Robert Moses was an American public official who worked in the New York metropolitan area. Known as the "master builder" of mid-20th century New York City, Long Island, Rockland County, Westchester County, he is sometimes compared to Baron Haussmann of Second Empire Paris, was one of the most polarizing figures in the history of urban development in the United States, his decisions favoring highways over public transit helped create the modern suburbs of Long Island and influenced a generation of engineers and urban planners who spread his philosophies across the nation despite his not having trained in those professions. Moses would call himself a "coordinator" and was referred to in the media as a "master builder". Robert Moses at one point held twelve titles, but was never elected to any public office, he created and led numerous public authorities that gave him autonomy from the general public and elected officials. Through these authorities, he controlled millions of dollars in income from his projects, such as tolls, he could issue bonds to borrow vast sums for new ventures with little or no input from legislative bodies.
This removed him from the power of the purse as it functioned in the United States, from the process of public comment on major public works. As a result of Moses' work, New York has the United States' greatest proportion of public benefit corporations, which are the prime mode of infrastructure building and maintenance in New York and account for most of the state's debt. Moses' projects were considered by many to be necessary for the region's development after the Great Depression. During the height of his powers, New York City built campuses to host two World's Fairs: one in 1939 and the other in 1964. Moses helped persuade the United Nations to locate its headquarters in Manhattan, instead of Philadelphia, by helping the state secure the money and land needed for the project. Moses' reputation was lastingly damaged by Robert Caro's Pulitzer-winning biography The Power Broker, which highlighted Moses's lust for power and racist tendencies, but the recognition of the lasting impact and audacity of his achievements has, in more recent years, led to another reappraisal of his legacy.
Moses was born in New Haven, Connecticut, to assimilated German Jewish parents and Emanuel Moses. He spent the first nine years of his life living at 83 Dwight Street in New Haven, two blocks from Yale University. In 1897, the Moses family moved to New York City, where they lived on East 46th Street off Fifth Avenue. Moses's father was a successful department store owner and real estate speculator in New Haven. In order for the family to move to New York City, he sold his real estate holdings and store and retired from business for the rest of his life. Moses's mother was active in the settlement movement, with her own love of building. Robert Moses and his brother Paul attended several schools for their elementary and secondary education, including the Dwight School and the Mohegan Lake School, a military academy near Peekskill. After graduating from Yale University and Wadham College and earning a Ph. D. in political science from Columbia University, Moses became attracted to New York City reform politics.
A committed idealist, he developed several plans to rid New York of patronage hiring practices, including being the lead author of a 1919 proposal to reorganize the New York state government. None went far, but Moses, due to his intelligence, caught the notice of Belle Moskowitz, a friend and trusted advisor to Governor Al Smith; when the state Secretary of State's position became appointive rather than elective, Smith named Moses. Moses rose to power with Smith, elected as governor in 1922, set in motion a sweeping consolidation of the New York State government. During that period Moses began his first foray into large scale public work initiatives, while drawing on Smith's political power to enact legislation; this helped create the State Council of Parks. This centralization allowed Smith to run a government used as a model for Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal federal government. Moses received numerous commissions that he carried out extraordinarily well, such as the development of Jones Beach State Park.
Displaying a strong command of law as well as matters of engineering, Moses became known for his skill in drafting legislation, was called "the best bill drafter in Albany". At a time when the public was accustomed to Tammany Hall corruption and incompetence, Moses was seen as a savior of government. Shortly after President Franklin D. Roosevelt's inauguration in 1933, the federal government found itself with millions of New Deal dollars to spend, yet states and cities had few projects ready. Moses was one of the few local officials. For that reason, New York City was able to obtain significant Works Progress Administration, Civilian Conservation Corps, other Depression-era funding. Moses was a great political talent who demonstrated great skill when constructing his roads, playground and house projects. One of his most influential and longest-lasting positions was that of Parks Commissioner of New York City, a role he served from January 18, 1934 to May 23, 1960; the many offices and professional titles that Moses held gave him unusually broad power to shape urban development in the New York metropolitan region.
