Zimbabwe the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country located in southern Africa, between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers, bordered by South Africa, Botswana and Mozambique. The capital and largest city is Harare. A country of 16 million people, Zimbabwe has 16 official languages, with English and Ndebele the most used. Since the 11th century, present-day Zimbabwe has been the site of several organised states and kingdoms as well as a major route for migration and trade; the British South Africa Company of Cecil Rhodes first demarcated the present territory during the 1890s. In 1965, the conservative white minority government unilaterally declared independence as Rhodesia; the state endured a 15-year guerrilla war with black nationalist forces. Zimbabwe joined the Commonwealth of Nations, from which it was suspended in 2002 for breaches of international law by its then-government, from which it withdrew in December 2003; the sovereign state is a member of the United Nations, the Southern African Development Community, the African Union, the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa.
It was once known as the "Jewel of Africa" for its prosperity under the former Rhodesian administration. Robert Mugabe became Prime Minister of Zimbabwe in 1980, when his ZANU-PF party won the elections following the end of white minority rule. Under Mugabe's authoritarian regime, the state security apparatus dominated the country and was responsible for widespread human rights violations. Mugabe maintained the revolutionary socialist rhetoric of the Cold War era, blaming Zimbabwe's economic woes on conspiring Western capitalist countries. Contemporary African political leaders were reluctant to criticise Mugabe, burnished by his anti-imperialist credentials, though Archbishop Desmond Tutu called him "a cartoon figure of an archetypal African dictator"; the country has been in economic decline since the 1990s, experiencing several crashes and hyperinflation along the way. On 15 November 2017, in the wake of over a year of protests against his government as well as Zimbabwe's declining economy, Mugabe was placed under house arrest by the country's national army in a coup d'état.
On 19 November 2017, ZANU-PF sacked Robert Mugabe as party leader and appointed former Vice President Emmerson Mnangagwa in his place. On 21 November 2017, Mugabe tendered his resignation prior to impeachment proceedings being completed. On 30 July 2018 Zimbabwe held its general elections, won by the ZANU-PF party led by Emmerson Mnangagwa. Nelson Chamisa, leading the main opposition party MDC Alliance contested the election results and filed a petition to the Constitution Court of Zimbabwe; the court confirmed Mnangagwa's victory. The name "Zimbabwe" stems from a Shona term for Great Zimbabwe, an ancient ruined city in the country's south-east whose remains are now a protected site. Two different theories address the origin of the word. Many sources hold that "Zimbabwe" derives from dzimba-dza-mabwe, translated from the Karanga dialect of Shona as "houses of stones"; the Karanga-speaking Shona people live around Great Zimbabwe in the modern-day province of Masvingo. Archaeologist Peter Garlake claims that "Zimbabwe" represents a contracted form of dzimba-hwe, which means "venerated houses" in the Zezuru dialect of Shona and references chiefs' houses or graves.
Zimbabwe was known as Southern Rhodesia and Zimbabwe Rhodesia. The first recorded use of "Zimbabwe" as a term of national reference dates from 1960 as a coinage by the black nationalist Michael Mawema, whose Zimbabwe National Party became the first to use the name in 1961; the term "Rhodesia"—derived from the surname of Cecil Rhodes, the primary instigator of British colonisation of the territory during the late 19th century—was perceived by African nationalists as inappropriate because of its colonial origin and connotations. According to Mawema, black nationalists held a meeting in 1960 to choose an alternative name for the country, proposing names such as "Matshobana" and "Monomotapa" before his suggestion, "Zimbabwe", prevailed. A further alternative, put forward by nationalists in Matabeleland, had been "Matopos", referring to the Matopos Hills to the south of Bulawayo, it was unclear how the chosen term was to be used—a letter written by Mawema in 1961 refers to "Zimbabweland" — but "Zimbabwe" was sufficiently established by 1962 to become the preferred term of the black nationalist movement.
