The Xhosa people are an ethnic group of people of Southern Africa found in the Eastern and Western Cape, South Africa, in the last two centuries throughout the southern and central-southern parts of the country. There is a small but significant Xhosa community in Zimbabwe, their language, IsiXhosa, is recognised as a national language; the Xhosa people are divided into several tribes with distinct heritages. The main tribes are the AmaGcaleka, AmaRharhabe, ImiDange, ImiDushane, AmaNdlambe. In addition, there are other tribes found near or amongst the Xhosa people such as AbaThembu, AmaBhaca, AbakoBhosha and AmaQwathi that are distinct and separate tribes which have adopted the Xhosa language and the Xhosa way of life; the name "Xhosa" comes from that of a legendary leader and King called uXhosa. There is a fringe theory that, in fact the King's name which has since been lost amongst the people was not Xhosa, but that "xhosa" was a name given to him by the San and which means "fierce" or "angry" in Khoisan languages.
The Xhosa people refer to themselves as the AmaXhosa, to their language as isiXhosa. Presently 8 million Xhosa are distributed across the country, the Xhosa language is South Africa's second-most-populous home language, after the Zulu language, to which Xhosa is related; the pre-1994 apartheid system of Bantustans denied Xhosas South African citizenship, but enabled them to have self-governing "homelands" namely. Many Xhosa live in Cape Town, East London, Port Elizabeth; as of 2003 the majority of Xhosa speakers 5.3 million, lived in the Eastern Cape, followed by the Western Cape, the Free State, KwaZulu-Natal, North West, the Northern Cape, Limpopo. The Xhosa are part of the South African Nguni migration which moved south from the region around the Great Lakes; these tribes lived peacefully together until the frontier wars. Xhosa people were well established by the time of the Dutch arrival in the mid-17th century, occupied much of eastern South Africa from around the Port Elizabeth area to lands inhabited by Zulu-speakers south of the modern city of Durban.
The Xhosa and white settlers first encountered one another around Somerset East in the early 18th century. In the late 18th century Afrikaner trekboers migrating outwards from Cape Town came into conflict with Xhosa pastoralists around the Great Fish River region of the Eastern Cape. Following more than 20 years of intermittent conflict, from 1811 to 1812, the Xhosas were forced east by the British Empire in the Third Frontier War. In the years following, many tribes found in the north eastern parts of South Africa were pushed west into Xhosa country by the expansion of the Zulus in Natal, as the northern Nguni put pressure on the southern Nguni as part of the historical process known as the mfecane, or "scattering"; the Xhosa-speaking people received these scattered tribes and assimilated them into their cultural way of life and followed Xhosa traditions. The Xhosa called these various tribes AmaMfengu, meaning wanderers, were made up of tribes such as the amaBhaca, amaBhele, amaHlubi, amaZizi and Rhadebe.
These newcomers are sometimes considered to be Xhosa. Xhosa unity and ability to resist colonial expansion was to be weakened by the famines and political divisions that followed the cattle-killing movement of 1856–1858. Historians now view this movement as a millennialist response, both directly to a lung disease spreading among Xhosa cattle at the time, less directly to the stress to Xhosa society caused by the continuing loss of their territory and autonomy; some historians argue that this early absorption into the wage economy is the ultimate origin of the long history of trade union membership and political leadership among Xhosa people. That history manifests itself today in high degrees of Xhosa representation in the leadership of the African National Congress, South Africa's ruling political party. Xhosa is an agglutinative tonal language of the Bantu family. While the Xhosas call their language "isiXhosa", it is referred to as "Xhosa" in English. Written Xhosa uses a Latin alphabet–based system.
