It has a large business complex called the Regent Centre, which houses organisations including HM Revenue & Customs. Gosforth's main high school is Gosforth Academy, some of the private schools in Gosforth are Westfield School and Newcastle School for Boys. St Nicholas Hospital is located in Gosforth, which houses the Jubilee Theatre, a Victorian Theatre built in 1899. Apart from South Gosforth, many residential districts of Gosforth are suffixed "Park". There is Bridge Park, Brunton Park, Gosforth Park, Grange Park, Greystoke Park, Grove Park, Kingston Park, Melton Park, Newcastle Great Park and Whitebridge Park. East of the Great North Road, Garden Village was developed on'garden suburb' lines in the 1920s to house workers at the nearby London & North Eastern Railway electric train depot. Areas of Gosforth have been used as a filming locations for television films. Gosforth Park was used as a location in 1971's Get Carter and Whitebridge Park, used in an episode of Wire in the Blood. Melton Park has the ruins of a chapel which dates back to late Norman times.
Brunton Park is a neighbouring estate to the Newcastle Great Park. The oldest parts in the estate have existed since the early 1930s; the rest of the estate was built during the 1950s. It contains a number of local convenience sho
Monument, Newcastle upon Tyne
Monument is an electoral ward of Newcastle upon Tyne in North East England. Created in 2018, the ward takes its name from Grey's Monument in Newcastle City Centre, it replaced most of Westgate ward and parts of South Ouseburn wards. Monument ward is the city centre, including key features such as the Civic Centre, Northumbria University and Newcastle University campuses, the Royal Victoria Infirmary and St James’ Park football ground, it contains the city centre business, shopping and nightlife districts. Key transport links, including the Central Station and various Metro stations and bus stations are within this ward. There are no primary schools within the ward and only one secondary School, due to close in summer 2018; the ward is home to Newcastle College and Newcastle Sixth Form College and the city campuses of both Newcastle University and Northumbria University. Leazes Park is in the north-west of the ward. Facilities there include a bowling green, tennis courts and basketball courts, a fenced playground with swings, climbing frames and spring toys.
The ward includes the city's main shopping and nightlife districts. Attractions include: Bigg Market Centre for Life Chinatown Discovery Museum Eldon Square Shopping Centre and Northumberland Street Grainger Town Great North Museum: Hancock Newcastle City Hall Live Theatre the Quayside St James' Park Sport Central Theatre Royal The Gate Tyneside Cinema Tyne Theatre and Opera House Newcastle's main railway station is in the south of the ward and there are six Metro stations: Haymarket and Central Station on the north-south route, St James and Manors on the east-west route, with both routes meeting st Monument Metro station. Many local and regional buses serve Eldon Square or Haymarket bus stations, with most long-distance coaches serving Newcastle Coach Station. Monument ward is bounded by the River Tyne to the south. From the south-west corner, the boundary runs north joining William Armstrong Drive and east on Scotswood Road and north again on to Park Road, it turns north-east on Westmorland Road, north-west on Rye Hill and north-east on Elswick Road, crossing the Westgate Road and continuing east on Corporation Street.
Here the boundary heads northwards on St James’ Boulevard and north-west on Barrack Road, turning north on the footpath through Leazes Park until it meets Richardson Road. The boundary heads north between the student accommodation and the Royal Victoria Infirmary, on to Claremont Street, crossing Claremont Road on to Jedburgh Road. Here the boundary heads south east on the A167/A167. Where the road crosses the B1307, the boundary turns off east south between the Army Reserves Centre and rear of Harrison Place and Gladstone Terrace; the boundary continues south on Byron Street, Falconar Street, Simpson Terrace, Argyle Street and Tower Street, where it crosses City Road and makes it way south to the Quayside and the River Tyne. Map of Monument ward, on the Newcastle City Council website
T. Dan Smith
Thomas Daniel Smith was a British politician, Leader of Newcastle City Council from 1960 to 1965. He was a prominent figure in the Labour Party in North East England, such that he was nicknamed Mr Newcastle. Smith sought to clear Newcastle of slum housing and put a great deal of effort into regeneration plans, suggesting that the city should become "The Brasilia of the North", he supported the expansion of higher education in Newcastle and funded local arts institutions. Among the developments begun under Smith were the Eldon Square Shopping Centre, Newcastle Civic Centre and Swan House, the latter leading to the dismantling of John Dobson's Royal Arcade with the intention of rebuilding it. Smith's legacy became unfairly associated with the destruction of historic buildings in favour of unpopular concrete structures. While leading the redevelopment of his city, Smith formed business links with architect John Poulson which led to his trial for accepting bribes in April 1974, at which he pleaded guilty and was sentenced to six years' imprisonment.