Sir George Grey, KCB was a British soldier, colonial administrator and writer. He served in a succession of governing positions: Governor of South Australia, twice Governor of New Zealand, Governor of Cape Colony, the 11th Premier of New Zealand. Grey was born in Lisbon, just a few days after his father, Lieutenant-Colonel George Grey was killed at the Battle of Badajoz in Spain, he was educated in England. After military service and two explorations in Western Australia, Grey became Governor of South Australia in 1841, he oversaw the colony during a difficult formative period. Despite being seen as less hands-on than his predecessor George Gawler, his fiscally responsible measures ensured the colony was in good shape by the time he departed for New Zealand in 1845, he was arguably the most influential figure during the European settlement of New Zealand during much of the 19th century. Governor of New Zealand from 1845 to 1853, he established peace and became a pioneer scholar of the Māori culture, writing a study of their mythology and oral history.
He was knighted in 1848. In 1854, Grey was appointed Governor of Cape Colony in South Africa, where his resolution of hostilities between the natives and European settlers was praised by both sides. Grey was again appointed Governor of New Zealand in 1861, following the granting of a degree of self-governance to New Zealand, serving until 1868, he was appointed as Premier in 1877, in which capacity he served until 1879. By political philosophy a Gladstonian liberal and Georgist, Grey eschewed the class system for the prosaic life of Auckland's new governance he helped to establish. Grey was born in Lisbon, the only son of Bvt. Lieutenant-Colonel George Grey, of the 30th Regiment of Foot, killed at the Battle of Badajoz in Spain just a few days before, his mother, Elizabeth Anne née Vignoles, on the balcony of her hotel in Lisbon, overheard two officers speak of her husband's death and this brought on the premature birth of the child. She was the daughter of a retired soldier turned Irish clergyman, Major Rev. John Vignoles.
Grey's grandfather was Owen Wynne Gray. Grey's uncle was John Gray, Owen Wynne Gray's son from his second marriage. Grey was sent to the Royal Grammar School, Guildford in Surrey, was admitted to the Royal Military College in 1826. Early in 1830, he was gazetted ensign in the 83rd Regiment of Foot. In 1830, his regiment having been sent to Ireland, he developed much sympathy with the Irish peasantry whose misery made a great impression on him, he was promoted lieutenant in 1833 and obtained a first-class certificate at the examinations of the Royal Military College, Sandhurst, in 1836. In 1837, at the age of 25, Grey led an ill-prepared expedition. British settlers in Australia at the time knew little of the region and only one member of Grey's party had been there before, it was believed possible at that time that one of the world's largest rivers might drain into the Indian Ocean in North-West Australia. Grey, with Lieutenant Franklin Lushington, of the 9th Regiment of Foot, offered to explore the region.
On 5 July 1837, they sailed from Plymouth in command of a party of five, the others being Lushington. Others joined the party at Cape Town, early in December they landed at Hanover Bay. Traveling south, the party traced the course of the Glenelg River. After experiencing boat wrecks, near-drowning, becoming lost, Grey himself being speared in the hip during a skirmish with Aboriginal people, the party gave up. After being picked up by HMS Beagle and the schooner Lynher, they were taken to Mauritius to recover. Two years Grey returned to Western Australia and was again wrecked with his party, again including Surgeon Walker, at Kalbarri. At about this time, Grey learnt the Noongar language. In July 1839, Grey was promoted to captain and appointed temporary Resident Magistrate at King George Sound, Western Australia, following the death of Sir Richard Spencer RN KCH, the previous Resident Magistrate. On 2 November 1839 at King George Sound, Grey married Eliza Lucy Spencer, daughter of the late Government Resident.