Xhosa is spoken by about 18% of the South African population, has some mutual intelligibility with Zulu Zulu spoken in urban areas. Many Xhosa speakers those living in urban areas speak Zulu and/or Afrikaans and/or English. Traditional healers of South Africa include diviners; this job is taken by women, who spend five years in apprenticeship. There are herbalists and healers for the community; the Xhosas have a strong oral tradition with many stories of ancestral heroes. One of Xhosa's descendents named Phalo gave birth to two sons, Gcaleka kaPhalo, the heir, Rarabe ka Phalo, a son from the Right Hand house. Rarabe was a great warrior and a man of great ability, much loved by his father. Gcaleka was a meek and listless man who did not possess all the qualities befitting of a future king. Matters were complicated by Gcaleka's initiation as a diviner, a forbidden practice for members of the royal family. Seeing the popularity of his brother and fearing that he might one day challenge him for the throne, Gcaleka attempted to usurp the throne from his father, but Rarabe would come to his father's aid and quell the insurrection.
With the blessing of
Battle of Ulundi
The Battle of Ulundi took place at the Zulu capital of Ulundi on 4 July 1879 and was the last major battle of the Anglo-Zulu War. The British army broke the military power of the Zulu nation by defeating the main Zulu army and afterwards capturing and razing the capital of Zululand, the royal kraal of Ulundi. After the decisive Zulu victory at the battle of Isandlwana in January over Chelmsford's main column and the consequent defeat of the first invasion of Zululand, the British launched a new invasion of Zululand. In April 1879 despite recent battles at Kambula and Gingindlovu which had resulted in serious losses for the Zulus, the British were back at their starting point. News of the defeat at Isandlwana had hit Britain hard. In response, a flood of reinforcements had arrived in Natal with which Chelmsford prepared a second invasion of Zululand. Lord Chelmsford was aware by mid June that Sir Garnet Wolseley had superseded his command of the British forces. Chelmsford was ordered by Her Majesty's Government to "...submit and subordinate your plans to his control."
Chelmsford ignored this and various peace offers from Cetshwayo in order to strike while the Zulu were still recovering from their defeats and to attempt to regain his reputation before Wolseley could remove him from command of the army. For his renewed offensive Chelmsford's overall strength was increased to 25,000. However, the size of the force overwhelmed the supply and transport capacity of Natal and Chelmsford would have to utilize a number of troops that could be sustained in the field. In the event, for his main column, he fielded two cavalry regiments, five batteries of artillery and 12 infantry battalions, amounting to 1,000 regular cavalry, 9,000 regular infantry and a further 7,000 men with 24 guns, including the first British Army Gatling gun battery; the lumbering supply train consisted of 8,000 oxen and 1,000 mules. The structure of the force was reorganised. All through April and May there was much to and fro manoeuvring by the British with supply and transport. On 3 June, the main thrust of the second invasion began its slow advance on Ulundi.
The 1st Division was to advance along the coast belt supporting 2nd Division, which with Wood's flying column, an independent unit, was to march on Ulundi from Rorke’s Drift and Kambula. Still hoping for an end to hostilities, King Cetshwayo refrained from attacking the extended and vulnerable supply lines the British advance was unopposed; as the force advanced Cetshwayo dispatched envoys from Ulundi to the British. These envoys reached Chelmsford on 4 June with the message that Cetshwayo wished to know what terms would be acceptable to cease hostilities. Chelmsford sent a Zulu-speaking Dutch trader back with their terms in writing. On the evening of 6 June jittery British troops and artillery in laager at Fort Newdigate opened fire on an arriving piquet company of Royal Engineers commanded by Lieutenant John Chard of Rorke's Drift fame, killing two horses and wounding one. By the 16th the slow advance was quickened by the news that Wolseley was on his way to Natal to take command. On the 17th a depot named.
On 28 June Chelmsford’s column was a mere 17 miles away from Ulundi and had established the supply depots of'Fort Newdigate','Fort Napoleon' and'Port Durnford' when Sir Garnet Wolseley arrived in Cape Town. Wolseley had cabled Chelmsford ordering him not to undertake any serious actions on the 23rd but the message was only received through a galloper on this day. Chelmsford had no intention of letting Wolseley stop him from making a last effort to restore his reputation and did not reply. A second message was sent on 30 June reading: "Concentrate your force and keep it concentrated. Undertake no serious operations with detached bodies of troops. Acknowledge receipt of this message at once and flash back your latest moves. I am astonished at not hearing from you" Wolseley, straining to assert command over Chelmsford, tried to join 1st Division, lagging along the coast behind the main advance. A final message was sent to Chelmsford explaining that he would be joining 1st Division, that their location was where Chelmsford should retreat if he was compelled.
