2007 French presidential election
The 2007 French presidential election, the ninth of the Fifth French Republic was held to elect the successor to Jacques Chirac as president of France for a five-year term. The winner, decided on 5 and 6 May 2007, was Nicolas Sarkozy; the first round of voting took place on Saturday 21 April 2007 and Sunday, 22 April 2007. As no candidate obtained a majority, a second round between the two leading candidates, Nicolas Sarkozy and Ségolène Royal, took place on Saturday 5 May and Sunday, 6 May 2007. Sarkozy and Royal both represented a generational change. Both main candidates were born after World War II, along with the first to have seen adulthood under the Fifth Republic, the first not to have been in politics under Charles de Gaulle; the first round saw a high turnout of 83.8% – 36.7 million of the 44.5 million electorate voted from a population of 64.1 million. The results of that round saw Sarkozy and Royal qualify for the second round with Sarkozy getting 31% and Royal 26%. François Bayrou came third and Jean-Marie Le Pen fourth, unlike in 2002 when Le Pen got a surprising 16.9% and qualified for the second round.
After the first round's results were made official, four defeated left-wing candidates – José Bové, Marie-George Buffet, Arlette Laguiller and Dominique Voynet – urged their supporters to vote for Royal. This was the first time since 1981. Olivier Besancenot called his supporters to vote against Sarkozy. Frédéric Nihous and Gérard Schivardi never supported either Royal or Sarkozy. Philippe de Villiers called for a vote for Sarkozy. Le Pen told his voters to "abstain massively" in the second round. On 25 April, Bayrou declared he would not support either candidate in the runoff, announced he would form a new political party called the Democratic Movement, he criticised both major candidates, offered to debate them. Royal agreed to hold a televised debate, while Sarkozy offered to have a private discussion but not a televised debate. By around 6:15 pm local time on 6 May and Swiss news sources such as Le Soir, RTBF, La Libre Belgique and La Tribune de Genève had announced Nicolas Sarkozy as the winner of the second round, citing preliminary exit poll data.
The final CSA estimate showed him winning with 53% of the votes cast. Royal conceded defeat to Sarkozy that evening. Nationwide, Nicolas Sarkozy obtained 31% and Ségolène Royal 26% – while in 2002, Jacques Chirac had obtained 20%, Lionel Jospin 16.18%. The right-of-centre François Bayrou obtained 18.6 % this time. National Front candidate, Jean-Marie Le Pen, made only 10.4%, compared to his stunning 16.9% finish in 2002. Along with the April–May shift to the far right made by Sarkozy, this has led many commentators to allege that traditional voters of the FN had been tempted by Sarkozy. On a global scale, the left-wing reached 36% of the votes, against 19% for the "centre", 33% for the right wing and 11% for the far right. Other candidates received a much lower share of the vote than they had in 2002, with Olivier Besancenot failing to achieve the 5% necessary to have his political campaign reimbursed by the state. Besancenot received 4.1%, compared to 4.3% in 2002. He was followed by the traditionalist Philippe de Villiers, Communist Marie-George Buffet, Green candidate Dominique Voynet, Workers' Struggle's candidate Arlette Laguiller, alter-globalisation candidate José Bové, Frédéric Nihous and Gérard Schivardi with 0.3%.
The abstention rate was 15.4%. With an overall record turnout of 83.8%, a level not achieved since the 1965 presidential election when turnout was 84.8%, the vast majority of the electorate decided not to stay home. Most of them decided against protest votes, chose the vote utile, that is, a vote for one of the purported leaders of the electoral race; the "Anyone But Sarkozy" push benefited both Bayrou and Royal, while the tactical voting, on the right or on the left, explains the low score of the other candidates, in contrast with the last presidential election's first round. The electoral campaign saw a polarisation of the political scene, encapsulated by the "Anyone But Sarkozy" slogan on the left, but it saw a reconfiguration of the political chessboard, with various left-wing figures and voters deciding to support Sarkozy against Royal, who saw opposition inside her own party. Bernard Tapie, a former Socialist, Max Gallo, who had supported left-wing Republican Jean-Pierre Chevènement in 2002, Eric Besson, etc. passed on Sarkozy's side.