Their only child, born in 1841 in South Australia, died aged 5 months. It was not a happy marriage. Grey, obstinate in his domestic affairs as in his first expedition, accused his wife unjustly of flirting with Rear Admiral Sir Henry Keppel on the voyage to Cape Town taken in 1860, she lived a life of misery until old age brought a formal reunion, but co-existed unhappily until 1897. Grey adopted Annie Maria Matthews in 1861, following the death of her father, his half-brother, Sir Godfrey Thomas, she married Seymour Thorne George on 3 December 1872 on Kawau Island. Grey was the third Governor of South Australia, from May 1841 to October 1845, as a replacement for George Gawler, under whose stewardship the colony had become bankrupt through massive spending on public infrastructure. Gawler was held responsible for the illegal retribution exacted by Major O'Halloran on an Aboriginal tribe, some of whose members had murdered all 25 survivors of the Maria shipwreck. G
Great Barrier Island
Great Barrier Island lies in the outer Hauraki Gulf, New Zealand, 100 kilometres north-east of central Auckland. With an area of 285 square kilometres it is the sixth-largest island of New Zealand and fourth-largest in the main chain, its highest point, Mount Hobson, is 627 metres above sea level. The local authority is the Auckland Council; the island was exploited for its minerals and kauri trees and saw only limited agriculture. In 2013, it was inhabited by 939 people living from farming and tourism; the majority of the island is administered as a nature reserve by the Department of Conservation. In 2009 the island atmosphere was described as being "life in New Zealand many decades back". With an area of 285 square kilometres, Great Barrier Island is the sixth-largest island in New Zealand after the South Island, the North Island, Stewart Island/Rakiura, Chatham Island, Auckland Island; the highest point, Mount Hobson or Hirakimata, is 627 metres above sea level. Great Barrier is surrounded by several smaller islands, including Kaikoura Island, Rakitu Island, Aiguilles Island and Dragon Island.
A number of islands are located in Great Barrier bays, including Motukahu Island, Nelson Island, Kaikoura Island, Broken Islands, Motutaiko Island, Rangiahua Island, Little Mahuki Island, Mahuki Island and Junction Islands. The island's European name stems from its location on the outskirts of the Hauraki Gulf. With a maximum length of some 43 kilometres, it and the Coromandel Peninsula protect the gulf from the storms of the Pacific Ocean to the east; the island boasts contrasting coastal environments. The eastern coast comprises long, clear beaches, windswept sand-dunes, heavy surf; the western coast and calm, is home to hundreds of tiny, secluded bays which offer some of the best diving and boating in the country. The inland holds several large and biologically diverse wetlands, along with rugged hill country, as well as old-growth and regenerating kauri forests; the island received its European name from Captain Cook because it acts as a barrier between the Pacific Ocean and the Hauraki Gulf.
The Māori name is Aotea. Entrance to the Hauraki Gulf is via one on each side of the island. Colville Channel separates the southernmost point, Cape Barrier, from Cape Colville at the northern tip of the Coromandel Peninsula to the south, Cradock Channel from the smaller Little Barrier Island to the west; the island protects the gulf from the ocean surface waves and the currents of the South Pacific Gyre. It is not a sandbar barrier defined as the correct use of the term. Early European interest followed discovery of copper in the remote north, where New Zealand's earliest mines were established at Miners Head in 1842. Traces of these mines remain accessible only by boat. Gold and silver were found in the Okupu / Whangaparapara area in the 1890s, the remains of a stamping battery on the Whangaparapara Road are a remainder of this time; the sound of the battery working was reputedly audible from the Coromandel Peninsula, 20 km away. In early 2010, a government proposal to remove 705 ha of land on the Te Ahumata Plateau from Schedule 4 of the Crown Minerals Act, which gives protection from the mining of public land, was criticised.
Concerns were that mining for the suspected $4.3 billion in mineral worth in the area would damage both the conservation land as well as the island's tourism economy. Locals were split on some hoping for new jobs. If restarted, mining at White Cliffs would occur in the same area it proliferated on Great Barrier; the area's regenerating bushland still holds numerous semi-collapsed or open mining shafts where silver and gold had been mined. The kauri logging industry was profitable in early European days and up to the mid-20th century. Forests were well inland, with no easy way to get the logs to sawmills. Kauri logs were dragged to a convenient stream bed with steep sides and a driving dam was constructed of wood, with a lifting gate near the bottom large enough for the logs to pass through; when the dam had filled, which might take up to a year, the gate was opened and the logs above the dam were pushed out through the hole and swept down to the sea. The logging industry cut down large amounts of old growth, most of the current growth is younger native forest as well as some remaining kauri in the far north of the island.
Much of the island is covered with regenerating bush dominated by kauri. Great Barrier Island was the site of New Zealand's last whaling station, at Whangaparapara, which opened in 1956, over a century after the whaling industry peaked in New Zealand, closed due to depletion of whaling stocks and increasing protection of whales by 1962; some remains can be visited. Another small-scale industry was kauri gum digging, while dairy farming and sheep farming have tended to play a small role compared to the usual New Zealand practice. A fishing industry collapsed. Islanders are occupied in tourism, farming or service-related industries when not working off-island; the remote north was the site of the sinking of the SS Wairarapa around midnight of 29 October 1894. This was one of New Zealand's worst shipwrecks, with about 140 lives lost, some of them buried in two beach grave sites in the far north; as a result, a Great Barrier Island pigeon post service was set up, the first message being flown on 14 May 1897.