High seas prevented Wolseley landing at Port Durnford and he had to take the road. At the time Wolseley was riding north from Durban, Chelmsford was preparing to engage the enemy. Wolseley's efforts to reach the front had been in vain. On the same day the first cable was received, Cetshwayo’s representatives again appeared. A previous reply to Chelmsford’s demands had not reached the British force, but now these envoys bore some of what the British commander had demanded – oxen, a promise of guns and a gift of elephant tusks; the peace was rejected as the terms had not been met and Chelmsford turned the envoys away without accepting the elephant tusks and informed them that the advance would only be delayed one day to allow the Zulus to surrender one regiment of their army. The redcoats were now visible from the Royal Kraal and a dismayed Cetshwayo was desperate to end the hostilities. With the invading enemy in sight, he knew no Zulu regiment would surrender so Cetshwayo sent a further hundred white oxen from his own herd along with Prince Napoleon’s sword, which the Zulu had taken 1 June 1879 in the skirmish in which the Prince had been killed.
The Zulu umCijo regiment, guarding the approaches to the White Umfolozi River where the British were camped
Botswana the Republic of Botswana, is a landlocked country in Southern Africa. The British protectorate of Bechuanaland, Botswana adopted its new name after becoming independent within the Commonwealth on 30 September 1966. Since it has maintained a tradition of stable representative republic, with a consistent record of uninterrupted democratic elections and the best perceived corruption ranking in Africa since at least 1998, it is Africa's oldest continuous democracy. Botswana is topographically flat, with up to 70 percent of its territory being the Kalahari Desert, it is bordered by South Africa to the south and southeast, Namibia to the west and north, Zimbabwe to the northeast. Its border with Zambia to the north near Kazungula is poorly defined but is, at most, a few hundred metres long. A mid-sized country of just over 2 million people, Botswana is one of the most sparsely populated countries in the world. Around 10 percent of the population lives in the capital and largest city, Gaborone.
One of the poorest countries in the world—with a GDP per capita of about US$70 per year in the late 1960s—Botswana has since transformed itself into one of the world's fastest-growing economies. The economy is dominated by mining and tourism. Botswana boasts a GDP per capita of about $18,825 per year as of 2015, one of the highest in Africa, its high gross national income gives the country a high standard of living and the highest Human Development Index of continental Sub-Saharan Africa. Botswana is a member of the African Union, the Southern African Development Community, the Commonwealth of Nations, the United Nations; the country has been among the hardest hit by the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Despite the success in programmes to make treatments available to those infected, to educate the populace in general about how to stop the spread of HIV/AIDS, the number of people with AIDS rose from 290,000 in 2005 to 320,000 in 2013; as of 2014, Botswana has the third-highest prevalence rate for HIV/AIDS, with 20% of the population infected.
The country's name means "land of the tswana", referring to the dominant ethnic group in Botswana. The term Batswana was applied to the Tswana, still the case. However, it has come to be used as a demonym for all citizens of Botswana. Many English dictionaries recommend the term Botswanan to refer to people of Botswana. Archaeological digs have shown. Stone tools and fauna remains have shown that all areas of the country were inhabited at least 400,000 years ago. Evidence left by modern humans such as cave paintings are about 73,000 years old; the original inhabitants of southern Africa were the Khoi peoples. Both speak Khoisan languages and hunted and traded over long distances; when cattle were first introduced about 2000 years ago into southern Africa, pastoralism became a major feature of the economy, since the region had large grasslands free of tsetse fly. It is unclear when Bantu-speaking peoples first moved into the country from the north, although AD 600 seems to be a consensus estimate.
