Ordnance Survey is the national mapping agency of the United Kingdom which covers the island of Great Britain. Since 1 April 2015 part of Ordnance Survey has operated as Ordnance Survey Ltd, a government-owned company, 100% in public ownership; the Ordnance Survey Board remains accountable to the Secretary of State for Business and Industrial Strategy. It is a member of the Public Data Group; the agency's name indicates its original military purpose, to map Scotland in the wake of the Jacobite rising of 1745. There was a more general and nationwide need in light of the potential threat of invasion during the Napoleonic Wars. Ordnance Survey mapping is classified as either "large-scale" or "small-scale"; the Survey's large-scale mapping comprises 1:2,500 maps for 1:10,000 more generally. These large scale maps are used in professional land-use contexts and were available as sheets until the 1980s, when they were digitised. Small-scale mapping for leisure use includes the 1:25,000 "Explorer" series, the 1:50,000 "Landranger" series and the 1:250,000 road maps.
These are still available in traditional sheet form. Ordnance Survey maps remain in copyright for fifty years after their publication; some of the Copyright Libraries hold complete or near-complete collections of pre-digital OS mapping. The origins of the Ordnance Survey lie in the aftermath of the Jacobite rising of 1745, defeated by forces loyal to the government at the Battle of Culloden in 1746. Prince William, Duke of Cumberland realised that the British Army did not have a good map of the Scottish Highlands to locate Jacobite dissenters such as Simon Fraser, 11th Lord Lovat so that they could be put on trial. In 1747, Lieutenant-Colonel David Watson proposed the compilation of a map of the Highlands to help to subjugate the clans. In response, King George II charged Watson with making a military survey of the Highlands under the command of the Duke of Cumberland. Among Watson's assistants were William Roy, Paul Sandby and John Manson; the survey was produced at a scale of 1 inch to 1000 yards and included "the Duke of Cumberland's Map", now held in the British Library.
Roy had an illustrious career in the Royal Engineers, rising to the rank of General, he was responsible for the British share of the work in determining the relative positions of the French and British royal observatories. This work was the starting point of the Principal Triangulation of Great Britain, led to the creation of the Ordnance Survey itself. Roy's technical skills and leadership set the high standard. Work was begun in earnest in 1790 under Roy's supervision, when the Board of Ordnance began a national military survey starting with the south coast of England. Roy's birthplace near Carluke in South Lanarkshire is today marked by a memorial in the form of a large OS trig point. By 1791 the Board received the newer Ramsden theodolite, work began on mapping southern Great Britain using a five-mile baseline on Hounslow Heath that Roy himself had measured. In 1991 Royal Mail marked the bicentenary by issuing a set of postage stamps featuring maps of the Kentish village of Hamstreet. In 1801 the first one-inch-to-the-mile map was published, detailing the county of Kent, with Essex following shortly afterwards.
The Kent map was published and stopped at the county border, while the Essex maps were published by Ordnance Survey and ignore the county border, setting the trend for future Ordnance Survey maps. In the next 20 years about a third of England and Wales was mapped at the same scale under the direction of William Mudge, as other military matters took precedence, it took until 1823 to re-establish a relationship with the French survey made by Roy in 1787. By 1810 one inch to the mile maps of most of the south of England were completed, but they were withdrawn from sale between 1811 and 1816 because of security fears. By 1840 the one-inch survey had covered all of Wales and all but the six northernmost counties of England, it was hard work: Major Thomas Colby, the longest-serving Director General of Ordnance Survey, walked 586 miles in 22 days on a reconnaissance in 1819. In 1824, Colby and most of his staff moved to Ireland to work on a six-inches-to-the-mile valuation survey; the survey of Ireland, county by county, was completed in 1846.