On the other hand, some right-wing voters, upset by Sarkozy's attitude on law and order and genetics, decided to vote for Bayrou. Centrist figures of the Socialist party, such as Michel Rocard and Bernard Kouchner, called for an alliance between Bayrou and Royal, which might have had consequences in the June 2007 legislative elections – these determined the parliamentary majority, decided that France would not see another cohabitation between the President, head of state, the Prime minister, leader of the governmen
Sauvignon blanc is a green-skinned grape variety that originates from the Bordeaux region of France. The grape most gets its name from the French words sauvage and blanc due to its early origins as an indigenous grape in South West France, it is a descendant of Savagnin. Sauvignon blanc is planted in many of the world's wine regions, producing a crisp and refreshing white varietal wine; the grape is a component of the famous dessert wines from Sauternes and Barsac. Sauvignon blanc is cultivated in France, Romania, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, the states of Washington and California in the US; some New World Sauvignon blancs from California, may be called "Fumé Blanc", a marketing term coined by Robert Mondavi in reference to Pouilly-Fumé. Depending on the climate, the flavor can range from aggressively grassy to sweetly tropical. In cooler climates, the grape has a tendency to produce wines with noticeable acidity and "green flavors" of grass, green bell peppers and nettles with some tropical fruit and floral notes.
In warmer climates, it can develop more tropical fruit notes but risk losing a lot of aromatics from over-ripeness, leaving only slight grapefruit and tree fruit notes. Wine experts have used the phrase "crisp and fresh" as a favorable description of Sauvignon blanc from the Loire Valley and New Zealand. Sauvignon blanc, when chilled, pairs well with fish or cheese chèvre, it is known as one of the few wines that can pair well with sushi. Along with Riesling, Sauvignon blanc was one of the first fine wines to be bottled with a screwcap in commercial quantities by New Zealand producers; the wine is consumed young, as it does not benefit from aging, as varietal Sauvignon blancs tend to develop vegetal aromas reminiscent of peas and asparagus with extended aging. Dry and sweet white Bordeaux, including oak-aged examples from Pessac-Léognan and Graves, as well as some Loire wines from Pouilly-Fumé and Sancerre are some of the few examples of Sauvignon blancs with aging potential; the first Friday in May is International Sauvignon Blanc Day.
The Sauvignon blanc grape traces its origins to western France in the Loire Valley and Bordeaux Regions. As noted above, it is not clear. Ongoing research suggests, it has been associated with the Carmenere family. At some point in the 18th century, the vine paired with Cabernet Franc to parent the Cabernet Sauvignon vine in Bordeaux. In the 19th century, plantings in Bordeaux were interspersed with Sauvignon vert as well as the Sauvignon blanc pink mutation Sauvignon gris. Prior to the phylloxera epidemic, the insect plague which devastated French vineyards in the 19th century, these interspersed cuttings were transported to Chile where the field blends are still common today. Despite the similarity in names, Sauvignon blanc has no known relation to the Sauvignon rosé mutation found in the Loire Valley of France; the first cuttings of Sauvignon blanc were brought to California by Charles Wetmore, founder of Cresta Blanca Winery, in the 1880s. These cuttings came from the Sauternes vineyards of Château d'Yquem.
The plantings produced well in Livermore Valley. The wine acquired the alias of "Fumé Blanc" in California by promotion of Robert Mondavi in 1968; the grape was first introduced to New Zealand in the 1970s as an experimental planting to be blended with Müller-Thurgau. The Sauvignon blanc vine buds late but ripens early, which allows it to perform well in sunny climates when not exposed to overwhelming heat. In warm regions such as South Africa and California, the grape flourishes in cooler climate appellations such as the Alexander Valley area. In areas where the vine is subjected to high heat, the grape will become over-ripe and produce wines with dull flavors and flat acidity. Rising global temperatures have caused farmers to harvest the grapes earlier than they have in the past; the grape originated in the regions of Bordeaux and the Loire Valley. Plantings in California, Australia and South Africa are extensive, Sauvignon blanc is increasing in popularity as white wine drinkers seek alternatives to Chardonnay.
