The tsuur, choor or chuur is an end-blown flute of varying lengths, common among Inner Asian pastoralists. It is similar to kurai. In western Mongolia it is used by the Altai Uriankhai people, although other ethnic groups like the Kazakhs and the Tuvans are known to play them or have played them. There are only three to five holes to finger; the blowing technique utilises the teeth and lips in the same way as Ney in Classical Persian music. The Tsuur is immersed in water before playing in order to seal any leaks in the wood; the melodies that are played on the Tsuur are imitations of the sound of water, animal cries and birdsongs as heard by shepherds whilst on the steppes or the mountain slopes of the Altai. One of the melodies, “The flow of the River Eev” as was said before is the river where the sound of khöömii was mythically supposed to have originated; the Uriangkhai called the Tsuur the “Father of Music”. A three-holed pipe was in use in Mongolia in the 18th century and was believed to possess the magical properties of bringing Lamb’s bones back to life.
In the Jangar epic of the 14th century the Tsuur is said to have had a voice like a swan. This reference may be indirectly a early reference to khöömii as the singing style sung with the Tsuur is Khailakh. Traditional Mongolian Tsuur music was added to the List of Intangible Cultural Heritage in Need of Urgent Safeguarding in 2009. Music of Mongolia Ney Quray Kaval Washint Duduk Jedinka Shvi Frula Sybyzgy Shagur “Mongolian Tsuur” national programme approved Traditional music of the Tsuur Tsuur - wooden-wind instrument Face Music - Traditional Instruments - Mongolia Asia Pacific Cultural Centre for UNESCO - Tsuur Mongolia elected to UNESCO Committee
Musical instrument classification
Throughout history, various methods of musical instrument classification have been used. The most used system divides instruments into string instruments, woodwind instruments, brass instruments and percussion instruments; the oldest known scheme of classifying instruments is Chinese and dates from the 3rd millennium BC. It grouped instruments according to the materials they are made of. Instruments made of stone were in one group, those of wood in another, those of silk are in a third, those of bamboo in a fourth, as recorded in the Yo Chi, compiled from sources of the Chou period and corresponding to the four seasons and four winds; the eight-fold system of pa yin, from the same source, occurred and in the legendary Emperor Zhun's time it is believed to have been presented in the following order: metal, silk, gourd, clay and wood classes, it correlated to the eight seasons and eight winds of Chinese culture and west, autumn-winter and NW, summer and south and east, winter-spring and NE, summer-autumn and SW, winter and north, spring-summer and SE, respectively.
However, the Chou-Li, an anonymous treatise compiled from earlier sources in about the 2nd century BC, had the following order: metal, clay, silk, wood and bamboo. The same order was presented in the Tso Chuan, attributed to Tso Chiu-Ming compiled in the 4th century BC. Much Ming dynasty scholar Chu Tsai Yu recognized three groups: those instruments using muscle power or used for musical accompaniment, those that are blown, those that are rhythmic, a scheme, the first scholarly attempt, while the earlier ones were traditional, folk taxonomies. More instruments are classified according to how the sound is produced; the modern system divides instruments into wind and percussion. It is of Greek origin; the scheme was expanded by Martin Agricola, who distinguished plucked string instruments, such as guitars, from bowed string instruments, such as violins. Classical musicians today do not always maintain this division, but distinguish between wind instruments with a reed and those where the air is set in motion directly by the lips.
Many instruments do not fit neatly into this scheme. The serpent, for example, ought to be classified as a brass instrument, as a column of air is set in motion by the lips. However, it looks more like a woodwind instrument, is closer to one in many ways, having finger-holes to control pitch, rather than valves. Keyboard instruments do not fit into this scheme. For example, the piano has strings, but they are struck by hammers, so it is not clear whether it should be classified as a string instrument or a percussion instrument. For this reason, keyboard instruments are regarded as inhabiting a category of their own, including all instruments played by a keyboard, whether they have struck strings, plucked strings or no strings at all, it might be said that with these extra categories, the classical system of instrument classification focuses less on the fundamental way in which instruments produce sound, more on the technique required to play them. Various names have been assigned to these three traditional Western groupings: Boethius labelled them intensione ut nervis, spiritu ut tibiis, percussione.