The suspicions and tensions it caused in rural Ireland are the subject of Brian Friel's play Translations. Colby was not only involved in the design of specialist measuring equipment, he established a systematic collection of place names, reorganised the map-making process to produce clear, accurate plans. Place names were recorded in "Name Books", a system first used in Ireland; the instructions for their use were: The persons employed on the survey are to endeavour to obtain the correct orthography of the names of places by diligently consulting the best authorities within their reach. The name of each place is to be inserted as it is spelt, in the first column of the name book and the various modes of spelling it used in books, writings &c. are to be inserted in the second column, with the authority placed in the third column opposite to each. Whilst these procedures produced excellent results, mistakes were made: for instance, the Pilgrims Way in the North Downs labelled the wrong route
Fire services in the United Kingdom
The fire services in the United Kingdom operate under separate legislative and administrative arrangements in England and Wales, Northern Ireland, Scotland. Emergency cover is provided by over fifty agencies; these are known as a fire and rescue service, the term used in modern legislation and by government departments. The older terms of fire brigade and fire service survive in informal usage and in the names of a few organisations. England and Wales have local fire services which are each overseen by a fire authority, made up of representatives of local governments. Fire authorities have the power to raise a Council Tax levy for funding, with the remainder coming from the government. Scotland and Northern Ireland have centralised fire services, so their authorities are committees of the devolved parliaments; the total budget for fire services in 2014-15 was £2.9 billion. Central government maintains national standards and a body of independent advisers through the Chief Fire and Rescue Adviser, created in 2007, while Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Constabulary and Fire & Rescue Services provides direct oversight.
The devolved government in Scotland has HMFSI Scotland. Firefighters in the United Kingdom are allowed to join unions, the main one being the Fire Brigades Union, while chief fire officers are members of the National Fire Chiefs Council, which has some role in national co-ordination; the fire services have undergone significant changes since the beginning of the 21st century, a process, propelled by a devolution of central government powers, new legislation and a change to operational procedures in the light of terrorism attacks and threats. See separate article History of fire safety legislation in the United Kingdom Comprehensive list of recent UK fire and rescue service legislation: Fire services are established and granted their powers under new legislation which has replaced a number of Acts of Parliament dating back more than 60 years, but is still undergoing change. 1938: Fire Brigades Act 1938. This Act provided for centralised co-ordination of fire brigades in Great Britain and made it mandatory for local authorities to arrange an effective fire service.
1947: Fire Services Act 1947 This Act transferred the functions of the National Fire Service to local authorities. Now repealed in England and Wales by Schedule 2 of the Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004. 1959: Fire Services Act 1959 This Act amended the 1947 Act. It was repealed in Wales along with the 1947 Act. 1999: Greater London Authority Act 1999 This act was necessary to allow for the formation of the Greater London Authority and in turn the London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority. In 2002, there was a series of national fire strikes, with much of the discontent caused by the aforementioned report into the fire service conducted by Prof Sir George Bain. In December 2002, the Independent Review of the Fire Service was published with the industrial action still ongoing. Bain's report led to a change in the laws relating to firefighting. 2002: Independent Review of the Fire Service published 2004: Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004 only applying to England and Wales. 2006: The Regulatory Reform Order 2005 This piece of secondary legislation or statutory instrument replaces several other acts that dealt with fire precautions and fire safety in premises, including the now defunct process of issuing fire certificates.
It came into force on 1 October 2006. The DfCLG has published a set of guides for non-domestic premises: 2006: The Government of Wales Act 2006 gave the National Assembly for Wales powers to pass laws on "Fire and rescue services. Promotion of fire safety otherwise than by prohibition or regulation." But does not prevent future legislation being passed by the UK government which applies to two or more constituent countries. There are further plans to modernise the fire service according to the Local Government Association, its website outlines future changes, specific projects: "The aim of the Fire Modernisation Programme is to adopt modern work practices within the Fire & Rescue Service to become more efficient and effective, while strengthening the contingency and resilience of the Service to react to incidents. " The fire service in England and Wales is scrutinised by a House of Commons select committee. In June 2006, the fire and rescue service select committee, under the auspices of the Communities and Local Government Committee, published its latest report.
Committee report The committee's brief is described on its website: The Communities and Local Government Committee is appointed by the House of Commons to examine the expenditure and policy of the Department for Communities and Local Government and its associated bodies. Government response This document, the subsequent government response in September 2006, are important as they outlined progress on the FiReControl, efforts to address diversity and the planned closure of HMFSI in 2007 among many issues. Both documents are interesting as they refer back to Professor Bain's report and the many recommendations it made and continue to put forward the notion that there is an ongoing need to modernise FRSs. For example, where FRSs were inspected by HMFSI, much of this work is now carried out by the National Audit Office. Fire Control On 8 February 2010 the House of Commons Communities and Local Governm
Paul is a village in Cornwall, United Kingdom. It is in the civil parish of Penzance; the village is one mile south of Newlyn. The village of Paul should not be confused with the civil parish of Paul, which lies west of the village and does not include the village of Paul. Like many Cornish communities Paul has its own community celebration. Paul Feast is held on the Sunday nearest 10 October every year when the village is decorated and a civic service takes place on the Sunday of the feast itself led by the Mayor of Penzance. Much of the history of Paul is connected with its parish church; the church itself is said to have been founded in 490, a uncertain date and not documented, by Paul Aurelian, a Welsh saint known in Brittany as Paol Aurelian in Breton. There is no historical evidence to support his coming to West Penwith, he was founder of the cathedral at the city named after him. However this church could have been dedicated to Paul the Apostle, or Paulinus of York, there is no documentary evidence to prove any of these three Saint Pauls was the original dedicatee of the church.
