Ngāpuhi is a Māori iwi located in the Northland region of New Zealand, centred in the Hokianga, the Bay of Islands, Whangarei. Ngāpuhi has the largest affiliation of any iwi, with 125,601 people identifying as Ngāpuhi in the 2013 census, formed from 150 hapū/subtribes, with 55 marae. Despite such diversity, the people of Ngāpuhi maintain self-identity; the iwi is administered based in Kaikohe. The Rūnanga acts on behalf of the iwi in consultations with the New Zealand Government, it ensures the equitable distribution of benefits from the 1992 settlement with the Government, undertakes resource management and education initiatives. The founding ancestor of Ngāpuhi is the son of Tauramoko and Te Hauangiangi. Tauramoko was a descendant of Kupe, from Matawhaorua, Nukutawhiti, of the Ngātokimatawhaorua canoe. Te Hauangiangi was the daughter of Puhi, who captained the Mataatua canoe northwards from the Bay of Plenty. Rāhiri was born near Opononi in the Hokianga; the early tribes led by Rāhiri's descendants lived in the Hokianga and Pouerua areas.
Through intermarriage with other iwi and expansionist land migration, the descendants of Rāhiri formed tribes across the Northland peninsula. These actions fostered ties with neighbouring iwi. Auha and Whakaaria, for example, led expansion eastward from Kaikohe and Pouērua into the Bay of Islands area and intermarrying with Ngāi Tāhuhu, Ngāti Manaia, Te Wahineiti and Ngāti Miru; these tribes in the east were the first to use the name Ngāpuhi. As the eastern and western groups merged, the name came to describe all the tribes settled in the Hokianga and Bay of Islands. In the late 1700s and early 1800s the Ngāpuhi tribes pushed further east through the southern Bay of Islands to the open coast, absorbing tribes such as Ngāti Manu, Te Kapotai, Te Uri o Rata, Ngare Raumati and Ngātiwai. Ruatara was chief of the Ngāpuhi from 1812 to his death in 1815. In 1814, he invited the Rev. Samuel Marsden to set up the first Christian mission in New Zealand on Ngāpuhi land; the presence of these influential Pakeha secured Ruatara's access to European plants and knowledge, which he distributed to other Māori, thus increasing his mana.
After the death of Ruatara, his uncle Hongi Hika became protector of the mission. Thomas Kendall, John King, William Hall, missionaries of the Church Missionary Society, founded the first mission station in Oihi Bay in the Bay of Islands in 1814 and over the next decades established farms and schools in the area. In 1823 Rev. Henry Williams and his wife Marianne established a mission station at Paihia on land owned by Ana Hamu, the wife of Te Koki. In 1826 Henry's brother William and his wife Jane joined the CMS mission at Paihia. Marianne and Jane Williams established schools for the Ngāpuhi. William Williams lead the CMS missionaries in the translation of the Bible and other Christian literature; the missionaries did not succeed in converting a single Māori until 1830 when Rawiri Taiwhanga, a Ngāpuhi chief, was baptised. Ruatara and Hongi Hika themselves did not convert. Hōne Heke attended the CMS mission school at Kerikeri and Heke and his wife Ono, were baptised in 1835. By the early 19th century, the Bay of Islands had become a prominent shipping port in New Zealand.
Through increased trade with Europeans, initiated by Ruatara, Ngāpuhi gained greater access to European weapons, including muskets. Armed with European firearms, led by Hongi Hika, launched a series of expansionist campaigns, with resounding slaughters across Northland and in the Waikato and Bay of Plenty. On 28 October 1835 various Northland chiefs from the Ngapuhi tribe, met at Waitangi with British resident James Busby and signed the Declaration of Independence of New Zealand, proclaiming the United Tribes of New Zealand. In 1836, the Crown received and recognized the United Tribes independence under King William IV. By 1839, 52 chiefs from around Northland and central North Island had signed the Declaration, including most Ngāpuhi chiefs and Pōtatau Te Wherowhero, ariki of the Tainui tribes of the Waikato. In 1840, the Ngāpuhi chiefs were all signatories to the Treaty of Waitangi. However, from 1845–1846, Ngāpuhi fought against the British Crown over treaty disputes and European encroachment and interference.
The Māori forces were led by Te Ruki Kawiti and Hōne Heke, who instigated the war when he chopped down the flagpole at Kororāreka to commence what is sometimes called the Flagstaff War. The British had Ngāpuhi allies; the outcome of the Flagstaff War is a matter of some debate. Although the war was lauded as a British victory, it is clear that the outcome was somewhat more complex contentious; the flagstaff which had proved so controversial was not re-erected by the colonial government. Whilst the Bay of Islands and Hokianga was still nominally under British influence, the fact that the Government's flag was not re-erected was symbolically significant; such significance was not lost on Henry Williams, writing to E. G. Marsh on 28 May 1846, stating that "the flag-staff in the Bay is still prostrate, the natives here rule; these are humiliating facts to the proud Englishman, many of whom thought they could govern by a mere name."The flagstaff that now stands at Kororareka was erected in January 1858 at the direction of Kawiti's son Maihi Paraone Kawiti.