Special postage stamps w
Western Springs is a residential suburb and park in the city of Auckland in the north of New Zealand. It is located four kilometres to the west of the city centre, Auckland CBD; the park is situated to the north of State Highway 16 and the residential suburb is located southeast of the park on the opposite side of State Highway 16. The suburb is dominated by the large park, within which are situated Auckland Zoo, Western Springs Stadium and M. O. T. A. T.. The park is the location of the annual Pasifika Festival, one of Auckland's most popular public events. Across the road from the zoo is the school of Western Springs College, with a student population of around 1459; the Māori valued Waiorea for eels that lived in the stream. After colonisation, the area was part of a block of land farmed by William Motion, a Scottish settler; the area was called Western Springs to differentiate it from the springs in the Auckland Domain to the east of the town. The main source of the water that feeds the lake at Western Springs is rain falling on the slopes of the volcanoes Te Tatua-a-Riukiuta, Mount Albert and Maungawhau / Mount Eden.
The water runs underground for several miles through the lava flows, emerges from the ground at a constant rate, well filtered by the miles of scoria rocks. As the city of Auckland grew, it found. In the 1860s a pipe from the Domain Springs was constructed but in 1874 the city bought William Motions' mill and 120 acres of land including the spring. In 1875, the swampy ground was made into a 15-acre artificial lake 6 feet in depth and capable of holding 22 million gallons of water; the scale of this work is revealed by the fact that Mr. Blewdon and his men removed 20,000 cartloads of spoil from the site and used 7,850 cubic yards of earth to construct the embankment, 40 feet wide at the base and 9 feet wide at the crest, they excavated the 25 feet deep Engine Pond and dug a 60 feet long tunnel between the lake and the Engine House. A pumphouse was built of brick, it was fitted with a steam engine, known as a beam engine, still in working order having been restored. The engine pumped water up to the two new reservoirs.
The cost of maintaining the pump was high however and by the end of the 19th century, Auckland's growth required a much greater and more reliable source of fresh water. This coincided with pressure to safeguard the remaining native forests of the Waitakere Ranges to the west of the city. Auckland City purchased land and built large reservoirs in this secluded area, thus safeguarding both the water quality and the flora & fauna of the area; the height of the reservoirs above sea level meant pumping was kept to a minimum as the water could be gravity fed down to town. This left the Western Springs area with no specific use; the rough and uneven land was unsuitable for housing as apart from the lake it contained large stretches of boggy ground. Unable to divest itself of the land, the Auckland City Council was at a loss; some light industry and market gardens were developed along Great North Road and Chinamans hill and an attempt was made to convert the boggy land around the lake into a park. However over the next thirty years or so most of the land deteriorated as it became overgrown and used for illegal rubbish dumping.
From the early 1920s onwards various developments took place. To the west a camping ground was set up. To the south of the lake was established a golf club and to the west, land was set aside for primary and secondary schools to service the growing suburbs of Westmere and Point Chevalier; the council used some of the more usable land to construct council housing in the 1920s, in the 1930s sold much of the land used for market gardens to the government for state housing. To the north of the zoo was an area of mangrove swamp where the Western Springs creek reached the sea near the Meola Reef lava outcrop; this was hence reclaimed during the 1950s and 1960s. The reclaimed land was developed as playing fields and an additional area for the MOTAT Airfield, the Sir Keith Park Memorial Airfield, is the site of the Westpoint Performing Arts Center. In the 2000s the landfill was found to be emitting methane gas and was subsequently capped with clay. After the war the population of the surrounding suburbs grew markedly and it became obvious that the untidy state of Western Springs was an embarrassment.