In that era, the ancestors of the modern-day Kalanga moved into what is now the north-eastern areas of the country. These proto-Kalanga were connected to states in Zimbabwe as well as to the Mapungubwe state; these states, located outside of current Botswana's borders, appear to have kept massive cattle herds in what is now the Central District—apparently at numbers approaching modern cattle density. This massive cattle-raising complex prospered until 1300 AD or so, seems to have regressed following the collapse of Mapungubwe. During this era, the first Tswana-speaking groups, the Bakgalagadi, moved into the southern areas of the Kalahari. All these various peoples were connected to trade routes that ran via the Limpopo River to the Indian Ocean, trade goods from Asia such as beads made their way to Botswana most in exchange for ivory and rhinoceros horn; the arrival of the ancestors of the Tswana-speakers who came to control the region has yet to be dated precisely. Members of the Bakwena, a chieftaincy under a legendary leader named Kgabo II, made their way into the southern Kalahari by AD 1500, at the latest, his people drove the Bakgalagadi inhabitants west into the desert.
Over the years, several offshoots of the Bakwena moved into adjoining territories. The Bangwaketse occupied areas to the west, while the Bangwato moved northeast into Kalanga areas. Not long afterwards, a Bangwato offshoot known as the Batawana migrated into the Okavango Delta in the 1790s; the first written records relating to modern-day Botswana appear in 1824. What these records show is that the Bangwaketse had become the predominant power in the region. Under the rule of Makaba II, the Bangwaketse kept vast herds of cattle in well-protected desert areas, used their military prowess to raid their neighbors. Other chiefdoms in the area, by this time, had capitals of 10,000 or so and were prosperous; this equilibrium came to end during the Mfecane period, 1823–1843, when a succession of invading peoples from South Africa entered the country. Although the Bangwaketse were able to defeat the invading Bakololo in 1826, over time all the major chiefdoms in Botswana were attacked and impoverished.
The Bakololo and Amandebele raided and took large numbers of cattle and children from the Batswana—most of whom were driven into the desert or sanctuary areas such as hilltops and caves. Only after 1843, when the Amandebele moved into western Zimbabwe, did this threat subside. During th
The Anglo-Zulu War was fought in 1879 between the British Empire and the Zulu Kingdom. Following Lord Carnarvon's successful introduction of federation in Canada, it was thought that similar political effort, coupled with military campaigns, might succeed with the African kingdoms, tribal areas and Boer republics in South Africa. In 1874, Sir Henry Bartle Frere was sent to South Africa as High Commissioner for the British Empire to bring such plans into being. Among the obstacles were the presence of the independent states of the South African Republic and the Kingdom of Zululand and its army. Frere, on his own initiative, without the approval of the British government and with the intent of instigating a war with the Zulu, had presented an ultimatum on 11 December 1878, to the Zulu king Cetshwayo with which the Zulu king could not comply, including disbanding his army and abandoning key cultural traditions. Bartle Frere sent Lord Chelmsford to invade Zululand after this ultimatum was not met.
The war is notable for several bloody battles, including an opening victory of the Zulu at the Battle of Isandlwana, followed by the defeat of a large Zulu army at Rorke's Drift by a small force of British troops. The war resulted in a British victory and the end of the Zulu nation's dominance of the region. By the 1850s the British Empire had colonies in southern Africa bordering on various Boer settlements, native African kingdoms such as the Zulus, the Basotho and numerous indigenous tribal areas and states. Various interactions with these followed an expansionist policy. Cape Colony had been formed after the Anglo–Dutch Treaty of 1814 permanently ceded the Dutch colony of Cape Town to Britain, its territory expanded substantially through the 19th century. Natal in south-eastern Africa was proclaimed a British colony on 4 May 1843 after the British government had annexed the Boer Republic of Natalia. Matters were brought to a head when three sons and a brother of the Zulu chief Sirayo organized a raid into Natal and carried off two women who were under British protection.
