Niagara Falls is a city in Ontario, Canada. It is on the western bank of the Niagara River in the Golden Horseshoe region of Southern Ontario, with a population of 88,071 at the 2016 census; the municipality was incorporated on 12 June 1903. Across the Niagara River is Niagara Falls, New York; the Niagara River flows over Niagara Falls at this location, creating a natural spectacle which attracts millions of tourists each year. The tourist area, which stretches along the Niagara Parkway and promenade, is concentrated at the brink of the falls. Apart from the river's natural attractions, it includes observation towers, high-rise hotels, souvenir shops, indoor water parks and theatres with colourful neon billboards and advertisements. Farther to the north or south, golf courses are operated alongside historic sites from the War of 1812; this area was long part of the Iroquois Confederacy territory: five powerful First Nations along the southern edge of the Great Lakes. The Mohawk, Onondaga and Seneca were based in present-day New York, ranging from east near the Hudson River, to western areas of Seneca Lake and along Ontario and other Great Lakes.
The Niagara Falls area has had some European settlement since the 17th century. Louis Hennepin, a French priest and missionary, is regarded as the first European to visit the area in the 1670s. French colonists settled in Lower Canada, beginning near the Atlantic, in Quebec and Montreal. After surveys were completed in 1782 the area was referred to as Township Number 2 as well as Mount Dorchester after Guy Carleton, 1st Baron Dorchester; the earliest settlers of Township Number 2 were Thomas McMicken. Increased settlement in this area took place during and after the American Revolutionary War, when the British Crown made land grants to Loyalists to help them resettle in Upper Canada and provide some compensation for their losses after the United States became independent. Loyalist Robert Land received 200 acres and was one of the first people of European descent to settle in the Niagara Region, he moved to nearby Hamilton three years due to the relentless noise of the falls. In 1791 John Graves Simcoe renamed the town was Stamford after Stamford, Lincolnshire in England but today Stamford is only used for an area northwest of downtown Niagara Falls as well as Stamford Street.
During the war of 1812, the battle of Lundy's Lane took place near the town. In 1856, the Town of Clifton was incorporated; the name of the town was changed to Niagara Falls in 1881. In 1882, the community of Drummondville was incorporated as the village of Niagara Falls; the village was referred to as Niagara Falls South to differentiate it from the town. In 1904, the town and village amalgamated to form the City of Niagara Falls. In 1962, the city amalgamated with the surrounding Stamford Township, resulting in a doubling of population. With the creation of a Niagara regional government in 1970, the city absorbed the village of Chippawa, Willoughby Township and part of Crowland Township, creating the present-day municipal boundaries. Tourism started in the early 19th century and has been a vital part of the local economy since that time; the falls became known as a natural wonder, in part to their being featured in paintings by prominent American artists of the 19th century such as Albert Bierstadt.
Such works were reproduced as lithographs, becoming distributed. In addition, Niagara Falls markets itself as a honeymoon destination. An internment camp was set up at The Armoury in Niagara Falls from December 1914 to August 1918; the city's official historian is Sherman Zavitz, who gives regular radio broadcasts on many aspects of Niagara's history. Niagara Falls has had a Black population since at least 1783. Up to 12 African-Americans were a part including Richard Pierpoint; when they were disbanded in 1783, they tried to establish themselves through farming nearby, making them among the first Black settlers in the region. It is estimated. Niagara Fall's Black population increased in the following decades, as a destination on the Underground Railroad. In 1856, a British Methodist Episcopal Church was established for African-Canadian worshipers; the BME Church, Nathaniel Dett Memorial Chapel is now a National Historic Site, remaining in operation into the 21st century. Composer, organist and music professor Nathaniel Dett was born in Niagara Falls in 1882.