It was only named'St. Pol-de-Leon' in 1907 and is connected with Henry Jenner who opposed alleged'Englishness' and stamp consistent spelling of Cornish place names on OS maps; the first documented name for Paul Church comes from the registers of Bishop Bronescombe, when on 2 May 1259 the first recorded priest was installed, as Rector in his own right, in the'Ecclesie Sancti Paulini'--Church of Saint Paulinus. Paul village, original name'Brewinney' and its church have a long association with Mousehole and the church has served as this community's parish church since its inception. Paul was one of the communities along with Mousehole and Penzance to be destroyed in the Spanish raid of 1595 carried out by Carlos de Amésquita. Captain Stephen Hutchens bequeathed £500 to the building of almshouses and the maintenance of six poor men and six poor women born in the parish. At the beginning of the 19th-century it was found that the almshouses, instead of being administered as bequeathed, were being used as a workhouse for all the poor of the parish.
A new poor house was built on Trungle Moor. Within the village churchyard there is a memorial to Dolly Pentreath and disputedly the last native speaker of Cornish; this memorial was placed there by Louis Lucien Bonaparte, a relative of Napoleon Bonaparte, the Vicar of Paul in the 19th century. The Cornish language writers Nicholas Boson, Thomas Boson and John Boson are all buried in Paul Churchyard, a monument in the church by John Boson is the only surviving lapidary inscription in traditional Cornish; the ancient parish of Paul included Newlyn and Mousehole as well as the village of Paul. In 1851 Newlyn was separated to form the new ecclesiastical parish of Newlyn St Peter; the ancient parish became a civil parish in 1866, in 1894 became the Paul Urban District. The urban district was abolished in 1934. Newlyn and the villages of Paul and Mousehole were transferred from the civil parish and urban district of Paul to the municipal borough of Penzance, now the civil parish of Penzance; the western part of the civil parish of Paul remained a separate, smaller parish, from 1934 to 1974 in West Penwith Rural District.
The civil parish of Paul now consists of a number of scattered settlements west of the village at 50.09°N 5.58°W / 50.09. The population of the civil parish was 269 in 2011. Arthur Langdon recorded. One is at one at Halwyn and one at St Paul Down. There are crosses in the vicarage hedge and on the churchyard wall. In the north of the civil parish is Chyenhal Moor, a Site of Special Scientific Interest noted for its biological interest; the village of Paul is represented on Penzance Town Council. For elections to Cornwall Council Paul is within the three-member Penzance Electoral division. Paul Cricket Club home is at Hutchens Park Playing Field, Trungle Moor and they play in Division Two West. In 2007 the club came second in the Cornwall Cricket League and won the competition in 2010, to become Cornish champions for the only time. Adjacent to the cricket club is Mousehole AFC; the first team have played in Division One West of the South West Peninsula League since its inauguration in 2007. Their best season was 2013 -- 14.
Media related to Paul, Cornwall at Wikimedia Commons Media related to Paul at Wikimedia Commons GENUKI website.
A tsunami or tidal wave known as a seismic sea wave, is a series of waves in a water body caused by the displacement of a large volume of water in an ocean or a large lake. Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and other underwater explosions above or below water all have the potential to generate a tsunami. Unlike normal ocean waves, which are generated by wind, or tides, which are generated by the gravitational pull of the Moon and the Sun, a tsunami is generated by the displacement of water. Tsunami waves do not resemble normal undersea currents or sea waves because their wavelength is far longer. Rather than appearing as a breaking wave, a tsunami may instead resemble a rising tide. For this reason, it is referred to as a "tidal wave", although this usage is not favoured by the scientific community because it might give the false impression of a causal relationship between tides and tsunamis. Tsunamis consist of a series of waves, with periods ranging from minutes to hours, arriving in a so-called "internal wave train".