In a 2001 interview, black nationalist Edson Zvobgo recalled that Mawema mentioned the name during a political rally, "and it caught hold, and, that". The black nationalist factions subsequently used the name during the Second Chimurenga campaigns against the Rhodesian government during the Rhodesian Bush War of 1964–1979. Major factions in this camp included the Zimbabwe African National Union, the Zimbabwe African People's Union. Archaeological records date human settlement of present-day Zimbabwe to at least 100,000 years ago; the earliest known inhabitants were San people, who left behind arrowheads and cave paintings. The first Bantu-speaking farmers arrived during the Bantu expansion around 2000 years ago. Societies speaking proto-Shona languages fir
Karonga is a district in the Northern Region of Malawi. The district covers an area of 3,355 km.² and has a population of 194,572. It is a border district between Malawi and Tanzania occupied by the Nkhonde tribe. Other tribes include Nyakyusa tribes etc.. Karonga District is the main border from Tanzania into Malawi, the chief town is Karonga Boma. Over the last few years, there has been much development in the region due to the discovery of uranium at the Kayelekera mine, which opened in 2009, many of the gravelled roads have been laid with tarmac. There are many guesthouses in Karonga, along the shore of Lake Malawi. However, swimming is not recommended. There are five National Assembly constituencies in Karonga: Karonga - Central Karonga - North Karonga - North East Karonga - Nyungwe Karonga - SouthSince the 2009 election Karonga Nyungwe has been represented by an AFORD politician, the other seats are held by members of the Democratic Progressive Party; the traditional authorities are Wasambo, Mwakaboko, Mwirang'ombe and the central township of Karonga Boma.
The main languages of the northern part of Karonga District are Kyangonde. In the south, Tumbuka is spoken, in the centre, including Karonga town itself, Chinkhonde. There are some pockets of Swahili speakers along the border with Tanzania, a few speakers of Chindali and Cisukwa along the border with Chitipa District. Karonga Geoffrey Du Mhango Bazuka Mhango Temwa Nyirenda
Matema is a town in southwestern Tanzania. The town is a fishing village with some agriculture, it is located on the northern tip of Lake Nyasa and is 90 kilometres south-east of Mbeya
The Zambezi is the fourth-longest river in Africa, the longest east-flowing river in Africa and the largest flowing into the Indian Ocean from Africa. The area of its basin is 1,390,000 square kilometres less than half of the Nile's; the 2,574-kilometre-long river rises in Zambia and flows through eastern Angola, along the north-eastern border of Namibia and the northern border of Botswana along the border between Zambia and Zimbabwe to Mozambique, where it crosses the country to empty into the Indian Ocean. The Zambezi's most noted feature is Victoria Falls. Other notable falls include the Chavuma Falls at the border between Zambia and Angola, Ngonye Falls, near Sioma in Western Zambia. There are two main sources of hydroelectric power on the river, the Kariba Dam, which provides power to Zambia and Zimbabwe, the Cahora Bassa Dam in Mozambique, which provides power to Mozambique and South Africa. There are additional two smaller power stations along the Zambezi River in Zambia, one at Victoria Falls and the other one near Kalene Hill in Ikelenge District.
The river rises in a black marshy dambo in dense undulating miombo woodland 50 kilometres north of Mwinilunga and 20 kilometres south of Ikelenge in the Ikelenge District of North-Western Province, Zambia at about 1,524 metres above sea level. The area around the source is forest reserve and Important Bird Area. Eastward of the source, the watershed between the Congo and Zambezi basins is a well-marked belt of high ground, running nearly east-west and falling abruptly to the north and south; this distinctly cuts off the basin of the Lualaba from that of the Zambezi. In the neighborhood of the source the watershed is not as defined, but the two river systems do not connect; the region drained by the Zambezi is a vast broken-edged plateau 900–1200 m high, composed in the remote interior of metamorphic beds and fringed with the igneous rocks of the Victoria Falls. At Shupanga, on the lower Zambezi, thin strata of grey and yellow sandstones, with an occasional band of limestone, crop out on the bed of the river in the dry season, these persist beyond Tete, where they are associated with extensive seams of coal.