As a wilderness of bogs full of rubbish and mosquitoes, it was not only unattractive but a potential health hazard. In 1961 the Auckland City Council embarked on developing the park in earnest; the lake, which had become choked by introduced waterweed was reclaimed and the overgrown landscape was cleared of weeds and rubbish. In 1953 a plan was put forward to use the area around the lake as an amusement park with a scenic railway and rollercoasters etc. but this was soon discovered to be beyond the financial capabilities of the Auckland City Council. In 1962 the Museum of Transport and Technology was established
New Zealand is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island, the South Island —and around 600 smaller islands. New Zealand is situated some 2,000 kilometres east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and 1,000 kilometres south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia and Tonga; because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct biodiversity of animal and plant life; the country's varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps, owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealand's capital city is Wellington. Sometime between 1250 and 1300, Polynesians settled in the islands that were named New Zealand and developed a distinctive Māori culture. In 1642, Dutch explorer Abel Tasman became the first European to sight New Zealand. In 1840, representatives of the United Kingdom and Māori chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, which declared British sovereignty over the islands.
In 1841, New Zealand became a colony within the British Empire and in 1907 it became a dominion. Today, the majority of New Zealand's population of 4.9 million is of European descent. Reflecting this, New Zealand's culture is derived from Māori and early British settlers, with recent broadening arising from increased immigration; the official languages are English, Māori, NZ Sign Language, with English being dominant. A developed country, New Zealand ranks in international comparisons of national performance, such as quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic freedom. New Zealand underwent major economic changes during the 1980s, which transformed it from a protectionist to a liberalised free-trade economy; the service sector dominates the national economy, followed by the industrial sector, agriculture. Nationally, legislative authority is vested in an elected, unicameral Parliament, while executive political power is exercised by the Cabinet, led by the prime minister Jacinda Ardern.
Queen Elizabeth II is the country's monarch and is represented by a governor-general Dame Patsy Reddy. In addition, New Zealand is organised into 11 regional councils and 67 territorial authorities for local government purposes; the Realm of New Zealand includes Tokelau. New Zealand is a member of the United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, ASEAN Plus Six, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Pacific Community and the Pacific Islands Forum. Dutch explorer Abel Tasman sighted New Zealand in 1642 and named it Staten Land "in honour of the States General", he wrote, "it is possible that this land joins to the Staten Land but it is uncertain", referring to a landmass of the same name at the southern tip of South America, discovered by Jacob Le Maire in 1616. In 1645, Dutch cartographers renamed the land Nova Zeelandia after the Dutch province of Zeeland. British explorer James Cook subsequently anglicised the name to New Zealand. Aotearoa is the current Māori name for New Zealand.
It is unknown whether Māori had a name for the whole country before the arrival of Europeans, with Aotearoa referring to just the North Island. Māori had several traditional names for the two main islands, including Te Ika-a-Māui for the North Island and Te Waipounamu or Te Waka o Aoraki for the South Island. Early European maps labelled the islands North and South. In 1830, maps began to use North and South to distinguish the two largest islands and by 1907 this was the accepted norm; the New Zealand Geographic Board discovered in 2009 that the names of the North Island and South Island had never been formalised, names and alternative names were formalised in 2013. This set the names as North Island or Te Ika-a-Māui, South Island or Te Waipounamu. For each island, either its English or Māori name can be used. New Zealand was one of the last major landmasses settled by humans. Radiocarbon dating, evidence of deforestation and mitochondrial DNA variability within Māori populations suggest New Zealand was first settled by Eastern Polynesians between 1250 and 1300, concluding a long series of voyages through the southern Pacific islands.
Over the centuries that followed, these settlers developed a distinct culture now known as Māori. The population was divided into iwi and hapū who would sometimes cooperate, sometimes compete and sometimes fight against each other. At some point a group of Māori migrated to Rēkohu, now known as the Chatham Islands, where they developed their distinct Moriori culture; the Moriori population was all but wiped out between 1835 and 1862 because of Taranaki Māori invasion and enslavement in the 1830s, although European diseases contributed. In 1862 only 101 survived, the last known full-blooded Moriori died in 1933; the first Europeans known to have reached New Zeala
The Auckland Council is the local government council for the Auckland Region in New Zealand. The governing body consists of 20 councillors, elected from 13 wards. There are 149 members of 21 local boards who make decisions on matters local to their communities, it is the largest council in Oceania, with a $3 billion annual budget, $29 billion of ratepayer equity, 9,870 full-time staff as of 30 June 2016. The council began operating on 1 November 2010, combining the functions of the previous regional council and the region's seven city and district councils into one "super council" or "super city"; the Council was established by a number of Acts of Parliament, an Auckland Transition Agency created by the central government. Both the means by which the Council was established and its structure came under repeated criticism from a broad spectrum during the establishment period; the initial Council elections in October 2010 returned a centre-left council with Len Brown as mayor. Brown was re-elected in October 2013, again with a supportive council.