In 1886, Burr Plato became one of the first African Canadians to be elected to political office, holding the position of City Councillor of Niagara Falls until 1901. Niagara Falls is 130 km by road from Ontario's capital of Toronto, across Lake Ontario to the north; the area of the Niagara Region is 1,800 km2. The city is built along the Niagara Falls waterfalls and the Niagara Gorge on the Niagara River, which flows from Lake Erie to Lake Ontario; the city of Niagara Falls has a humid continental climate, moderated to an extent in all seasons by proximity to water bodies. Winters are cold, with a January high of −0.4 °C and a low of −7.8 °C. However, temperatures above 0 °C are common during winter; the average annual snowfall is 154 centimetres, in which it can receive lake effec
Coptodera is a genus of beetles in the family Carabidae, constituted of 105 species distributed across North and South America, Africa and eastern Asia. They are small flattened beetles; the body size is under 11 mm and pronotum is wider than long. Many of them present spots of different colours on the elytra. A single fossil species of this genus has been described: Coptodera elektra, from Europe's Eocene, was described in 2015 from a single piece of Baltic amber, it contains the following species: Coptodera acutipennis Coptodera aeneorufa Bates, 1869 Coptodera aerata Dejean, 1825 Coptodera alluaudi Coptodera amoenula Boheman, 1848 Coptodera apicalis Shpeley & Ball, 1993 Coptodera aurata Chavrolat, 1835 Coptodera bifasciata Putzeys, 1845 Coptodera braziliensis Shpeley & Ball, 1993 Coptodera brunnea Shpeley & Ball, 1993 Coptodera catalai Coptodera cechovsky Kirschenhofer, 2010 Coptodera chalcites Bates, 1869 Coptodera championi Bates, 1883 Coptodera chaudoiri Andrewes, 1919 Coptodera congoana Burgeon, 1937 Coptodera cupreotincta Bates, 1869 Coptodera dromioides Coptodera elongata Putzeys, 1845 Coptodera eluta Andrewes, 1923 Coptodera emarginata Dejean, 1825 Coptodera erwini Shpeley & Ball, 1993 Coptodera esakii Nakane, 1956 Coptodera farai Jedlicka, 1963 Coptodera festiva Dejean, 1825 Coptodera flexuosa Schmidt-Gobel, 1846 Coptodera foveolata Shpeley & Ball, 1993 Coptodera fulminans Coptodera hova Alluaud, 1936 Coptodera immaculata Coptodera interrupta Schmidt-Gobel, 1846 Coptodera japonica Bates, 1883 Coptodera lineata Coptodera marginata Dupuis, 1912 Coptodera megalops Bates, 1869 Coptodera nigrosignata Coptodera nigroviridis Shpeley & Ball, 1993 Coptodera nitidula Coptodera nobilis Jedlicka, 1963 Coptodera osakana Nakane, Ohkura & Ueno, 1955 Coptodera pakitza Shpeley & Ball, 1993 Coptodera picea Dejean, 1826 Coptodera poecila Bates, 1883 Coptodera proksi Jedlicka, 1963 Coptodera relucens Bates, 1869 Coptodera rufescens Buquet, 1835 Coptodera sahlbergi Chaudoir, 1869 Coptodera sallei Shpeley & Ball, 1993 Coptodera schaumi Chaudoir, 1861 Coptodera seyrigi Alluaud, 1936 Coptodera sigillata Shpeley & Ball, 1993 Coptodera squiresi Coptodera stockwelli Shpeley & Ball, 1993 Coptodera subapicalis Putzeys, 1877 Coptodera subapicaloides Jedlicka, 1956 Coptodera taiwana Nakane, 1956 Coptodera teutonica Shpeley & Ball, 1993 Coptodera transversa Coptodera tripartita Chaudoir, 1869 Coptodera tripunctata Shpeley & Ball, 1993 Coptodera undulata Perty, 1830 Coptodera versicolor Bates, 1869 Coptodera viridis Shpeley & Ball, 1993 Coptodera waytkowskii Liebke, 1951 Coptodera xanthopleura Bates, 1891
Audra Marie Lindley was an American actress, most famous for her role as landlady Helen Roper on the sitcom Three's Company and its spin-off The Ropers. Born in Los Angeles, Lindley got her early start in Hollywood by being a stand-in, which progressed to stunt work, she became a contract player with Warner Bros. In 1943, she went to New York in her mid-20s to work in theater. Among her many Broadway plays during her long career were: On Golden Pond, Long Day's Journey into Night, Horse Heavens. After a break from acting to raise five children, she began to make steady appearances on television in the early 1960s, including the role of Sue Knowles on the soap opera Search for Tomorrow, a six-year stint as manipulative Aunt Liz Matthews on the soap opera Another World, she had regular roles as Meredith Baxter's mother in the sitcom Bridget Loves Bernie as well as Lee Grant’s best friend in Fay. In 1971, she starred in Taking Off, the first American film of Milos Forman. On February 7, 1981 she had a guest role on The Love Boat.
Her greatest fame arrived when she began playing the wisecracking, perpetually unfulfilled, sexually frustrated Helen Roper on the hit sitcom Three’s Company, in which she wore a wig to maintain the character’s exaggerated hairstyle. The character and her husband, Mr. Roper, were spun off to their own show, The Ropers, not a success. Lindley continued to appear on television and in films, such as Revenge of the Stepford Wives in 1980 and as Fauna, the owner of a brothel in the 1982 film Cannery Row. In 1982, she appeared in the film Best Friends, starring Burt Reynolds, she had a supporting role in the lesbian-themed film Desert Hearts. In 1987, she had a supporting role as Judith Light's mother in the TV movie Dangerous Affection, she appeared in 1989's Troop Beverly Hills as outspoken director of the Wilderness Girls. In 1989, she was the main character of an episode of the horror anthology series Tales from the Crypt. Lindley garnered parts in various TV films and series, including playing Phoebe Buffay's grandmother on Friends, her last, a recurring role as Cybill Shepherd's mother on the sitcom Cybill.
She was married to Hardy Ulm, with whom she had five children, from 1943 until his death in 1970. She was married to James Whitmore from 1972 to 1979. Lindley died of leukemia on October 1997 at Cedars Sinai Medical Center. Audra Lindley on IMDb Audra Lindley at the Internet Broadway Database Audra Lindley at the Internet Off-Broadway Database Audra Lindley at Find a Grave