Coal is found in the district just below Victoria Falls. Gold-bearing rocks occur in several places; the river flows to the southwest into Angola for about 240 kilometres is joined by sizeable tributaries such as the Luena and the Chifumage flowing from highlands to the north-west. It turns south and develops a floodplain, with extreme width variation between the dry and rainy seasons, it enters dense evergreen Cryptosepalum dry forest, though on its western side, Western Zambezian grasslands occur. Where it re-enters Zambia it is nearly 400 metres wide in the rainy season and flows with rapids ending in the Chavuma Falls, where the river flows through a rocky fissure; the river drops about 400 metres in elevation from its source at 1,500 metres to the Chavuma Falls at 1,100 metres, in a distance of about 400 kilometres. From this point to the Victoria Falls, the level of the basin is uniform, dropping only by another 180 metres in a distance of around 800 kilometres; the first of its large tributaries to enter the Zambezi is the Kabompo River in the northwestern province of Zambia.
A major advantage of the Kabompo River was irrigation. The savanna through which the river has flowed gives way to a wide floodplain, studded with Borassus fan palms. A little farther south is the confluence with the Lungwebungu River; this is the beginning of the Barotse Floodplain, the most notable feature of the upper Zambezi, but this northern part does not flood so much and includes islands of higher land in the middle. Thirty kilometres below the confluence of the Lungwebungu the country becomes flat, the typical Barotse Floodplain landscape unfolds, with the flood reaching a width of 25 km in the rainy season. For more than 200 km downstream the annual flood cycle dominates the natural environment and human life and culture. Eighty kilometres further down, the Luanginga, which with its tributaries drains a large area to the west, joins the Zambezi. A few kilometres higher up on the east the main stream is joined in the rainy season by overflow of the Luampa/Luena system. A short distance downstream of the confluence with the Luanginga is Lealui, one of the capitals of the Lozi people who populate the Zambian region of Barotseland in Western Province.
The chief of the Lozi maintains one of his two compounds at Lealui. The annual move from Lealui to Limulunga is a major event, celebrated as one of Zambia's best known festivals, the Kuomboka. After Lealui, the river turns to south-south-east. From the east it continues to receive numerous small streams, but on the west is without major tributaries for 240 km. Before this, the Ngonye Falls and subsequent rapids interrupt navigation. South of Ngonye Falls, the river borders Namibia's Caprivi Strip; the strip projects from the main body of Namibia, results from the colonial era: it was added to German South-West Africa expressly to give Germany access to the Zambezi. Below the junction of the Cuando River and the Zambezi the river bends due east. Here, the river is broad and shallow, flows but as it flows eastward towards the border of the great central plateau of Africa it reaches a chasm into which the Victoria Falls plunge; the Victoria Falls are considered the boundary between the middle Zambezi.
Below them the river continues to flow due east for about 20
Chipata is a city in the Eastern Province of Zambia. It was declared the 5th city of the country, after Lusaka, Ndola and Livingstone, by President Edgar Lungu on 24 February 2017; the city has undergone rapid economic and infrastructure growth in the years, leading up to city status. Chipata is located 570 kilometres, east of Lusaka, the capital city of Zambia; this is about 150 kilometres west of Lilongwe, the capital city of Malawi. The geographical coordinates of Chipata are 13°38'43.0"S, 32°38'47.0"E. The average elevation of Chipata is 1,181 metres, above sea level. Having a modern market, a central hospital, shopping malls, a university, some colleges and a number of schools, Chipata is the business and administrative hub of the region; the town boasts a four star hotel, a golf course, an airport, a mosque, a "welcome arch". Developed areas includes Kalongwezi and Little Bombay. Chipata is the regional head of the Ngoni of Zambia; the Ngoni adopted the languages of the tribes they conquered, so Chewa and Nsenga are the principal languages, although Tumbuka and English are spoken, plus some Indian languages, as a large number of Zambian Indians live in the town.