Wave heights of tens of metres can be generated by large events. Although the impact of tsunamis is limited to coastal areas, their destructive power can be enormous, they can affect entire ocean basins; the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami was among the deadliest natural disasters in human history, with at least 230,000 people killed or missing in 14 countries bordering the Indian Ocean. The Ancient Greek historian Thucydides suggested in his 5th century BC History of the Peloponnesian War that tsunamis were related to submarine earthquakes, but the understanding of tsunamis remained slim until the 20th century and much remains unknown. Major areas of current research include determining why some large earthquakes do not generate tsunamis while other smaller ones do; the term "tsunami" is a borrowing from the Japanese tsunami 津波, meaning "harbour wave". For the plural, one can either follow ordinary English practice and add an s, or use an invariable plural as in the Japanese; some English speakers alter the word's initial /ts/ to an /s/ by dropping the "t", since English does not natively permit /ts/ at the beginning of words, though the original Japanese pronunciation is /ts/.
Tsunamis are sometimes referred to as tidal waves. This once-popular term derives from the most common appearance of a tsunami, that of an extraordinarily high tidal bore. Tsunamis and tides both produce waves of water that move inland, but in the case of a tsunami, the inland movement of water may be much greater, giving the impression of an high and forceful tide. In recent years, the term "tidal wave" has fallen out of favour in the scientific community, because the causes of tsunamis have nothing to do with those of tides, which are produced by the gravitational pull of the moon and sun rather than the displacement of water. Although the meanings of "tidal" include "resembling" or "having the form or character of" the tides, use of the term tidal wave is discouraged by geologists and oceanographers. A 1969 episode of Hawaii Five-O entitled "Forty Feet High And It Kills!" used the terms "tsunami" and "tidal wave" interchangeably. The term seismic sea wave is used to refer to the phenomenon, because the waves most are generated by seismic activity such as earthquakes.
Prior to the rise of the use of the term tsunami in English, scientists encouraged the use of the term seismic sea wave rather than tidal wave. However, like tsunami, seismic sea wave is not a accurate term, as forces other than earthquakes – including underwater landslides, volcanic eruptions, underwater explosions, land or ice slumping into the ocean, meteorite impacts, the weather when the atmospheric pressure changes rapidly – can generate such waves by displacing water. While Japan may have the longest recorded history of tsunamis, the sheer destruction caused by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami event mark it as the most devastating of its kind in modern times, killing around 230,000 people; the Sumatran region is accustomed to tsunamis, with earthquakes of varying magnitudes occurring off the coast of the island. Tsunamis are an underestimated hazard in the Mediterranean Sea and parts of Europe. Of historical and current importance are the 1755 Lisbon earthquake and tsunami, the 1783 Calabrian earthquakes, each causing several tens of thousands of deaths and the 1908 Messina earthquake and tsunami.
The tsunami claimed more than 123,000 lives in Sicily and Calabria and is among the most deadly natural disasters in modern Europe. The Storegga Slide in the Norwegian Sea and some examples of tsunamis affecting the British Isles refer to landslide and meteotsunamis predominantly and less to earthquake-induced waves; as early as 426 BC the Greek historian Thucydides inquired in his book History of the Peloponnesian War about the causes of tsunami, was the first to argue that ocean earthquakes must be the cause. The cause, in my opinion, of this phenomenon must be sought in the earthquake. At the point where its shock has been the most violent the sea is driven back, recoiling with redoubled force, causes the inundation. Without an earthquake I do not see; the Roman historian Ammianus Marcellinus described the typical sequence of a tsunami, including an incipient earthquake, the sudden retreat of the sea and a followin
Penzance is a town, civil parish and port in Cornwall, in England, United Kingdom. It is the most westerly major town in Cornwall and is about 64 miles west-southwest of Plymouth and 255 miles west-southwest of London. Situated in the shelter of Mount's Bay, the town faces south-east onto the English Channel, is bordered to the west by the fishing port of Newlyn, to the north by the civil parish of Madron and to the east by the civil parish of Ludgvan; the civil parish includes the town of Newlyn and the villages of Mousehole, Paul and Heamoor. Granted various royal charters from 1512 onwards and incorporated on 9 May 1614, it has a population of 21,200. Penzance—Pennsans. There are no early documents mentioning an actual dedication to St Anthony which seems to depend on tradition and may be groundless; the only remaining object from this chapel is a carved figure, now eroded, known as "St Raffidy" which can be found in the churchyard of the parish church of St Mary's near the original site of the chapel.