In his life he campaigned for prisoners' issues and continued to comment on public affairs. He starred in a film of his life released in 1987. Smith was born in the son of a Durham miner, his father drank and was a gambler. His mother worked long hours cleaning the Wallsend telephone exchange and washing floors at the Shell-Mex office, he attended Western Boys School in Wallsend and became a printer's apprentice at the age of 13. After a period of unemployment he founded his own painting and decorating business in 1937. During the economically difficult years of the 1930s, he grew his business painting cinema exteriors across Tyneside. Both his parents were communists and Smith adopted left-wing opinions himself. During World War II, Smith registered as a conscientious objector and was active in opposing the war and organising strikes against it. During the war, Smith joined several left-wing organisations, he was a regional representative for the Independent Labour Party in 1943, joined the Revolutionary Communist Party where he led a shipyard strike.
By 1945, he was a member of the Labour Party and in 1950 he was elected to Newcastle City Council as a Labour member representing the Walker ward. He became chairman of the Labour Group in 1953, it was around this time that he began using his first initial in his name, after an incident at Newcastle Airport when he was confused with another Dan Smith. When the Labour Party won the 1958 local elections and took control of Newcastle, Smith was appointed Chairman of the Housing Committee, he was elected as Leader of the City Council in 1959, created one of the country's first free-standing Planning Departments and made it the most powerful department in the council. As Leader he instituted a personality-based leadership, creating an'inner Cabinet' of his own supporters. Smith was enthusiastic about the arts as means of improving the quality of life, he believed in the need to clear Newcastle of slum housing and put a great deal of effort into regeneration plans developed by his chief planning officer Wilfred Burns, suggesting that the city be nicknamed "The Brasilia of the North".
Smith's council authorised the demolition of a large section of Newcastle city centre for a shopping centre. So influential did Smith become that Lord Hailsham was sent up to Newcastle by the Conservative cabinet to try to counter him. However, Smith's personal desire to make money began to get linked with his political desires, it had been spotted that Smith's painting and decorating firm received more than half of the contracts for council housing. In 1962 he established a public relations firm to support redevelopment of other urban centres in the north-east, nationwide; this company formed links with John Poulson, an architect keen for the business and known for paying those who could supply it. Smith received £156,000 from Poulson for his work, which involved signing up local councillors on to the payroll of his companies and getting them to push their councils to accept Poulson's prepackaged redevelopment schemes. Poulson earned more than £1,000,000 through Smith, who regarded him as the "best architect Britain produced."He attracted criticism from fellow Labour Party members for his extravagant spending, driving a Jaguar with the private plate "DAN 68", educating his children and purchasing a pied-à-terre in St James's, London.
By 1965, his painting business employed 250. Smith was a political contemporary and ally of North East Labour stalwart Andy Cunningham, brought down by the Poulson scandal and served a jail sentence. On the day after the 1964 general election, Smith waited for what he thought would be a certain phone call to invite him to become a cabinet minister in Harold Wilson's government. However, Wilson had a vague suspicion of Smith, Smith's alliance with the more moderate side of the Labour Party meant that no such invitation was made. In early 1965, George Brown appointed Smith as chairman of the Northern Economic Planning Council, on which he served until 1970. Smith was to serve on the Buchanan Committee on traffic management and the Redcliffe-Maud Commission on local government. On the latter he promoted a scheme whereby England would be divided into five provinces with wide devolution, making Manchester the capital of the North province with 17,000,000 people, he was a member of the Royal Commission on Local Government in England from 1966 to 1969 and was chairman of the Peterlee and Aycliffe Development Corporation from 1968 to 1970.
Smith's PR firm was involved with Wandsworth Borough Cou
City of Newcastle
The City of Newcastle is a local government area in the Hunter region of New South Wales, Australia. The City of Newcastle incorporates much of the area of the Newcastle metropolitan area; the Lord Mayor of City of Newcastle Council is a Labor politician. Nelmes was elected at a by-election on 15 November 2014 following the resignation of Jeff McCloy, the former Lord Mayor. Following the passing of the Municipalities Act 1858 by the New South Wales parliament, the Municipality of Newcastle was proclaimed on 7 June 1859; the new Municipality was divided into three wards - City and Honeysuckle. Eight years the Municipalities Act 1867 classified the Newcastle Municipality as a "Borough"; the Greater Newcastle Act 1937 merged the City of Newcastle with 10 of its suburban municipalities to form the City of Greater Newcastle. The Act transferred parts of the Lake Macquarie Shire and Tarro Shire to the new city; the amalgamations and transfers took effect from 2 April 1938. The newly created City of Greater Newcastle was subsequently renamed to City of Newcastle on 23 March 1949.