Japanese immigration to Mexico began in the late 19th century, to found coffee growing plantations in the state of Chiapas. Although this initiative failed, it was followed by greater immigration from 1900 to the beginning of World War II, although it never reached the levels of Japanese immigration to countries like the United States, Brazil or Peru. Immigration halted during World War II and many Japanese nationals and some naturalized Mexicans citizens of Japanese origin were forced to relocate from communities in Baja California and Chiapas to Mexico City and other areas in the interior until the war was over. After the war, immigration began again due to Japanese companies investing in Mexico and sending over skilled employees. There are an estimated 30,000 people who are Japanese or of Japanese descent in Mexico including a recent migration of young Japanese artists into the country who have found more opportunity there than in their home country, it is the fourth largest Japanese community in Latin America.
Japanese were among the Asian slaves who were shipped from the Spanish Philippines in the Manila-Acapulco galleons to Acapulco. These slaves were all called "Chino". In reality, they were of diverse origins, including Japanese, Malays, Javanese and people from Bengal, Ceylon, Tidore and China. Filipinos made up most of their population; the people in this community of diverse Asians in Mexico was called "los indios chinos" by the Spanish. Most of these slaves were male and were obtained from Portuguese slave traders who obtained them from Portuguese colonial possessions and outposts of the Estado da India, which included parts of India, Malacca, Nagasaki in Japan, Macau. Spain received some of these Chino slaves from Mexico, where owning a Chino slave showed high status. Records of three Japanese slaves dating from the 16th century, named Gaspar Fernandes and Ventura who ended up in Mexico showed that they were purchased by Portuguese slave traders in Japan, brought to Manila from where they were shipped to Mexico by their owner Perez.
Some of these Asian slaves were brought to Lima in Peru, where there was a small community of Asians made out of Chinese, Filipinos and others. The history of modern Japanese migration begins near the end of the 19th century. In 1868, Japanese isolation from the world was broken which prompted large scale social and economic upheaval, with the Japanese government encouraging emigration; these emigrants included those from Okinawa, who fled oppression by the Japanese government after the island was taken over in 1878. Mexico was the first country to recognize Japanese sovereignty after the end of its isolation, signing a treaty with it in 1888 to allow citizens of both countries the ability to travel to the other and establishing consulates. Mexico was the first Latin American country to receive Japanese immigrants in 1897, with the first thirty five arriving to Chiapas under the auspices of Viscount Enomoto Takeaki, with the permission of Mexican president Porfirio Díaz; these first Japanese communities consisted of farm workers and other laborers.
Japanese authorities were interested in creating a coffee plantation in Chiapas, for export to Japan. They established the Sociedad Colonizadora Japón-México to recruit Japanese farmers to migrate with government support to obtain land. Others went without government assistance and were called “free emigrants” able to buy land without obligation to the Japanese government. However, economic conditions in Chiapas forced many immigrants to abandon their contracts with the Japanese government and instead formed a new organization called the Sociedad Cooperativa Nichiboku Kyodo Gaisha which allowed them to diversify their economic activities; the first settlement was based on coffee production but failed for various reasons including the fact that not all of the colonists were farmers and many became sick with tropical diseases. Many from this colony there remains a small Japanese community in Acacoyagua, Chiapas. However, its establishment marks the first Japanese immigration to Latin America. Most of the immigration to Mexico occurred from 1900 to the beginning of World War II.
Many of the immigrants in the first half of the 20th century were skilled laborers or illegal immigrants. Mexico Japan relations were superficial in the latter 19th to mid 20th century but immigrants to Mexico had favorable treatment, as Mexico needed additional workers for modernization efforts. In the first decade of the 20th century, a large number of Japanese immigrants came as workers contracted to companies doing business in the country which needed skilled labor; this was first in the mining and sugar cane industries and in construction and railroads. The main Japanese companies involved in this were Kumamoto and Tairiku Shokumin Kaisha which did business in mining and agriculture; the three companies sent a total of 530 people to Mexico between 1904 and 1907. However, many of the immigrants could not do the hard labor of the mines and sugar cane fields, prompting them to abandon their contracts, heading to California or Cuba. During this time period, the number of people of Japanese background went down in Mexico.
In 1908, Japan and Mexico informally agreed to end immigration by contract, but “free” immigrants continued to come. From 1914 to 1938, another 291 people immigrated to Mexico from Japan. Legal skilled laborers after 1917 worked in the health fields, along with those Japanese invited by the Japanese community in Mexico. Most of these were in Baja California. A number of other Japanese came to the country illegally from the United States, after being rejec
The 1941 Detroit Titans football team represented the University of Detroit in the 1941 college football season. Detroit outscored its opponents by a combined total of 195 to 43, finished with a 7–2 record in its 17th year under head coach and College Football Hall of Fame inductee, Gus Dorais. Significant games included victories over a close loss to Arkansas. In addition to head coach Gus Dorais, the team's coaching staff included Lloyd Brazil, Bud Boeringer, Michael H. "Dad" Butler. During a ceremony at halftime on November 8, Butler, at age 71, was honored for his many years of service as the school's trainer and track and boxing coach. Center Vince Banonis, inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame, was the team captain. At the end of the 1941 season, Banonis was chosen as a first-round All-American by Collier's Weekly, International News Service, Paramount News, he was chosen as a second-team All-American by the Newspaper Enterprise Association. Louis Harrington picked three Titans as first-team players on his All-Michigan football team for 1941: Vince Banonis, halfback Elmer L. "Tippy" Madarik, guard Thomas McLoughlin.
1941 University of Detroit football programs