Until the 1930s this history was reflected in the choice of symbol for the town, the severed "holy head" of St John the Baptist. It can still be seen on the civic regalia of the Mayor of Penzance and on several important landmarks in the town. About 400 prehistoric stone axes, known as Group 1 axes and made from greenstone, have been found all over Britain, which from petrological analysis appear to come from west Cornwall. Although the quarry has not been identified, it has been suggested that the Gear, a rock now submerged half a mile from the shore at Penzance, may be the site. A significant amount of trade is indicated; the earliest evidence of settlement in Penzance is from the Bronze Age. A number of bronze implements such as a palstave, a spear-head, a knife, pins, along with much pottery and large quantities of charcoal were discovered when building a new housing estate, at Tredarvah, to the west of Alverton; the defensive earthwork known as Lescudjack Castle is not excavated, but certainly belongs to the Iron Age.
A single rampart encloses three acres of hilltop, would have dominated the approach to the area from the east. There are no signs of the additional ramparts reported by William Hals in about 1730, the site is now surrounded by housing with allotments. Excavations in 2008, 1 kilometre to the west at Penwith College found an enclosure ditch and pottery indicating a settlement, an evolving field system with ditches and interconnecting pits suggesting water management. There are traces of a rampart and ditch to the west of Penzance at Mount Misery, an oval rampart and ditch at Lesingey above the St Just road, which together with Lescudjack, overlook the coast of Penzance and Newlyn; until there was little evidence for anything but an early and short Roman occupation of Cornwall, there have so far been only three finds in Penzance. In August 1899 two coins of Vespasian were found in an ancient trench in Penzance Cemetery; the coins were eight feet below ground together with some cow bones, are now in the Penlee House Museum.
Another coin, found in 1934 in the Alverton area, depicts the Roman sun god. It is described as a ″coin of the reign of Constantine the Great″, was donated to the museum. A 30 mm sestertius was found on a building site in or around Penzance about ten years and was presented to the Royal Institution of Cornwall. Larger quantities of Roman coins have been found nearby, at Marazion Marsh and Kerris in Paul parish, but there is no evidence of any Roman settlement in the area, although nearby villages such as Chysauster were occupied at this time; the Hundred of Penwith had its ancient centre at Connerton, now buried beneath the sands of Gwithian Towans at Gwithian. A Hundred was a Saxon administrative unit, sub-divided into tithings; the Manor of Alverton, with an area of 64 Cornish acres, gave its name to the second largest tithing in Penwith. The manor included Penzance as well as parts of Paul, St Buryan and Sancreed. Although Penzance is not mentioned in the survey document the Domesday Book, it is that the area would have been included.
Domesday records that in 1066 the Manor of Alwarton was owned by Alward, dispossessed by Robert, Count of Mortain, a half-brother of William the Conqueror. The name Alward and tun, a personal name combined with a town or settlement suffix, indicate Saxon land ownership. In Cornwall the tun indicates a manorial centre such as Connerton; the change of ownership in 1066 was a change from one alien landlord to another, the name Alverton lives on as the western part of Penzance from St John’s Hall, to the housing estate on the west side of the River Laregan. The first mention of the name Pensans is in the Assize Roll of 1284, the first mention of the actual church that gave Penzance its name is in a manuscript written by William Borlase in 1750: ″The ancient chapel belonging to the town of Penzance may be seen in a fish cellar, near the key. In around 1800 the chapel was converted to a fish cellar. A carving in "Ludgvan granite" thought to be of St Anthony was removed in about 1830 and was used in the wall of a pig sty, further vandalised in 1850 when "a stranger... taking fancy to the stony countenance and rough hands
Raid on Mount's Bay
The Raid on Mounts Bay known as the Spanish attack on Mounts Bay was a Spanish raid on Cornwall, that took place between 2 and 4 August 1595 during the Anglo-Spanish war of 1585-1604. It was conducted by a Spanish naval squadron led by Carlos de Amésquita on patrol from Brittany, France; the Spanish made landfall in Mount's Bay sacked and burned Newlyn, Mousehole and Paul, beating a militia force under Francis Godolphin in the process. In the wake of the defeat of the Spanish armada in 1588, King Philip II of Spain was reorganising his navy, he was intent on establishing advanced bases in western France from which his navy could threaten England and Ireland. In 1593 Blavet had been established by the Spanish in Brittany and news of this caused concern in England. Carlos de Amesquita commanded three companies of arquebusiers and four galleys from the fleet under Pedro de Zubiaur, he sailed on 26 July with the aim of raiding a part of the English coastline. There were a number of reasons - one was to regain the treasure and cargo ships captured by the English off Pernambuco four months earlier.