Ottoman encyclopedist Hadji Khalifa recognized the same three classes in his Kashf al-Zunun an Asami al-Kutub wa al-Funun, a treatise on the origin and construction of musical instruments. But this was exceptional for Near Eastern writers as they ignored the percussion group as did early Hellenistic Greeks, the Near Eastern culture traditionally and that period of Greek history having low regard for that group; the T'boli of Mindanao use the same three categories as well, but group the strings with the winds together based on a gentleness-strength dichotomy, re
A whistle is an instrument which produces sound from a stream of gas, most air. It may be powered by air pressure, steam, or other means. Whistles vary in size from a small slide whistle or nose flute type to a large multi-piped church organ. Whistles have been around since early humans first carved out a gourd or branch and found they could make sound with it. In prehistoric Egypt, small shells were used as whistles. Many present day wind instruments are inheritors of these early whistles. With the rise of more mechanical power, other forms of whistles have been developed. One characteristic of a whistle is that it creates nearly pure, tone; the conversion of flow energy to sound comes from an interaction between a solid material and a fluid stream. The forces in some whistles are sufficient to set the solid material in motion. Classic examples are Aeolian tones that result in galloping power lines, or the Tacoma Narrows Bridge. Other examples are circular disks set into vibration. Depending on the geometry, there are two basic types of whistles: those that generate sound through oscillations of fluid mass flow, those that generate sound through oscillations of the force applied to the surrounding medium.
Whistles made of bone or wood have been used for thousands of years. Whistles were used by the Ancient Greeks to keep the stroke of galley slaves; the English used whistles during the Crusades to signal orders to archers. Boatswain pipes were used in the age of sail aboard naval vessels to issue commands and salute dignitaries. Joseph Hudson set up J Hudson & Co in Birmingham, UK in 1870. With his younger brother James, he designed the'Acme City' brass whistle; this became the first referee whistle used at association football matches during the 1878–79 Football Association Cup match between Nottingham Forest and Sheffield. Prior to the introduction of the whistle, handkerchiefs were used by the umpires to signal to the players. In 1883 he began experimenting with pea-whistle designs that could produce an intense sound that could grab attention from over a mile away, his invention was discovered by accident, when he accidentally dropped his violin and it shattered on the floor. Observing how the discordant sound of the breaking strings travelled, Hudson had the idea to put a pea in the whistle.
Prior to this, whistles were much quieter, were only thought of as musical instruments or toys for children. After observing the problems that local police were having with communicating with rattles, he realised that his whistle designs could be used as an effective aid to their work. Hudson demonstrated his whistle to Scotland Yard and was awarded his first contract in 1884. Both Ratchet rattles and whistles were used to call for back-up in areas where neighbourhood beats overlapped, following their success in London, the whistle was adopted by most police in the United Kingdom; this police whistle monopoly made Hudson the largest whistle manufacturer in the world, supplying police forces and other general services everywhere. His whistle is still used by many forces worldwide, his design, was improved as the'Acme Thunderer', the first pea whistle, which remains the most used whistle in the world. From the 1880s and 1890s, J. Hudson & Co began facing greater competition, as other whistle manufacturing companies were established, including W. Dowler & Sons, J. Barrall, R. A. Walton, H. A. Ward and A. De Courcy & Co.
In 1987, Ron Foxcroft released the Fox 40 pealess whistle, designed to replace the pea whistle and be more reliable. Human whistling unaided by any instrument can be used for musical recreation or as a whistled language for communication over distances too great for articulate speech, among many other purposes. Musical instruments include the tin whistle and the slide whistle. Since a whistle produces a loud sound that carries over a great distance, whistles are useful for signalling. On ships, the boatswain's call is used to alert members of the crew. A dog whistle can be used to train a dog for herding, or other occupations. Industrial plants use a steam whistle to signal shift changes or to give alarms of emergencies. A small-scaled steam whistle is found on a whistling kettle, to alert the user that the water is boiling. Storage tanks may be equipped with a whistle vent which sounds continually as the tank is being filled, they occur as accidental byproducts of fluid flow such as supersonic jets, cavity resonances, whistling telephone wires, idling circular saws.
Vessel flute Low whistle Liquid whistle Physics of whistles Firedamp whistle Whistler Rossby whistle Media related to whistles at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of whistle at Wiktionary Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Whistle". Encyclopædia Britannica. 28. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 595–596. Whistle
Plastic is material consisting of any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic compounds that are malleable and so can be molded into solid objects. Plasticity is the general property of all materials which can deform irreversibly without breaking but, in the class of moldable polymers, this occurs to such a degree that their actual name derives from this specific ability. Plastics are organic polymers of high molecular mass and contain other substances, they are synthetic, most derived from petrochemicals, however, an array of variants are made from renewable materials such as polylactic acid from corn or cellulosics from cotton linters. Due to their low cost, ease of manufacture and imperviousness to water, plastics are used in a multitude of products of different scale, including paper clips and spacecraft, they have prevailed over traditional materials, such as wood, stone and bone, metal and ceramic, in some products left to natural materials. In developed economies, about a third of plastic is used in packaging and the same in buildings in applications such as piping, plumbing or vinyl siding.