It is located near the border with Malawi, lies on the Great East Road which connects the capitals Lilongwe 150 kilometres to the east, Lusaka 570 kilometres to the west. It is a popular access point for the South Luangwa National Park. Chipata's name comes from the Ngoni word "Chimpata" meaning "large space," in reference to the town's situation in a shallow valley between hills; the name of the central neighbourhood of Kapata, the original centre of town, comes from the Ngoni word meaning "small space." Chipata was known as Fort Jameson, being named after Leander Starr Jameson, the 19th-century British politician and adventurer. During the colonial period, few agreed that Jameson, known for his part in the infamous Jameson Raid deserved the honour of having any town named after him. Like'Fort Manning' and'Fort Rosebery', Fort Jameson was called a "fort" because the local government offices, the "boma", were once fortified. Fort Jameson was the capital of the British protectorate of North-Eastern Rhodesia between 1900 and 1911.
Kalongwezi Kapata Umodzi Moth Muchini Nabvutika Little Bombay Mchenga Damview Old Jim New Jim Chimwemwe Magazine Eastrise Walela Chawama Munga Chipata Motel Nadalisika Katopola Referendum Rose Hillview Gash Msekera Messengers The mayor of the city of Chipata is the head of the city government. With a population of about 455,783 in 2010, Chipata, is believed to be the 3rd largest city of the country behind only Lusaka and Kitwe; the predominant ethnic groups in the city are the Chewa, Tumbuka and Nsenga. A significant amount of trade occurs between Malawi via Chipata; the city has a bustling down town area known as "Down Shops" which has a lot of shops and other businesses run by Zambians of Indian Origin. Most notable shops are Ally and Sons; the Nc'wala ceremony of the Ngoni people takes place at Mutenguleni on the outskirts of Chipata. The ceremony celebrates the first fruits harvest and is held at the end of February. Hillside Primary School Mpezeni Primary School Chipata Primary School Kapata Primary School Chongololo School St Anne's Primary School Trinity private School Mem private School Anoya Zulu Boys Secondary School Chizongwe Boys Secondary School St. Monicas Girls Secondary School Chipata Day Secondary School Hillside Girls High School St. Atanazio Secondary School St. Mary's Seminary School Damview Secondary School Muziphas high school Chipata Teacher's Training College Chipata Trades Training Institute Chipata School of Nursing DMI-St.
Eugene University A rail link to Chipata from Malawi opened in August 2011. Chipata will now act as the Zambian entry point from Malawi and beyond. In the pipeline since 1982, the short link, about 35 kilometres, provides a through-route for rail traffic from Zambia via Malawi to the Indian Ocean deep-water port at Nacala in Mozambique; the route and alignment of the line has been laid out, including the site of Chipata station and the basic station building. The route will provide an alternative to two existing rail routes to the Indian Ocean, at Dar es Salaam and Beira. In 2015 it was proposed to build a rail link to a small town on the TAZARA Railway line. Railway stations in Zambia Railway stations in Malawi Transport in Zambia Transport in Malawi UN Map Largest cities of Zambia
The Nguni people are a group of Bantu peoples who speak Nguni languages and reside predominantly in Southern Africa. The Nguni people are Xhosa, Mpondo people and Swati people, they predominantly live in South Africa. Swati people live in both South Africa and Eswatini, while Ndebele and Xhosa people live in both South Africa and Zimbabwe. In South Africa, the historic Nguni kingdoms of the Xhosa, Mpondo, Ndebele and Swazi lie on the present provinces of the Eastern Cape, KwaZulu-Natal, Mpumalanga; the most notable of these kingdoms is the Zulu Kingdom, ruled by Shaka kaSenzangakhona, a powerful warrior king whose conquest took place in the early nineteenth century. In Zimbabwe, the Ndebele people live in Matebeleland and Midlands. Most of what is known about ancient Nguni history comes from oral history and legends. Traditionally, they are said to have migrated to Africa's Great Lakes region from the north. According to linguistic evidence only, they migrated from; some groups settled along the way, while others kept going.