After a 2015 review of local government boundaries by the NSW Government Independent Pricing and Regulatory Tribunal found that Newcastle City Council was not "fit for the future", it was recommended that the City of Newcastle merge with Lake Macquarie City Council. However, the Minister for Local Government subsequently proposed that Newcastle City Council instead merge with Port Stephens Council to form a new council with an area of 1,045 km2 and support a population of 230,000; the outcome of an independent review was completed by mid–2016. On 14 February 2017, the NSW Government announced it would not be proceeding with further regional council mergers, including the Newcastle City Council and Port Stephens Council merger. At the 2011 census, there were 148,535 people in the City of Newcastle local government area, of these 49.2 per cent were male and 50.8 per cent were female. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people made up 2.6 per cent of the population, marginally higher than the national and state averages of 2.5 per cent.
The median age of people in the City of Newcastle was 37 years, equal to the national median. Children aged 0 – 14 years made up 17.0 per cent of the population and people aged 65 years and over made up 15.4 per cent of the population. Of people in the area aged 15 years and over, 41.6 per cent were married and 12.6 per cent were either divorced or separated. Population growth in the City of Newcastle between the 2001 census and the 2006 census was 3.91 per cent. When compared with total population growth of Australia for the same periods, being 5.78 per cent and 8.32 per cent population growth in the City of Newcastle local government area was lower than the national average. The median weekly income for residents within the City of Newcastle was marginally lower than the national average. At the 2011 census, the proportion of residents in the City of Newcastle local government area who stated their ancestry as Australian or Anglo-Saxon exceeded 76 per cent of all residents. In excess of 56% of all residents in the City of Newcastle nominated a religious affiliation with Christianity at the 2011 census, higher than the national average of 50.2 per cent.
Meanwhile, as at the census date, compared to the national average, households in the City of Newcastle local government area had a lower than average proportion where two or more languages are spoken. Newcastle City Council is composed of thirteen Councillors, including the Lord Mayor, for a fixed four-year term of office; the Lord Mayor is directly elected while the twelve other Councillors are elected proportionally as four separate wards, each electing three Councillors. The most recent election was held on 8 September 2012; the Lord Mayor elected at that time, Jeff McCloy, resigned in 2014, a by-election for Lord Mayor was held on 15 November 2014. The current makeup of the Council, including the Lord Mayor, is as follows: The current Council, elected in September 2017 in order of election by ward is: Newcastle Council has sister city relations with the following cities: Docherty, James; the Second City: Social and Urban Change in Newcastle, New South Wales 1900 - c. 1929. Australian National University.
Retrieved 30 November 2018
Metropolitan Borough of Bolton
The Metropolitan Borough of Bolton is a metropolitan borough of Greater Manchester, England. It is named after its largest settlement, the large town of Bolton, but covers a far larger area which includes Blackrod, Horwich and Westhoughton, a suburban and rural element from the West Pennine Moors; the borough has a population of 276,800, is administered from Bolton Town Hall. The boundaries the Bolton metropolitan district were set as part of the provisions of the Local Government Act 1972, cover an amalgamation of eight former local government districts; the metropolitan districts of Bury and Wigan lie to the east and west respectively. The metropolitan borough was formed on 1 April 1974, by the merger of the County Borough of Bolton and the following districts from the administrative county of Lancashire: Municipal Borough of Farnworth Urban District of Blackrod Urban District of Horwich Urban District of Kearsley Urban District of Little Lever Urban District of Westhoughton the southern part of Turton Urban District the villages of Bradshaw, Bromley Cross, Dunscar and Harwood.