There were rumours that Francis Drake was preparing a major expedition against Panama and Spanish action could delay or defeat it. Another was to hold an English port or coastline which would be used as a base for raids and act as a powerful bargaining tool future peace negotiations. Cornwall since the Prayer Book Rebellion in 1549 in the eyes of the Spanish believed that many of the Cornish would convert back to the Catholic faith. After calling at Penmarch, they sank a French barque manned by an English crew and with a cargo bound for England. Amesquita's 400 men strong force sailed into Mount's Bay on 2 August, they were guided by English Catholic Richard Burley of Weymouth on to a rocky beach a few hundred yards to west of Mousehole's harbour. A group of Spaniards led by Don Leon de Ezpeleta and sergeant Major Juan De Arnica climbed a hill to gain a view of the country beyond; the Spanish galleys meanwhile came in close to shore and bombarded the defenceless town — many houses were burned and three men were killed.
Local resident Jenkyn Keigwin died from a cannonball while defending his house, the only one to survive any damage. A second group of Spaniards; the village was promptly sacked and burned. Four residents were killed here and a number were taken prisoner before the Spanish marched back to their galleys and re-embarked; the next day the galleys having moved from Mousehole sailed around the headland into Mounts Bay itself, with Penzance and Newlyn in their view. Having kept quite a distance from St Michaels Mount, Newlyn was set upon; the Spaniards advanced on Penzance with the galleys close to shore. By this time however the local militia which formed the cornerstone of the English anti-invasion measures and numbered five hundred men had been alerted and decided to make a stand, they were led by Deputy Lord Lieutenant. As the Spanish came ashore on the broad beach the militia attacked across the sands; the Spanish kept a detachment marched around the militia outflanking them. The ships sensing the trouble the Spaniards were in fired off shots into the militia as the Spanish musketeers attacked their flank.
The militia panicked, threw down their arms and fled. Some 100 light armed men, scattered by the Spanish artillery, sought shelter at Marazion. Penzance was bombarded by the Spanish galleys. Godolphin attempted to rally his men but they fled once again; the Spanish entered Penzance with no further resistance and the village was sacked except for St Mary’s church, saved as Burely having guided the Spanish pleaded for it to be spared having told Amesquita that the church once held Mass. At the end of the raid a traditional Catholic mass led by Brother Domingo Martinez was held in an open air field altar on the Western Hill outside of Penzance; the Spanish commander promised to build a Catholic church on this site within two years, once England had been conquered. Amesquita observed the growing number of Cornish militia having assembled before Marazion and St Michael's Mount. Bullets and arrows were fired which forced them away from the shore which discouraged a further attack there. In two days however the Spanish had taken what they needed, having burned Penzance and the villages of Mousehole and Newlyn.
On re-embarking soon afterwards on 4 August, Amesquita released all his prisoners ashore and the Spanish sailed off unmolested. Sir Nicholas Clifford arrived with a relieving force in the area but was too late to engage the Spaniards. Clifford was furious with the common folk blaming them for abandoning Godolphin. Mousehole unlike Penzance and Newlyn never recovered from the raid. On 5 August Amesquita met a Dutch squadron of 46 ships, sinking two of the Dutch ships and causing much damage to the others but at the cost of 20 men killed; the rest of the Dutch ships limped away. He stopped at Penmarch for repairs and arrived back at Port Louis on 10 August; the raid concerned Queen Elizabeth I and Lord Burghley who acted to make sure defences were improved. The raid was the only time in the whole course of the war that the
A conurbation is a region comprising a number of cities, large towns, other urban areas that, through population growth and physical expansion, have merged to form one continuous urban or industrially developed area. In most cases, a conurbation is a polycentric urbanised area, in which transportation has developed to link areas to create a single urban labour market or travel to work area; the term "conurbation" was coined in 1915 by Patrick Geddes in his book Cities In Evolution. He drew attention to the ability of the new technology of electric power and motorised transport to allow cities to spread and agglomerate together, gave as examples "Midlandton" in England, the Ruhr in Germany, Randstad in the Netherlands and North Jersey in the United States; the term as described is used in Britain, whereas in the United States each polycentric "metropolitan area" may have its own common designation, such as San Francisco Bay Area or the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex. Conurbation consists of adjacent metropolitan areas that are connected with one another by urbanization Internationally, the term "urban agglomeration" is used to convey a similar meaning to "conurbation."