Thus, the following settlement pattern formed: the southern Ndebele in the north, the Swazi in the north east, the Zulu towards the east and the Xhosa in the south. Owing to the fact that these people had a common origin, their languages and cultures show marked similarities. After diverging from the Sotho-Tswana and Tsonga, the Nguni met with San hunters, which accounts for their use of "click" languages. Although the Ndebele are said to have come from the Zulus, this is true only for some Zimbabwean Ndebeles; the South African Ndebeles were the first group to separate from other Nguni clans after entering present-day South African and settling in the Transvaal region from around the year 1500. The remaining Nguni clans moved further south; those that moved south west ended up calling themselves Xhosas, most of the clans that moved south east ended up being forcibly united under the Zulus when Shaka defeated the Ndwandwe confederacy under Zwide kaLanga. Before their defeat by Shaka, they lived in the area north of the Umhlathuze River and south of the Pongola.
After their defeat, they moved among other areas. Mzilikazi, chief of the Khumalo clan, became one of Shaka's top generals after the unification of the clans. Returning from a raid with his impi, he kept some of the stolen cattle for himself rather than handing them over to his overlord, Shaka, as was the custom; such conduct was punishable by death. A regiment was sent to punish this general, which resulted in him fleeing with hundreds of his followers ending up in the Transvaal region where they came into contact with the Manala Ndebeles; the Manala Ndebeles had been weakened by their separation from the Nzunza Ndebele after two to three centuries of their settlement in the Transvaal region. The separation led to the majority of the nation going with the minority with Manala; the Nzunza Ndebele moved north and the Manala Ndebele, who were predominantly composed of women, remained in present-day Pretoria. When Mzilikazi arrived, he killed the Manala Ndebele king, King Silamba, they settled there for a while before moving further north, ending up in present-day Zimbabwe around 1839.
By the time they arrived in present-day Zimbabwe, Mzilikazi's Khumalo clan was known as the Ndebele. Further conquests and assimilation of Zimbabwean groups meant that the original Khumalos from Zululand were a minority in this large ethnic group, united by a common Nguni language, isiNdebele. Many tribes and clans are said to have been forcibly united under Shaka Zulu. Shaka Zulu's political organisation was efficient in integrating "conquered" tribes by the age regiments, where men from different villages bonded with each other. Many versions in the historiography of Southern Africa state that during the southern African migrations known as Mfecane, the Nguni peoples spread across a large part of southern Africa, conquering or displacing many other peoples. However, the notion of the mfecane/difaqane has been disputed by some scholars, Julian Cobbing; the Mfecane was initiated by Zwide and his Ndwandwe's. They stole their cattle leaving them destitute; the remnants of the Hlubi under their chief Matiwane fled into what is now the Free State and attacked the Batlokwa in The Harrismith Vrede area.
This displaced the Batlokwa under Mantatese and she and her people spread death and destruction further into the central interior. Moshoeshoe and his Bakwena sent him tribute in return; when Matiwane settled at Mabolela, near present day Clocolan, Moshoeshoe complained to Shaka that this prevented him from sending his tribute whereupon an impi was sent to drive Matiwane from this area. Matiwane fled south and was defeated in a battle with British troops in what became the Transkei. Mantatese and her Batlokwa settled near what is now Ficksburg and was followed by her son, Sekonyela, as chief of the Batlokwa, it was he who had stolen Zulu cattle that Piet Retief in his dealings with Dingane, Shaka's successor, had to retrieve. After the defeat of Zwide and his Ndwandwes by Shaka, two of his commanders and Zwengendaba, fled with their followers northwards creating havoc as they went. Soshangane foun
Southern Africa is the southernmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics, including several countries. The term southern Africa or Southern Africa includes Angola, Eswatini, Malawi, Namibia, South Africa and Zimbabwe, though Angola may be included in Central Africa and Malawi, Mozambique and Zimbabwe in East Africa. From a political perspective the region is said to be unipolar with South Africa as a first regional power. Another geographic delineation for the region is the portion of Africa south of the Cunene and Zambezi Rivers – that is: South Africa, Eswatini, Botswana and the part of Mozambique which lies south of the Zambezi River; this definition is most used in South Africa for natural sciences and in guide books such as Roberts' Birds of Southern Africa, the Southern African Bird Atlas Project and Mammals of the Southern African Subregion. It is not used in political, economic or human geography contexts because this definition cuts Mozambique in two.