This area is now known as South Turton. Bolton Council unsuccessfully petitioned Elizabeth II for the Metropolitan Borough of Bolton to be granted city status in 1992, in 2000, in 2002, 2012. Horwich and Blackrod are now constituted as civil parishes. There are three town councils in the metropolitan borough, Westhoughton Town Council, Horwich Town Council and Blackrod Town Council; the rest of the metropolitan borough, Farnworth, Little Lever, South Turton, have remained unparished areas since 1974. According to the 2009 estimates, of the 265,100 people living in Bolton Metropolitan Borough, the following ethnicities have been recorded: 88.0% White 85.9% White British 1.2% Other White 0.8% White Irish 9.3% South Asian 5.9% Indian 2.7% Pakistani 0.5% Other South Asian 0.2% Bangladeshi 1.2% Mixed Race 0.5% White and Asian 0.4% White and Black Caribbean 0.2% White and Black African 0.2% Other Mixed 1.0% Black 0.6% Black African 0.4% Black Caribbean 0.1% Other Black 0.6% Other 0.3% Chinese 0.3% Other The table below details the population change since 1801, including the percentage change since the last available census data.
Although the Metropolitan Borough of Bolton has only existed since 1974, figures have been generated by combining data from the towns and civil parishes that would be constituent parts of the borough. The Bolton metropolitan area is served by the following railway stations: Bolton Trinity Street – a town-centre transport interchange Bromley Cross Hall i' th' Wood Blackrod Horwich Parkway Lostock Westhoughton Moses Gate Farnworth Kearsley Daisy Hill In 2007, Bolton was ranked 69th out of the 149 Local Education Authorities – and sixth out of ten in Greater Manchester – for its National Curriculum assessment performance. Measured on the percentage of pupils attaining at least 5 A*–C grades at GCSE including maths and English, the Bolton LEA was 111th out of 149: 40.1% of pupils achieved this objective, against a national average of 46.7%. Unauthorised absence from Bolton's secondary schools in the 2006/2007 academic year was 1.4%, in line with the national average, authorised absence was 6.0% against the national average of 6.4%.
At GCSE level, Bolton School was the most successful of Bolton's 21 secondary schools, with 99% of pupils achieving at least 5 A*–C grades at including maths and English. The University of Bolton is one of Greater Manchester's four universities. In 2008, The Times Good University Guide ranked it 111th of 113 institutions in Britain. There are 4,440 students. In 2007 there were 8.8 applications for every place, student satisfaction was recorded as 74.4%. It is one of Britain's newest universities, having been given this status in 2005; the table on the left shows the percentage of students gaining five A* to C grades, including English and Maths, for secondary schools in the Metropolitan Borough of Bolton. The table on the right shows the Average Total Point Score per Student for secondary schools in the Metropolitan Borough of Bolton. Schools highlighted in yellow are above the LEA average. Another secondary school, Bolton Muslim Girls' School, has opened since January 2007. Source: Department for Children and Families The Metropolitan Borough of Bolton has two twin towns, one in France and another in Germany.
Bolton local elections List of Mayors of Bolton List of people from Bolton
The Ouseburn is a small river in Tyne and Wear, England that flows through the city of Newcastle upon Tyne into the River Tyne. It gives its name to the Ouseburn electoral ward; the Ouseburn has its source at Callerton in the north of the city near Newcastle Airport. It flows through the Kingston Park area of the city, Newcastle Great Park, Gosforth Park and Whitebridge Park; the Ouseburn continues through Paddy Freeman's Park in South Gosforth and into Jesmond Dene, Armstrong Park and Heaton Park, where it marks the boundary between Heaton and Sandyford. The river flows through a culvert before re-emerging under Ouseburn railway viaduct, whence it flows past the City Farm, Seven Stories and the Toffee Factory and meets the River Tyne; the river was tidal from the Viaduct, revealing dark mud at low tide. However, since 2009 a tidal barrage at the river mouth retains high water in the Ouseburn at low tide, with the objective of providing a more pleasant environment alongside its banks at low tide, thus promoting development.
Despite the expense of its construction, the Ouseburn barrage has had operational problems and was left open for a length of time while they were corrected. The lower Ouseburn Valley, whilst industrialised in the past, serves as of 2013 as a hub for the arts and creative industries, has a lively pub scene, noted for live music and real ale. In Roman times the lower Ouseburn Valley was crossed by Hadrian's Wall, but there are now no visible traces to be seen. On the eastern side of the valley there is an information board with an artist's impression of the Wall crossing the valley; this section of the Wall was the extension from the Roman fort of Pons Aelius to that of Segedunum. Ouseburn Valley List of rivers of England Newcastle Council Ward Info: Ouseburn Ouseburn Trust Ouseburn Guide Victoria Tunnel
Birmingham is the second-most populous city in the United Kingdom, after London, the most populous city in the English Midlands. It is the most populous metropolitan district in the United Kingdom, with an estimated 1,137,123 inhabitants, is considered the social, cultural and commercial centre of the Midlands, it is the main local government of the West Midlands conurbation, the third most populated urban area in the United Kingdom, with a population of 2,897,303 in 2017. The wider Birmingham metropolitan area is the second largest in the United Kingdom with a population of over 4.3 million. It is referred to as the United Kingdom's "second city". A market town in the medieval period, Birmingham grew in the 18th-century Midlands Enlightenment and subsequent Industrial Revolution, which saw advances in science and economic development, producing a series of innovations that laid many of the foundations of modern industrial society. By 1791 it was being hailed as "the first manufacturing town in the world".