The grape can be found in Italy and Central Europe. In France, Sauvignon blanc is grown in the maritime climate of Bordeaux as well as the continental climate of the Loire Valley; the climates of these areas are favorable in slowing the ripening on the vine, allowing the grape more time to develop a balance between its acidity and sugar levels. This balance is important in the development of the intensity of the wine's aromas. Winemakers in France pay careful attention to the terroir characteristics of the soil and the different elements that it can impart to the wine; the chalk and Kimmeridgean marl of Sancerre and Pouilly produces wines of richness and complexity while areas with more compact chalk soils produces wines with more finesse and perfume. The gravel soil found near the Loire River and its tributaries impart spicy and mineral flavors while in Bordeaux, the wines have a fruitier personality. Vines planted in flint tend to produce the longest lasting wines. Pouilly Fumé originate from the town of Pouilly-sur-Loire, located directly across the Loire River from the commune of Sancerre.
The soil here is flinty with deposits of limestone which the locals believed imparted a smoky, gun flint flavor
The Loire is the longest river in France and the 171st longest in the world. With a length of 1,012 kilometres, it drains an area of 117,054 km2, or more than a fifth of France's land area, while its average discharge is only half that of the Rhône, it rises in the highlands of the southeastern quarter of the French Massif Central in the Cévennes range at 1,350 m near Mont Gerbier de Jonc. Its main tributaries include the rivers Nièvre and the Erdre on its right bank, the rivers Allier, Indre and the Sèvre Nantaise on the left bank; the Loire gives its name to six departments: Loire, Haute-Loire, Loire-Atlantique, Indre-et-Loire, Maine-et-Loire, Saône-et-Loire. The central part of the Loire Valley, located in the Pays de la Loire and Centre-Val de Loire regions, was added to the World Heritage Sites list of UNESCO on December 2, 2000. Vineyards and châteaux are found along the banks of the river throughout this section and are a major tourist attraction; the human history of the Loire river valley begins with the Middle Palaeolithic period of 90–40 kya, followed by modern humans, succeeded by the Neolithic period, all of the recent Stone Age in Europe.
Came the Gauls, the historical tribes in the Loire during the Iron Age period 1500 to 500 BC. Gallic rule ended in the valley in 56 BC when Julius Caesar conquered the adjacent provinces for Rome. Christianity was introduced into this valley from the 3rd century AD, as missionaries, converted the pagans. In this period, settlers began producing wines; the Loire Valley has been called the "Garden of France" and is studded with over a thousand châteaux, each with distinct architectural embellishments covering a wide range of variations, from the early medieval to the late Renaissance periods. They were created as feudal strongholds, over centuries past, in the strategic divide between southern and northern France; the name "Loire" comes from Latin Liger, itself a transcription of the native Gaulish name of the river. The Gaulish name comes from the Gaulish word liga, which means "silt, deposit, alluvium", a word that gave French lie, as in sur lie, which in turn gave English lees. Liga comes from the Proto-Indo-European root *legʰ-, meaning "to lie, lay" as in the Welsh word Lleyg, which gave many words in English, such as to lie, to lay, law, etc.
Studies of the palaeo-geography of the region suggest that the palaeo-Loire flowed northward and joined the Seine, while the lower Loire found its source upstream of Orléans in the region of Gien, flowing westward along the present course. At a certain point during the long history of uplift in the Paris Basin, the lower, Atlantic Loire captured the "palaeo-Loire" or Loire séquanaise, producing the present river; the former bed of the Loire séquanaise is occupied by the Loing. The Loire Valley has been inhabited since the Middle Palaeolithic period from 40–90 ka. Neanderthal man navigated the river. Modern man inhabited the Loire valley around 30 ka. By around 5000 to 4000 BC, they began clearing forests along the river edges and cultivating the lands and rearing livestock, they built megaliths to worship the dead from around 3500 BC. The Gauls arrived in the valley between 1500 and 500 BC, the Carnutes settled in Cenabum in what is now Orléans and built a bridge over the river. By 600 BC the Loire had become a important trading route between the Celts and the Greeks.
A key transportation route, it served as one of the great "highways" of France for over 2000 years. The Phoenicians and Greeks had used pack horses to transport goods from Lyon to the Loire to get from the Mediterranean basin to the Atlantic coast; the Romans subdued the Gauls in 52 BC and began developing Cenabum, which they named Aurelianis. They began building the city of Caesarodunum, now Tours, from AD 1; the Romans used the Loire as far as Roanne, around 150 km downriver from the source. After AD 16, the Loire river valley became part of the Roman province of Aquitania, with its capital at Avaricum. From the 3rd century, Christianity spread through the river basin, many religious figures began cultivating vineyards along the river banks. In the 5th century, the Roman Empire declined and the Franks and the Alemanni came to the area from the east. Following this there was ongoing conflict between the Franks and the Visigoths. In 408, the Iranian tribe of Alans crossed the Loire and large hordes of them settled along the middle course of the Loire in Gaul under King Sangiban.