Other uses include automobiles and toys. In the developing world, the applications of plastic may differ—42% of India's consumption is used in packaging. Plastics have many uses in the medical field as well, with the introduction of polymer implants and other medical devices derived at least from plastic; the field of plastic surgery is not named for use of plastic materials, but rather the meaning of the word plasticity, with regard to the reshaping of flesh. The world's first synthetic plastic was bakelite, invented in New York in 1907 by Leo Baekeland who coined the term'plastics'. Many chemists have contributed to the materials science of plastics, including Nobel laureate Hermann Staudinger, called "the father of polymer chemistry" and Herman Mark, known as "the father of polymer physics"; the success and dominance of plastics starting in the early 20th century led to environmental concerns regarding its slow decomposition rate after being discarded as trash due to its composition of large molecules.
Toward the end of the century, one approach to this problem was met with wide efforts toward recycling. The word plastic derives from the Greek πλαστικός meaning "capable of being shaped or molded" and, in turn, from πλαστός meaning "molded"; the plasticity, or malleability, of the material during manufacture allows it to be cast, pressed, or extruded into a variety of shapes, such as: films, plates, bottles, amongst many others. The common noun plastic should not be confused with the technical adjective plastic; the adjective is applicable to any material which undergoes a plastic deformation, or permanent change of shape, when strained beyond a certain point. For example, aluminum, stamped or forged exhibits plasticity in this sense, but is not plastic in the common sense. By contrast, some plastics will, in their finished forms, break before deforming and therefore are not plastic in the technical sense. Most plastics contain organic polymers; the vast majority of these polymers are formed from chains of carbon atoms,'pure' or with the addition of: oxygen, nitrogen, or sulfur.
The chains comprise many repeat units, formed from monomers. Each polymer chain will have several thousand repeating units; the backbone is the part of the chain, on the "main path", linking together a large number of repeat units. To customize the properties of a plastic, different molecular groups "hang" from this backbone; these pendant units are "hung" on the monomers, before the monomers themselves are linked together to form the polymer chain. It is the structure of these side chains; the molecular structure of the repeating unit can be fine tuned to influence specific properties in the polymer. Plastics are classified by: the chemical structure of the polymer's backbone and side chains. Plastics can be classified by: the chemical process used in their synthesis, such as: condensation and cross-linking. Plastics can be classified by: their various physical properties, such as: hardness, tensile strength, resistance to heat and glass transition temperature, by their chemical properties, such as the organic chemistry of the polymer and its resistance and reaction to various chemical products and processes, such as: organic solvents and ionizing radiation.
In particular, most plastics will melt upon heating to a few hundred degrees celsius. Other classifications are based on qualities that are relevant for product design. Examples of such qualities and classes are: thermoplastics and thermosets, conductive polymers, biodegradable plastics and engineering plastics and other plastics with particular structures, such as elastomers. One important classification of plastics is by the permanence or impermanence of their form, or whether they are: thermoplastics or thermosetting polymers. Thermoplastics are the plastics that, when heated, do not undergo chemical change in their composition and so can be molded again and again. Examples include: polyethylene, polypropylene and polyvinyl chloride. Common thermoplastics range from 20,000 to 500,000 amu, while thermosets are assumed to have infinite molecular weight. Thermosets, or thermosetting polymers, can melt and take shape only once: after they have solidified, they stay solid. In the thermosetting process, a chemical reaction occurs, irreversible.
The flute is a family of musical instruments in the woodwind group. Unlike woodwind instruments with reeds, a flute is an aerophone or reedless wind instrument that produces its sound from the flow of air across an opening. According to the instrument classification of Hornbostel–Sachs, flutes are categorized as edge-blown aerophones. A musician who plays the flute can be referred to as a flute player, flutist or, less fluter or flutenist. Flutes are the earliest extant musical instruments, as paleolithic instruments with hand-bored holes have been found. A number of flutes dating to about 43,000 to 35,000 years ago have been found in the Swabian Jura region of present-day Germany; these flutes demonstrate that a developed musical tradition existed from the earliest period of modern human presence in Europe. The word flute first entered the English language during the Middle English period, as floute, or else flowte, flote from Old French flaute and from Old Provençal flaüt, or else from Old French fleüte, flaüte, flahute via Middle High German floite or Dutch fluit.