A conurbation should be contrasted with a megalopolis, where the urban areas are close but not physically contiguous and where the merging of labour markets has not yet developed. The cities and towns of Port Louis, Beau Bassin-Rose Hill, Quatre Bornes, Vacoas-Phoenix and other urbanized villages form a large and central conurbation on the island of Mauritius. A large part of this conurbation is located in the district of Plaines Wilhems; this network of urban areas has a total population of 606,650 as of 2011. Rabat-Salé Lagos is a conurbation formed through the merged development of the initial Lagos city area with other cities and towns, such as Ikeja, along with various suburban communities like Agege, Ifako-Ijaiye, Mushin and Shomolu. Johannesburg and Tshwane are merging to form a region that has a population of 14.6 million. Greater Buenos Aires – Greater La Plata – Zárate / Campana The entire Rio–São Paulo area is sometimes considered a conurbation, plans are in the works to connect the cities with a high-speed rail.
Yet the government of Brazil does not consider this area a single unit for statistical purposes, population data may not be reliable. The "Golden Horseshoe" is a densely populated and industrialized region centred on the west end of Lake Ontario in Southern Ontario, Canada. Most of it is part of the Windsor-Quebec City corridor. With a population of 8.8 million people, the Golden Horseshoe makes up over a quarter of the population of Canada and contains 75% of Ontario's population, making it one of the largest population concentrations in North America. Although it is a geographically named sub-region of Southern Ontario, "Greater Golden Horseshoe" is more used today to describe the metropolitan regions that stretch across the area in totality; the largest cities in the region include Toronto, Oakville, Burlington, St. Catherines and Hamilton. Greater Montreal is Canada's 2nd largest conurbation, with Statistics Canada defining the Census Metropolitan Area as 4,258.31 square kilometres and a population of 3,824,221 as of 2011, which represents half of the population of the province of Quebec.
Smaller, there are 82 municipalities grouped under the Montreal Metropolitan Community to coordinate issues such as land planning and economic development. British Columbia's Lower Mainland is the most populated area in Western Canada, it consists of many mid-sized contiguous urban areas, including Vancouver, North Vancouver, Burnaby and Coquitlam. The Lower Mainland population is around 2.5 million and the area has one of the highest growth rates on the continent of up to 9.2 percent from the 2006 census. The National Capital Region is made up of the capital and neighbouring Gatineau, located across the Ottawa River; as Ottawa is in Ontario and Gatineau, this is a unique conurbation. Federal government buildings are located in both cities and many workers live in one city and work in the other; the National Capital Region consists of an area of 5,319 square kilometres that straddles the boundary between the provinces of Ontario and Quebec. The area of the National Capital Region is similar to that of the Ottawa-Gatineau Census Metropolitan Area, although the National Capital Region contains a number of small neighbouring communities that are not contained within the CMA.
When all the communities are added, the population is around 1,500,000. Ottawa-Gatineau is the only CMA in the nation to fall within two provinces; the Caribbean area, not considered to be part of a continent geographically speaking, has a conurbation in Puerto Rico consisting of San Juan, Bayamón, Carolina, Canóvanas, Trujillo Alto, Toa Alta, Toa Baja, Cataño, Caguas. This area is colloquially known as the "Área Metropolitana", houses around 1.4 million inhabitants spread over an area of 396.61 square kilometers. Thus, making it the largest city in the Caribbean by area. One example of a conurbation is the expansive concept of the New York metropolitan area centered on New York City, including 30 counties spread among New York State, New Jersey and Pennsylvania, with an estimated population of 21,961,994 in 2007. One-fifteenth of all U. S. residents live in the Greater New York City area. This conurbation is the result of se