In the United Nations scheme of geographic regions, five states constitute Southern Africa: Botswana Eswatini Lesotho Namibia South AfricaThe Southern African Customs Union, created in 1969 comprises the five states in the UN subregion of Southern Africa. The Southern African Development Community was established in 1980 to facilitate co-operation in the region, it includes: Angola Botswana Comoros Democratic Republic of the Congo Eswatini Lesotho Madagascar Malawi Mauritius Mozambique Namibia Seychelles South Africa Tanzania Zambia Zimbabwe The region is sometimes reckoned to include other territories: Angola – part of Central Africa in the UN scheme. Comoros, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Réunion, Zambia, Zimbabwe – part of Eastern Africa in the UN scheme; the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Tanzania, though more reckoned in Central and Eastern Africa are included in Southern Africa as they are SADC members. The terrain of Southern Africa is varied; the region has both low-lying coastal areas, mountains.
In terms of natural resources, the region has the world's largest resources of platinum and the platinum group elements, chromium and cobalt, as well as uranium, copper, titanium and diamonds. The region is distinct from the rest of Africa, with some of its main exports including platinum, gold, copper and uranium, but it is similar in that it shares some of the problems of the rest of the continent. While colonialism has left its mark on the development over the course of history, today poverty, HIV/AIDS are some of the biggest factors impeding economic growth; the pursuit of economic and political stability is an important part of the region's goals, as demonstrated by the SADC. In terms of economic strength, South Africa is by far the dominant power of the region. South Africa's GDP alone is many times greater than the GDP's of all other countries in the region. Mining and tourism sectors dominate the economies of Southern African countries, apart from South Africa which has a mature and flourishing financial sector, retail sector, construction sector.
Most global banks have their regional offices for Southern Africa based in Johannesburg, South Africa. Over the years, some the other Southern African nations have invested in economic diversification, invested public funds into rail and air transportation as part of a concerted effort through SADC to boost regional trade and improve communication and transportation; the countries in this region belong to the Southern Africa Power Pool, which facilitates the development of a competitive electricity market within the SADC region and ensures sustainable energy developments through sound economic and social practices. The main objective of the power pool is to develop a world class and safe interconnected electrical system across the Southern African Region. According to a report by Southern Africa Power Pool, the three largest producers of electricity in Southern Africa as at 2017, include Eskom in South Africa with an estimated 46,963MW, Zesco in Zambia with 2,877MW and SNL of Angola with 2,442MW.
Southern Africa has a wide diversity of ecoregions including grassland, karoo and riparian zones. Though considerable disturbance has occurred in some regions from habitat loss due to human overpopulation or export-focused development, there remain significant numbers of various wildlife species, including white rhino, African leopard, kudu, blue wildebeest, vervet monkey and elephant, it has complex Plateaus. There are numerous environmental issues in Southern Africa, including air pollution and desertification. Southern Africa is home to many people, it was populated by indigenous or native Africans San and Pygmies in dispersed concentrations. Due to the Bantu expansion which edged the previous native African peoples to the more remote areas of the region, the majority of African ethnic groups in this region, including the Xhosa, Tsonga, Northern Ndebele, Southern Ndebele, Tswana and Shona people, BaLunda, Ovimbundu, Shona and Sukuma, speak Bantu languages; the process of colonization and settling resulted in a significant population of native European and Asian descent in many southern African co