The discovery of diamonds in 1867 near the Vaal River, some 550 miles northeast of Cape Town, ended the isolation of the Boers in the interior and changed South African history. The discovery triggered a diamond rush that attracted people from all over the world, which turned Kimberley into a town of 50,000 within five years and drew the attention of British imperial interests. In the 1870s, the British annexed site of the Kimberley diamond discoveries. In 1874 Lord Carnarvon, Secretary of State for the Colonies, who had brought about federation in Canada in 1867, thought that a similar scheme might work in South Africa; the South African plan called for a ruling white minority over a black majority, which would provide a large pool of cheap labour for the British sugar plantations and mines. Carnarvon, in an attempt to extend British influence in 1875, approached the Boer states of the Orange Free State and the Transvaal Republic and tried to organize a federation of the British and Boer territories, but the Boer leaders turned him down.
In 1877, Sir Bartle Frere was made High Commissioner for Southern Africa by Lord Carnarvon. Carnarvon appointed Frere to the position on the understanding that he would work to enforce Carnarvon's confederation plan and, in return, Frere could become the first British governor of a federated southern African dominion. Frere was sent to South Africa as High Commissioner to bring this plan about. One of the obstacles to such a scheme was the presence of the independent states of the South African Republic, informally known as the Transvaal Republic, the Kingdom of Zululand. Bartle Frere wasted no time in putting the scheme forward and manufacturing a casus belli against the Zulu by exaggerating the significance of a number of recent incidents. By 1877, Sir Theophilus Shepstone, the British Secretary for Native Affairs in Natal, annexed the Transvaal Republic for Britain using a special warrant; the Transvaal Boers objected but as long as the Zulu threat remained, found themselves between two threats.
However, the successive British annexations, in particular the annexation of West Griqualand, caused a climate of simmering unease for the Boer republics. Shepstone, in his capacity as British governor of Natal, had expressed concerns about the Zulu army under King Cetshwayo and the potential threat to Natal — given the adoption by some of the Zulus of old muskets and other out-of-date firearms. In his new role of Administrator of the Transvaal, he was now responsible for protecting the Transvaal and had direct involvement in the Zulu border dispute from the side of the Transvaal. Persistent Boer representations and Paul Kruger's diplomatic manoeuvrings added to the pressure. There were incidents involving Zulu paramilitary actions on either side of the Transvaal/Natal border, Shepstone began to regard King Cetshwayo, as having permitted such "outrages", to be in a "defiant mood". King Cetshwayo now found no defender in Natal save John Colenso. Colenso advocated for native Africans in Natal and Zululand, unjustly treated by the colonial regime in Natal.
In 1874 he took up the cause of Langalibalele and the Hlubi and Ngwe tribes in representations to the Colonial Secretary, Lord Carnarvon. Langalibalele had been falsely accused of rebellion in 1873 and, following a charade of a trial, was found guilty and imprisoned on Robben Island. In taking the side of Langalibalele against the colonial regime in Natal and Theophilus Shepstone, the Secretary for Native Affairs, Colenso found himself further estra
Southern Ndebele people
The Southern African Ndebele are an eMbo ethnic group native to South Africa who speak Southern Ndebele, distinct both from the "Northern Transvaal Ndebele" languages known as SiNrebele or SiSumayela, as well as the Zimbabwean Ndebele language. The former are the people of Gegana and the latter are the people of Mzilikazi's "Matabele Empire", whereas Southern Ndebele people are those of Ndzundza and Manala. Although sharing the same name, they should not be confused with Northern Ndebele people of modern Zimbabwe, a breakaway from the Zulu nation, with whom they came into contact only after Mfecane. Northern Ndebele people speak the Ndebele language. Mzilikazi's Khumalo clan have a different history and their language is more similar to Zulu and Xhosa. Southern Ndebele inhabit the provinces of Mpumalanga and Limpopo, all of which are in the northeast of the country; the Southern Ndebele people’s history has been traced back to King Ndebele, King Ndebele fathered King Langa, King Langa fathered King Mntungwa, King Mntungwa fathered King Jonono, King Jonono fathered King Nanasi, King Nanasi fathered King Mafana, King Mafana fathered King Mhlanga and Chief Libhoko, King Mhlanga fathered King Musi and Chief Skhube.