The English verb flout has the same linguistic root, the modern Dutch verb fluiten still shares the two meanings. Attempts to trace the word back to the Latin flare have been pronounced "phonologically impossible" or "inadmissable"; the first known use of the word flute was in the 14th century. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, this was in Geoffrey Chaucer's The Hous of Fame, c.1380. Today, a musician who plays any instrument in the flute family can be called a flutist, or flautist, or a flute player. Flutist dates back to at least 1603, the earliest quotation cited by the Oxford English Dictionary. Flautist was used in 1860 by Nathaniel Hawthorne in The Marble Faun, after being adopted during the 18th century from Italy, like many musical terms in England since the Italian Renaissance. Other English terms, now obsolete, are fluter and flutenist; the oldest flute discovered may be a fragment of the femur of a juvenile cave bear, with two to four holes, found at Divje Babe in Slovenia and dated to about 43,000 years ago.
However, this has been disputed. In 2008 another flute dated back to at least 35,000 years ago was discovered in Hohle Fels cave near Ulm, Germany; the five-holed flute is made from a vulture wing bone. The researchers involved in the discovery published their findings in the journal Nature, in August 2009; the discovery was the oldest confirmed find of any musical instrument in history, until a redating of flutes found in Geißenklösterle cave revealed them to be older with an age of 42,000 to 43,000 years. The flute, one of several found, was found in the Hohle Fels cavern next to the Venus of Hohle Fels and a short distance from the oldest known human carving. On announcing the discovery, scientists suggested that the "finds demonstrate the presence of a well-established musical tradition at the time when modern humans colonized Europe". Scientists have suggested that the discovery of the flute may help to explain "the probable behavioural and cognitive gulf between" Neanderthals and early modern human.
A three-holed flute, 18.7 cm long, made from a mammoth tusk was discovered in 2004, two flutes made from swan bones excavated a decade earlier are among the oldest known musical instruments. A playable 9,000-year-old Gudi was excavated from a tomb in Jiahu along with 29 defunct twins, made from the wing bones of red-crowned cranes with five to eight holes each, in the Central Chinese province of Henan; the earliest extant Chinese transverse flute is a chi flute discovered in the Tomb of Marquis Yi of Zeng at the Suizhou site, Hubei province, China. It dates from 433 BC, of the Zhou Dynasty, it is fashioned of lacquered bamboo with closed ends and has five stops that are at the flute's side instead of the top. Chi flutes are mentioned in Shi Jing and edited by Confucius, according to tradition; the earliest written reference to a flute is from a Sumerian-language cuneiform tablet dated to c. 2600–2700 BCE. Flutes are mentioned in a translated tablet of the Epic of Gilgamesh, an epic poem whose development spanned the period of 2100–600 BCE.
Additionally, a set of cuneiform tablets knows as the "musical texts" provide precise tuning instructions for seven scale of a stringed instrument. One of those scales is named embūbum, an Akkadian word for "flute"; the Bible, in Genesis 4:21, cites Jubal as being the "father of all those who play the ugab and the kinnor". The former Hebrew term is believed by some to refer to some wind instrument, or wind instruments in general, the latter to a stringed instrument, or stringed instruments in general; as such, Jubal is regarded in the Judeo-Christian tradition as the inventor of the flute. Elsewhere in the Bible, the flute is referred to as "chalil", in particular in 1 Samuel 10:5, 1 Kings 1:40, Isaiah 5:12 and 30:29, Jeremiah 48:36. Archeological digs in the Holy Land have discovered flutes from both the Bronze Age and the Iron Age, the latter era "witness the creation of the Israelite kingdom and its separation into the two kingdoms of Israel and Judea."Some early flutes were made out of tibias.
The Middle East is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia and Egypt. Saudi Arabia is geographically the largest Middle Eastern nation; the corresponding adjective is Middle Eastern and the derived noun is Middle Easterner. The term has come into wider usage as a replacement of the term Near East beginning in the early 20th century. Arabs, Persians and Azeris constitute the largest ethnic groups in the region by population. Arabs constitute the largest ethnic group in the region by a clear margin. Indigenous minorities of the Middle East include Jews, Assyrians, Copts, Lurs, Samaritans, Shabaks and Zazas. European ethnic groups that form a diaspora in the region include Albanians, Circassians, Crimean Tatars, Franco-Levantines, Italo-Levantines. Among other migrant populations are Chinese, Indians, Pakistanis, Pashtuns and sub-Saharan Africans; the history of the Middle East dates back to ancient times, with the importance of the region being recognized for millennia. Several major religions have their origins in the Middle East, including Judaism and Islam.