Many inhabitants around the present city of Orléans have names bearing witness to the Alan presence – Allaines. In the 9th century, the Vikings began invading the west coast of France, using longships to navigate the Loire. In 853 they attacked and destroyed Tours and its famous abbey destroying Angers in raids of 854 and 872. In 877 Charles the Bald died. After considerable conflict in the region, in 898 Foulques le Roux of Anjou gained power. During the Hundred Years' War from 1337 to 1453, the Loire marked the border between the French and the English, who occupied territory to the north. One-third of the inhabitants died in the epidemic of the Black D
Marie-Ségolène Royal, known as Ségolène Royal, is a French politician and former Socialist Party candidate for President of France. She was President of the Poitou-Charentes Regional Council from 2004 to 2014, she won the 2006 Socialist Party primary, becoming the first woman in France to be nominated as a presidential candidate by a major party. In the subsequent 2007 presidential election, she earned further distinction as the first woman to qualify for the second round of a presidential election, but lost to Nicolas Sarkozy. In 2008, Royal narrowly lost to Martine Aubry in the Socialist Party's election for First Secretary at the Party's twenty-second national congress, she lost the Socialist Party presidential primary in 2011, failed in an attempt to win a seat in the National Assembly in the June 2012 parliamentary elections. François Hollande, the former President, is the father of her four children, she was appointed by him to the vice-Chair directorship of the Banque Publique d'Investissement in 2013.
She served as Minister for Ecology from 2014 to 2017, in the Valls Cazeneuve cabinets. Ségolène Royal was born on 22 September 1953 in the military base of Ouakam, French West Africa, the daughter of Hélène Dehaye and Jacques Royal, a former artillery officer and aide to the mayor of Chamagne, her parents had eight children in nine years: Marie-Odette, Marie-Nicole, Gérard, Marie-Ségolène, Paul and Sigisbert. After secondary school in the small town of Melle, Deux-Sèvres, Marie-Ségolène attended a local university where she graduated 2nd in her class with a degree in Economics, her eldest sister suggested she prepare the entrance exam to the elite Institut d'études politiques de Paris popularly called Sciences Po, which she attended on scholarship. There she discovered politics of feminism. In 1972, at the age of 19, Royal sued her father because he refused to divorce her mother and pay alimony and child support to finance the children's education, she won the case after many years in court, shortly before Jacques Royal died of lung cancer in 1981.
Six of the eight children had refused to see him again, Ségolène included. Royal, like the majority of France's political elite, is a graduate of the École nationale d'administration, she was in the same class as her former partner of 30 years, François Hollande, as well as Dominique de Villepin. Each class year at the ENA receives a nickname to distinguish it: Royal tried to get her peers to name their class after Louise Michel, a revolutionary from the 1870s, but they chose the name "Voltaire" instead. During her time at the ENA, Royal dropped "Marie" from her hyphenated first name because she thought it had been chosen by her father for his daughters out of a degrading and archaic view of the role of women. After graduating in 1980, she elected to serve as a judge of an administrative court before she was noticed by President François Mitterrand's special adviser Jacques Attali and recruited to his staff in 1982, she held the junior rank of chargée de mission from 1982 to 1988. She decided to become a candidate for the 1988 legislative election.
Her candidacy was an example of the French political tradition of parachutage, appointing promising "Parisian" political staffers as candidates in provincial districts to test their mettle. She was up against an entrenched UDF incumbent, Mitterrand is said to have told her: "You will not win, but you will next time." Straddling Catholic and Protestant areas, that district had been held by conservatives since World War II. She did win against the odds, remarked: "Pour un parachutage, l'atterrissage est réussi.". After this election, she served as representative in the National Assembly for the Deux-Sèvres' 2nd constituency. Minister of Environment: 1992–1993. Minister of School Education: 1997–2000. Minister of Family and Children: 2000–2001. Minister of Family and Disabled persons: 2001–2002. On 28 March 2004, she obtained 55% in the second round in the regional election in Poitou-Charentes, notably defeating Prime Minister Jean-Pierre Raffarin's protégée, Élisabeth Morin, in his home region, she was elected president of the region the next week.