Ndebele Some of his sons were left behind with the Hlubi tribe Langa Some of his sons branched and formed the BakaLanga tribe Mntungwa Founder of the amaNtungwa clan Njonono He died in Jononoskop near Ladysmith – Surname Jonono is in the Hlubi tribe Nanasi He died in Jononoskop near Ladysmith – Surname Nanasi is in the Hlubi tribe Mafana He died in Randfontein Mhlanga He died in Randfontein Musi He died in kwaMnyamana King Musi’s kraal was based at eMhlangeni a place named after his father Mhlanga, the name of the place is known as Randfontein and moved to KwaMnyamana, now called Emarula or Bon Accord in Pretoria. King Musi was a polygamist and fathered the following sons, Manala, Thombeni, Sibasa and Mphafuli and others; the first born son of king Musi was Skhosana from the third wife, he was called Masombuka. The name “sombuka” means to begin. Manala was the first son from the great wife and Ndzundza was the son of the second wife. According to Ndebele custom, the heir to the throne of the king is the first born son from the great wife.
When the great wife of King Musi died, King Musi was sickly. He was nursed by mother of Ndzundza. Due to the fact that Musi was old, he was worried about the Kingship of the Ndebele Nation. Musi did not want Manala to be the King of the Nation hence one day Musi instructed Manala to come and see him in the morning. Musi instructed Manala to go and hunt for the iMbuduma and this was a ploy to keep Manala away from the household in order to hand over the kingship to Ndzundza. After Manala had left to hunt for the Wildebeest Musi instructed his wife to call her son Ndzundza. King Musi gave Ndzundza the accessory to the throne, customarily passed on from the incumbent to the successor. Musi knew that if he died then, the kingship will be passed to Manala, hence he passed the kingship to Ndzundza while he was alive, this was not common at that time for a king to give his son rulership while the king is still alive; this accessory called namrhali was a mysterious object that cries like a child, used to fortify the king.
Musi instructed Ndzundza to call a Royal meeting and notify the nation that he is the King and to live kwaMnyamana with his followers. Many people believed him and a few did not want to follow him. Ndzundza left with a huge number of people; when Manala came back from the hunt he realised that Ndzundza had received the namrhali, he went to see his father. His father informed him that he had given away the namrhali to Ndzundza. Manala called a Royal meeting with the few people left behind and announced that Ndzundza had stolen the namrhali. Musi instructed Manala that if he wants to be a king he must pursue Ndzundza and bring him back to the royal household and if Ndzundza refuses to come back Manala should kill him. Manala caught up with Ndzundza, with Thombeni and Skhosana, his half brothers, at Masongololo around Cullinan; the two factions fought at Cullinan. Manala and his supporters returned home to replenish their provisions. Upon their return, they caught up with Ndzundza at Bhalule River.
Manala did not kill Ndzundza but an old woman called NoQoli from a Mnguni family mediated between the two brothers. An agreement was reached, it was further agreed that henceforth their daughters would inter-marry, a practice which died out. The agreement was called “isivumelwano sakoNoQoli” and hence the Mnguni family was called Msiza because they helped Ndzundza and Manala not to kill each other. Ndzundza never returned to the royal household but settled across the Bhalule River with his followers. Ndzundza settled across the Bhalule River whilst Manala returned to KwaMnyamana and each ruled separately. Dlomu the son of Skhube went to Emboland, became the father of the amaNdebele clan in Hlubiland which were dominated by King Matiwane of the Hlubis; some of Dlomu’s descendants joined the Manala and Ndzundza under the shield of Skhosana. Mhwaduba formed a Batswana traditional community and became t
Bantu people are the speakers of Bantu languages, comprising several hundred indigenous ethnic groups in sub-Saharan Africa, spread over a vast area from Central Africa across the African Great Lakes to Southern Africa. Linguistically, Bantu languages belong to the Southern Bantoid branch of Benue–Congo, one of the language families grouped within the Niger–Congo phylum; the total number of Bantu languages ranges in the hundreds, depending on the definition of "language" vs. "dialect" estimated at between 440 and 680 distinct languages. The total number of Bantu speakers is in the hundreds of millions, ranging at 350 million in the mid-2010s. About 60 million Bantu speakers, divided into some 200 ethnic or tribal groups, are found in the Democratic Republic of Congo alone; the larger of the individual Bantu groups have populations of several million, e.g. the Shona of Zimbabwe, the Zulu of South Africa the Luba of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the Sukuma of Tanzania, or the Kikuyu of Kenya.