Birmingham's distinctive economic profile, with thousands of small workshops practising a wide variety of specialised and skilled trades, encouraged exceptional levels of creativity and innovation and provided an economic base for prosperity, to last into the final quarter of the 20th century. The Watt steam engine was invented in Birmingham; the resulting high level of social mobility fostered a culture of political radicalism which, under leaders from Thomas Attwood to Joseph Chamberlain, was to give it a political influence unparalleled in Britain outside London, a pivotal role in the development of British democracy. From the summer of 1940 to the spring of 1943, Birmingham was bombed by the German Luftwaffe in what is known as the Birmingham Blitz; the damage done to the city's infrastructure, in addition to a deliberate policy of demolition and new building by planners, led to extensive urban regeneration in subsequent decades. Birmingham's economy is now dominated by the service sector.
The city is a major international commercial centre, ranked as a beta- world city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network. Its metropolitan economy is the second largest in the United Kingdom with a GDP of $121.1bn, its six universities make it the largest centre of higher education in the country outside London. Birmingham's major cultural institutions – the City of Birmingham Symphony Orchestra, the Birmingham Royal Ballet, the Birmingham Repertory Theatre, the Library of Birmingham and the Barber Institute of Fine Arts – enjoy international reputations, the city has vibrant and influential grassroots art, music and culinary scenes. Birmingham is the fourth-most. People from Birmingham are called Brummies, a term derived from the city's nickname of "Brum", which originates from the city's old name, which in turn is thought to have derived from "Bromwich-ham"; the Brummie accent and dialect are distinctive. Birmingham's early history is that of a marginal area; the main centres of population and wealth in the pre-industrial English Midlands lay in the fertile and accessible river valleys of the Trent, the Severn and the Avon.
The area of modern Birmingham lay in between, on the upland Birmingham Plateau and within the densely wooded and sparsely populated Forest of Arden. There is evidence of early human activity in the Birmingham area dating back to around 8000 BC, with stone age artefacts suggesting seasonal settlements, overnight hunting parties and woodland activities such as tree felling; the many burnt mounds that can still be seen around the city indicate that modern humans first intensively settled and cultivated the area during the bronze age, when a substantial but short-lived influx of population occurred between 1700 BC and 1000 BC caused by conflict or immigration in the surrounding area. During the 1st-century Roman conquest of Britain, the forested country of the Birmingham Plateau formed a barrier to the advancing Roman legions, who built the large Metchley Fort in the area of modern-day Edgbaston in AD 48, made it the focus of a network of Roman roads. Birmingham as a settlement dates from the Anglo-Saxon era.
The city's name comes from the Old English Beormingahām, meaning the home or settlement of the Beormingas – indicating that Birmingham was established in the 6th or early 7th century as the primary settlement of an Anglian tribal grouping and regio of that name. Despite this early importance, by the time of the Domesday Book of 1086 the manor of Birmingham was one of the poorest and least populated in Warwickshire, valued at only 20 shillings, with the area of the modern city divided between the counties of Warwickshire and Worcestershire; the development of Birmingham into a significant urban and commercial centre began in 1166, when the Lord of the Manor Peter de Bermingham obtained a charter to hold a market at his castle, followed this with the creation of a planned market town and seigneurial borough within his demesne or manorial estate, around the site that became the Bull Ring. This established Birmingham as the primary commercial centre for the Birmingham Plateau at a time when the area's economy was expanding with population growth nationally leading to the clearance and settlement of marginal land.
Within a century of the charter Birmingham had grown into a prosperous urban centre of merchants and craftsmen. By 1327 it was the third-largest town in Warwickshire, a position it would retain for the next 200 years; the principal governing institutions of medieval Birmingham – including the Guild of the Ho