She kept her National Assembly seat until June 2007, when she chose not to run in the legislative election, in agreement with one of her presidential campaign's promises. She organised a run-off between two contenders. On 22 September 2005 Paris Match published an interview in which she declared that she was considering running for the presidency in 2007. In 2006 the CPE laws were proposed with large protests as a result. Rather than going to the organised protest, she voted a law in her "région" whereby no company using that type of contract would receive the Région's subsidies; the government backed down and stated that the law would be put on the statute book, but that it would not be applied. After this event Royal was tipped as the lead contender in what is dubbed the "Sarko-Ségo" race against Nicolas Sarkozy; until that time, she had not been thought a candidate as she had stayed out of the Socialist Party's power struggles. On 7 April 2006, Royal launched an Internet-led electoral campaign at Désirs d'avenir, publishing the first of ten chapters of her political manifesto.
By the beginning of September, her intentions had become quite c
Loiret is a department in the Centre-Val de Loire region of north-central France. The department is named after the river Loiret, a tributary of the Loire, and, located wholly within the department; the capital of the department is Orléans, about 110 km southwest of Paris. As well as being the regional capital, it is a historic city on the banks of the Loire, it has a large central area with many historic buildings and mansions, a cathedral dating back to the thirteenth century, rebuilt after being destroyed by Protestant forces in 1568. The Loire Valley is famous for its several châteaux. Loiret is one of the original 83 departments, created during the French Revolution on March 4, 1790 by order of the National Constituent Assembly; the new departments were to be uniformly administered and equal to one another in size and population. It was created from the former province of Orléanais, too large to continue in its previous form; the Loire Valley was occupied in Palaeolithic times as attested by numerous archaeological sites in the department.
The Celts were here, bringing crafts and trades, the Romans occupied the area after the Gallic Wars. They built roads and founded cities such as Cenabum, on the site of present-day Orléans, Sceaux-du-Gâtinais. Around 451, the Huns were repelled before reaching Cenabum; the Franks reached the Clovis I reigned in the area. A time of peace and prosperity ensued during the reign of Charlemagne; the department of Loiret was in the province of Orléans in north central France, along with the departments of Loir-et-Cher and Eure-et-Loir now forms the region Centre-Val de Loire. To the north of Loiret lie the departments of Eure-et-Loir and Seine-et-Marne, to the east lies Yonne, to the southeast Nièvre, to the south Cher, to the west Loir-et-Cher; the department consists of flat low-lying land through which flows the River Loire. This river enters the department near Châtillon-sur-Loire in the southeast, flows northwestwards to Orleans where it turns to flow south west, leaving the department near Beaugency.
The Canal d'Orléans connects the Loire River at Orléans to a junction with the Canal du Loing and the Canal de Briare in the village of Buges near Montargis. The River Loire and these canals formed important trading routes before the arrival of the railways; the River Loiret, after which the department is named, is 12 km long and joins the Loire southwest of Orléans. Its source is at Orléans-la-Source, its mouth at Saint-Hilaire-Saint-Mesmin. Other rivers in the department, are the River Loing, a right-bank tributary of the Loire, the River Ouanne which flows into the Loing; the department has a total area of 6,757 km2 and is 119 km from west to east and 77 km from north to south. Large parts of the land are used for agriculture, these are separated by low wooded hills and some forested areas; the northwestern part of the department is in the wheat-growing region known as Beauce, an undulating plateau with some of France's best agricultural land. This area was popular with the French aristocracy in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance period, there are many historic châteaux in the department including Château d'Augerville, Château de Bellegarde, Château de Gien, Château du Hallier, Château de Meung-sur-Loire, Château de Sully-sur-Loire and Château de Trousse-Barrière.
The part of the department south of the River Loire is known as the Sologne and is an area of heathland and marshland, interspersed by hills where vines are grown. The eastern part of the department was part of a province of that name; until the beginning of the 21st century, it used to be renowned for the production of saffron, but the crop could not be mechanised, production dwindled as the cost of production became too high. Of the 1,669,332 acres of land in the department, 975,000 acres are arable, 100,000 acres are vines, 60,000 acres are pasture, 280,000 acres are forested, 16,000 acres are plantations and orchards and 140,000 acres are unproductive moorland and heathland; the soil is in general productive. Other crops include fruit, asparagus and herbs. Vines are cultivated and wine produced, the area is noted for its fruit preservation. Bee-keeping takes place and honey is produced. Loiret has little industrial development, commerce is centred about the sale of corn, cattle, cider, flour, fish, salt and wool.