The word Bantu for the language families and its speakers is an artificial term based on the reconstructed Proto-Bantu term for "people" or "humans". It was first introduced by Wilhelm Bleek in 1857 or 1858, popularised in his Comparative Grammar of 1862; the name was coined to represent the word for "people" in loosely reconstructed Proto-Bantu, from the plural noun class prefix *ba- categorizing "people", the root *ntʊ̀ - "some, any". There is no native term for the group, as populations refer to their languages by ethnic endonyms but did not have a concept for the larger ethno-linguistic phylum. Bleek's coinage was inspired by the anthropological observation of groups self-identifying as "people" or "the true people"; that is, idiomatically the reflexes of *bantʊ in the numerous languages have connotations of personal character traits as encompassed under the values system of ubuntu known as hunhu in Chishona or botho in Sesotho, rather than just referring to all human beings. The root in Proto-Bantu is reconstructed as *-ntʊ́.
Versions of the word Bantu occur in all Bantu languages: for example, as watu in Swahili. Bantu languages derive from a Proto-Bantu language, estimated to have been spoken about 4,000 to 3,000 years ago in West/Central Africa, they were spread across Central and Southern Africa in the Bantu expansion, a rapid succession of migrations during the 1st millennium BC, in one wave moving across the Congo basin towards East Africa, in another moving south along the African coast and the Congo River system towards Angola. The geographical origin of the Bantu expansion is somewhat open to debate. Two main scenarios are proposed, an early expansion to Central Africa, a single origin of the migration radiating from there, or an early separation into an eastward and a southward wave of migration. Genetic analysis shows a significant clustering of Bantu peoples by region, suggesting admixture from local populations, with the Eastern Bantu forming a separate ancestral cluster, the Southern Bantu showing derivation from Western Bantu by Khoisan admixture and low levels of Eastern Bantu admixture.
According to the early-split scenario described in the 1990s, the southward migration had reached the Central African rain forest by about 1500 BC, the southern Savannahs by 500 BC, while the eastward migration reached the Great Lakes by 1000 BC, expanding further from there, as the rich environment supported a dense population. Movements by small groups to the southeast from the Great Lakes region were more rapid, with initial settlements dispersed near the coast and near rivers, due to comparatively harsh farming conditions in areas farther from water. Pioneering groups had reached modern KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa by about AD 300 along the coast, the modern Northern Province by AD 500; the Bantu peoples assimilated and/or displaced a number of earlier inhabitants that they came across, such as Pygmy and Khoisan populations in the centre and south, respectively. They encountered some Afro-Asiatic outlier groups in the southeast, as well as Nilo-Saharan groups; as cattle terminology in use amongst the few modern Bantu pastoralist groups suggests, the Bantu migrants would acquire cattle from their new Cushitic neighbors.
Linguistic evidence indicates that Bantus borrowed the custom of milking cattle directly from Cushitic peoples in the area. Interactions between Bantu and Cushitic peoples resulted in Bantu groups with significant Cushitic ethnic admixture, such as the Tutsi of the African Great Lakes region. Between the 14th and 15th centuries, Bantu-speaking states began to emerge in the Great Lakes region and in the savannah south of the Central African rain forest. On the Zambezi river, the Monomatapa kings built the Great
Eswatini the Kingdom of Eswatini and known as Swaziland, is a landlocked country in Southern Africa. It is bordered by Mozambique to its northeast and South Africa to its north and south. At no more than 200 kilometres north to south and 130 kilometres east to west, Eswatini is one of the smallest countries in Africa; the population is ethnic Swazis. The language is Swazi; the Swazis established their kingdom in the mid-18th century under the leadership of Ngwane III. The country and the Swazi take their names from Mswati II, the 19th-century king under whose rule Swazi territory was expanded and unified. After the Second Boer War, the kingdom, under the name of Swaziland, was a British protectorate from 1903 until it regained its independence on 6 September 1968. In April 2018 the official name was changed from Kingdom of Swaziland to Kingdom of Eswatini, mirroring the name used in Swazi; the government is an absolute diarchy, ruled jointly by Ngwenyama Mswati III and Ndlovukati Ntfombi Tfwala since 1986.