The 2016 mayoral election was won by Labour MP Phil Goff, who had a landslide victory with his nearest rivals, Victoria Crone in second place, followed by Chlöe Swarbrick. The Auckland Council took over the functions of the Auckland Regional Council and the region's seven city and district councils: Auckland City Council, Manukau City Council, Waitakere City Council, North Shore City Council, Papakura District Council, Rodney District Council and most of Franklin District Council; the Auckland Regional Council was formed in 1989. One of the mainstays of its work was expanding the parks network, it brought into the Auckland Council 26 regional parks with more than 40,000 hectares, including many restored natural habitats and sanctuaries developed in co-operation with the Department of Conservation and volunteers. A variety of public transport-focused projects like the Northern Busway as well as significant rail and public transport investments were realised through the Auckland Regional Transport Authority, much of it supported by retaining Ports of Auckland in public hands to fund the improvements with the dividends.
Until 2010, the Auckland Region had seven "City/District" authorities, plus one "Regional" authority. In the late 2000s, New Zealand's central government and parts of Auckland's society felt that this large number of Councils, the lack of strong regional government were hindering Auckland's progress, that a form of stronger regional government, or an amalgamation under one local council, would be beneficial. Others pointed to the fact that a previous integration of the many much smaller Borough Councils did not bring the promised advantages either, reduced local participation in politics, with editorialists pointing out that the proponents of the'super city' have not made any promises of savings in light of past rises in rates and utilities bills. In 2007, the government set up a Royal Commission on Auckland Governance to report on what restructuring should be done; the report was released on 27 March 2009 and the government subsequently announced that a "super city" would be set up to include the full metropolitan area under an Auckland Council with a single mayor and 20–30 local boards, by the time of the local body elections in 2010, though it changed some key recommendations of the Royal Commission.
Some recommendations of the Royal Commission which have not been adopted or implemented: 6A The Auckland Council should include a vision for the region in its spatial plan. 6B The Mayor of Auckland's annual "State of the Region" address should describe progress towards the attainment of the vision. 19C: "Leadership support and development programmes for elected councillors should be strengthened." 21D: Auckland Council CCOs and their statements of intent should be subject to performance review by the proposed Auckland Services Performance Auditor. 21A 22A Two Māori members should be elected to the Auckland Council by voters who are on the parliamentary Māori Electoral Roll. 22B There should be a Mana Whenua Forum, the members of which will be appointed by mana whenua from the district of the Auckland Council. 22D The Auckland Council should ensure that each local council has adequate structures in place to enable proper engagement with Māori and consideration of their views in the local councils’ decision-making processes.
Where appropriate, current structures and/or memoranda of understanding should be transferred to local councils. 24F Auckland Council should consider creating an Urban Development Agency, to operate at the direction of the Auckland Council, with compulsory acquisition powers. The Auckland Council should determine the extent to which responsibilities for the delivery of stormwater services are shared between local councils and Watercare Services Limited. 26I Watercare Services Limited should be required by legislation to promote demand management. 26M Watercare Services Limited should be required to prepare a stormwater action plan. 27D The Auckland Council should prepare an e-government strategy as an intrinsic part of its proposed unified service delivery and information systems plan. 28A The Auckland Council should work with consumers, the industry, central government agencies to develop a climate change and energy strategy for the region, including monitoring and reviewing electricity security of supply performance, industry planning and regulation impacting the Auckland region.
30A The Auckland Council should develop a Regional Waste Management Strategy, including strategies for management of organic waste and integration o
Auckland City is the part of Auckland urban area covering the isthmus and most of the islands of the Hauraki Gulf. The core of Auckland City is the Auckland CBD, a major financial and commercial centre, surrounded by many suburbs, it was the name of a local authority district, governed by Auckland City Council. Auckland City was disestablished as a local government district on 1 November 2010, when Auckland City Council was amalgamated with other councils of the Auckland Region into the new Auckland Council. Auckland City was the most populous district in the country, with a population of 450,000 at 30 June 2010. In 2009, Auckland was rated the fourth-best place to live in the world, in human resources consultancy Mercer's annual survey; the mainland part of Auckland City occupied the Auckland isthmus known as the Tāmaki isthmus. The Waitematā Harbour, which opens to the Hauraki Gulf, separated North Shore City from the isthmus; the Manukau Harbour, which opens to the Tasman Sea, separated Manukau City from the isthmus.