The only minerals extracted are stone, limestone and clay. The department benefits from its proximity to Paris. Orléans is connected to Paris via fast express trains; the A71 autoroute links Paris with Orléans and Clermont-Ferrand, the A10 autoroute links Paris with Orléans and Bordeaux, the Route nationale 20 links Paris with Orléans, Limoges and Spain. Orléans is associated with Joan of Arc; the Cathedral of Sainte-Croix was built in the Gothic style between 1278 and 1329, destroyed by Protestant forces in 1568, rebuilt between the 17th and 19th centuries. Cantons of the Loiret department Communes of the Loiret department Arrondissements of the Loiret department Prefecture website General Council website Loiret at Curlie
Château-Chinon is a commune in the Nièvre department in France. It is a sub-prefecture of the department; the villages around the town are grouped in another commune named Château-Chinon. François Mitterrand, President of France from 1981 to 1995, was the mayor of Château-Chinon from 1959 to 1981, it is about 200 miles southeast of Paris. Cortona, Italy Timbuktu, Mali Villeréal, France Communes of the Nièvre department Parc naturel régional du Morvan INSEE commune file
Bourgogne-Franche-Comté is a region of France created by the territorial reform of French Regions in 2014, from a merger of Burgundy and Franche-Comté. The new region came into existence on 1 January 2016, after the regional elections of December 2015, electing 100 members to the regional council of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté; the region covers an area of 47,784 km2, has a population of 2,816,814. The text of the territorial reform law gives interim names for most of the merged regions, combining the names of their constituent regions separated by hyphens. Permanent names would be proposed by the new regional councils and confirmed by the Conseil d'État by 1 October 2016. Hence the interim name of the new administrative region is composed of the names of former administrative regions of Burgundy and Franche-Comté; the region chose to retain its interim name as its permanent name, a decision made official by the Conseil d'État on 28 September 2016. The merger represents a historic reunification of the Duchy of Burgundy and the Free County of Burgundy, for the first time since they were divided in 1477.
The territory, now Burgundy and Franche-Comté was united under the Kingdom of Burgundy. It was divided into two parts: the Duchy of Burgundy of France, the County of Burgundy of the Holy Roman Empire; the County was reintegrated as a free province within the Kingdom of France in the 17th century, separately from the Duchy which remained a vassal province of the Kingdom of France. These two former provinces were abolished during the French Revolution. Most of the area making up the region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté used to belong to the former provinces of Burgundy and Franche-Comté, but it includes a significant part of the former provinces of Nivernais, Orléanais, the Territoire de Belfort, a small portion of Île-de-France. From 1941 to 1944, the regional prefecture of Vichy reunited Burgundy and Franche-Comté, as well as the igamie of Dijon from 1948 to 1964. During the creation of the regions of France and Franche-Comté once again became two separate regions, first as public establishments in 1972 as territorial collectivities in 1982.
On 14 April 2014, François Patriat and Marie-Guite Dufay announced in a press conference the desire for the reunification of the two regions, further to the declarations of Prime Minister Manuel Valls, who proposed a simplification of the administrative divisions of France. On 2 June 2014, the two regions were shown as one on the map presented by President François Hollande; these two regions are the only ones to have voluntarily discussed a merger, their alliance was the only one not needing revision by the National Assembly or the Senate. Under the Acte III de la décentralisation, the merger of the two regions was adopted on 17 December 2014, it became effective on 1 January 2016. The region borders Grand Est to the north, Île-de-France to the northwest, Centre-Val de Loire to the west, Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes to the south and Switzerland to the east; the distances from Besançon, the capital of the region, to other cities are: Paris, the national capital, 410 km. Bourgogne-Franche-Comté comprises eight departments: Côte-d'Or, Jura, Nièvre, Haute-Saône, Saône-et-Loire, Territoire de Belfort.
Dijon Besançon Belfort Chalon-sur-Saône Nevers Auxerre Mâcon Burgundy Franche-Comté Regions of France Merger of the regions - France 3