The Middle East has a hot, arid climate, with several major rivers providing irrigation to support agriculture in limited areas such as the Nile Delta in Egypt, the Tigris and Euphrates watersheds of Mesopotamia, most of what is known as the Fertile Crescent. Most of the countries that border the Persian Gulf have vast reserves of crude oil, with monarchs of the Arabian Peninsula in particular benefiting economically from petroleum exports; the term "Middle East" may have originated in the 1850s in the British India Office. However, it became more known when American naval strategist Alfred Thayer Mahan used the term in 1902 to "designate the area between Arabia and India". During this time the British and Russian Empires were vying for influence in Central Asia, a rivalry which would become known as The Great Game. Mahan realized not only the strategic importance of the region, but of its center, the Persian Gulf, he labeled the area surrounding the Persian Gulf as the Middle East, said that after Egypt's Suez Canal, it was the most important passage for Britain to control in order to keep the Russians from advancing towards British India.
Mahan first used the term in his article "The Persian Gulf and International Relations", published in September 1902 in the National Review, a British journal. The Middle East, if I may adopt a term which I have not seen, will some day need its Malta, as well as its Gibraltar. Naval force has the quality of mobility; the British Navy should have the facility to concentrate in force if occasion arise, about Aden and the Persian Gulf. Mahan's article was reprinted in The Times and followed in October by a 20-article series entitled "The Middle Eastern Question," written by Sir Ignatius Valentine Chirol. During this series, Sir Ignatius expanded the definition of Middle East to include "those regions of Asia which extend to the borders of India or command the approaches to India." After the series ended in 1903, The Times removed quotation marks from subsequent uses of the term. Until World War II, it was customary to refer to areas centered around Turkey and the eastern shore of the Mediterranean as the "Near East", while the "Far East" centered on China, the Middle East meant the area from Mesopotamia to Burma, namely the area between the Near East and the Far East.
In the late 1930s, the British established the Middle East Command, based in Cairo, for its military forces in the region. After that time, the term "Middle East" gained broader usage in Europe and the United States, with the Middle East Institute founded in Washington, D. C. in 1946, among other usage. The description Middle has led to some confusion over changing definitions. Before the First World War, "Near East" was used in English to refer to the Balkans and the Ottoman Empire, while "Middle East" referred to Iran, the Caucasus, Central Asia, Turkestan. In contrast, "Far East" referred to the countries of East Asia With the disappearance of the Ottoman Empire in 1918, "Near East" fell out of common use in English, while "Middle East" came to be applied to the re-emerging countries of the Islamic world. However, the usage "Near East" was retained by a variety of academic disciplines, including archaeology and ancient history, where it describes an area identical to the term Middle East, not used by these disciplines.
The first official use of the term "Middle East" by the United States government was in the 1957 Eisenhower Doctrine, which pertained to the Suez Crisis. Secretary of State John Foster Dulles defined the Middle East as "the area lying between and including Libya on the west and Pakistan on the east and Iraq on the North and the Arabian peninsula to the south, plus the Sudan and Ethiopia." In 1958, the State Department explained that the terms "Near East" and "Middle East" were interchangeable, defined the region as including only Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and Qatar. The Associated Press Styleboo
Dicționarul explicativ al limbii române
Dicționarul explicativ al limbii române is the most important dictionary of the Romanian language, published by the Institute of Linguistics of the Romanian Academy. It was first edited in 1975. In 1988 a supplement, named DEX-S, was published; the second edition was published in 1996 and it included some new definitions and the change to the spelling changes of 1993. This edition has over 65,000 main entries. A third edition was published in 2009. DEXOnline was the first project to make DEX available, digitising it alongside other Romanian-language dictionaries and making the resulting database available for other external projects; as of September 2015, DEXOnline serves more than 3 million users monthly with over 12 million searches each month. DEXOnline was founded in 2013 by Cătălin Frâncu, a Romanian software engineer, MIT graduate and former Google employee. Comparison of DEX software List of software applications that allow online and offline access to DEX DEXOnline.ro - online dictionary which includes the definitions of DEX, more than 20 other Romanian dictionaries.