The distance between the two harbours is narrow at each end of the isthmus. At the western end, the Whau River, an estuarial arm of the Waitematā Harbour, comes within two kilometres of the waters of the Manukau Harbour on the west coast and marks the beginning of the Northland Peninsula. A few kilometres to the southeast at Otahuhu, the Tamaki River, an arm of the Hauraki Gulf on the east coast, comes just 1200 metres from the Manukau's waters. Being part of the Auckland volcanic field, much of the isthmus is mantled with volcanic rocks and soils, several prominent scoria cones dot the isthmus. Many Hauraki Gulf islands were part of Auckland City; such islands of the inner gulf included Rangitoto, Browns Island, Rakino and Waiheke, while the outer gulf islands included Little Barrier Island, Great Barrier and the Mokohinau Islands. In November 1989, central government restructured local authorities throughout New Zealand. After substantial protests and legal challenges, Auckland City was merged with eight smaller local authorities to form a new Auckland City Council.
The new Auckland City had double the population of the old. However, forced onto local authorities against their will, was criticised to have led to less democracy and higher rates for the same services. A further restructuring and amalgamation brought all seven councils in the area and the Auckland Regional Council into one "SuperCity", starting 1 November 2010. Auckland City was the most populous city of New Zealand. In 2010 it was made up of 188 ethnic groups, making it New Zealand's most diverse city, more diverse than in 2007, when 185 ethnic groups had been counted. In 2010, the life expectancy was 83 years for women, 79.6 years for men, while the average age of the population was 33.4 years, with 35.9 years for the whole country. In the year to March 2009, Auckland City had 353,000 jobs, of which 26.3% was held by property and business services, as well as 65,655 businesses, making up 13.1% of New Zealand's businesses and 16.2% of New Zealand's jobs. Over 2009 to the month of March, Auckland City's unemployment rate increased to 5.6%, compared to the overall New Zealand unemployment rate of 4.5%.
In addition the city's economic output declined by 2.4%. Gareth Stiven, the economic manager of Auckland City, stated that this was because the city's economy was involved with service industries, such as banking and insurance, which were affected by financial crises. However, over the last five years of its existence, Auckland's economic growth averaged 1.4% each year, higher than the average of the region and the nation. In 2003 three of the ten largest companies in New Zealand were headquartered in Auckland City. Many large corporations were housed within the central part of Auckland City. Air New Zealand has its worldwide headquarters, called "The Hub", off Beaumont and Fanshawe Streets in the Western Reclamation. In September 2003 Air New Zealand was the only one of the largest corporations in New Zealand to have its headquarters within the Auckland CBD; these lists of suburbs are arranged electorally, starting from the west. Note: CBD - central business district For the suburbs of the other cities within the Auckland urban area, see North Shore, Manukau and Papakura.
Dominion Road – an arterial road running north–south across most of the central isthmus Great North Road – begins as a continuation of Karangahape Road and runs south-westward before crossing into what was Waitakere City Great South Road – runs south from Epsom and crosses from Otahuhu into what was Manukau City Karangahape Road – a commercial street running west–east and intersecting Queen Street at the southern edge of the CBD Portage Road – in Otahuhu, the southernmost suburb, following the path of a former Maori canoe portage between the Tamaki River and the Manukau Harbour, intersecting Great South Road Queen Street – the main commercial street, running south, uphill from Queens Wharf through the CBD Tamaki Drive – a coastal road running eastward from the eastern edge of the CBD to Saint Heliers Auckland City had six sister cities and two friendship city relationships. All of these cities except Hamburg are located around the Pacific Rim. Auckland waterfront A Complete Guide To Heraldry by A.
C. Fox-Davies 1909. Auckland City Council website, the local authority for Auckland History of Auckland City by Graham Bush Heart of the City website by the Auckland CBD business' association Heritage Walks: The Engineering Heritage of Auckland, historic text, 360° panoramas