The former is the administrative head of state and appoints the country's prime ministers and a number of representatives of both chambers in the country's parliament, while the latter is the national head of state, serving as keeper of the ritual fetishes of the nation and presiding during the annual Umhlanga rite. Elections are held every five years to determine the House of the Senate majority; the current constitution was adopted in 2005. Umhlanga, held in August/September, incwala, the kingship dance held in December/January, are the nation's most important events. Eswatini is a developing country with a small economy. With a GDP per capita of $9,714, it is classified as a country with a lower-middle income; as a member of the Southern African Customs Union and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa, its main local trading partner is South Africa. Eswatini's major overseas trading partners are the European Union; the majority of the country's employment is provided by manufacturing sectors.
Eswatini is a member of the Southern African Development Community, the African Union, the Commonwealth of Nations and the United Nations. The Swazi population faces major health issues: HIV/AIDS and, to a lesser extent, tuberculosis are widespread, it is estimated. As of 2018, Eswatini has the 12th lowest life expectancy at 58 years; the population of Eswatini is young, with a median age of 20.5 years and people aged 14 years or younger constituting 37.5% of the country's total population. The present population growth rate is 1.2%. Artifacts indicating human activity dating back to the early Stone Age, around 200,000 years ago, have been found in Eswatini. Prehistoric rock art paintings dating from as far back as c. 27,000 years ago, to as recent as the 19th century, can be found in various places around the country. The earliest known inhabitants of the region were Khoisan hunter-gatherers, they were replaced by the Nguni during the great Bantu migrations. These peoples originated from the Great Lakes regions of central Africa.
Evidence of agriculture and iron use dates from about the 4th century. People speaking languages ancestral to the current Sotho and Nguni languages began settling no than the 11th century; the Swazi settlers known as the Ngwane before entering Eswatini, had been settled on the banks of the Pongola River. Before that, they were settled in the area of the Tembe River near Mozambique. Continuing conflict with the Ndwandwe people pushed them further north, with Ngwane III establishing his capital at Shiselweni at the foot of the Mhlosheni hills. Under Sobhuza I, the Ngwane people established their capital at Zombodze in the heartland of present-day Eswatini. In this process, they conquered and incorporated the long-established clans of the country known to the Swazi as Emakhandzambili. Eswatini derives its name from a king named Mswati II. KaNgwane, named for Ngwane III, is an alternative name for Eswatini the surname of whose royal house remains Nkhosi Dlamini. Nkhosi means "king". Mswati II was the greatest of the fighting kings of Eswatini, he extended the area of the country to twice its current size.
The Emakhandzambili clans were incorporated into the kingdom with wide autonomy including grants of special ritual and political status. The extent of their autonomy, was drastically curtailed by Mswati, who attacked and subdued some of them in the 1850s. With his power, Mswati reduced the influence of the Emakhandzambili while incorporating more people into his kingdom either through conquest or by giving them refuge; these arrivals became known to the Swazis as Emafikamuva. The clans who accompanied the Dlamini kings were known as the true Swazi; the autonomy of the Swazi nation was influenced by British and Dutch rule of southern Africa in the 19th and early 20th centuries. In 1881 the British government signed a convention recognizing Swazi independence despite the Scramble for Africa, taking place at the time; this independence was recognized in the convention of 1884. Because of controversial land/mineral rights and ot