The Nibelungenlied, translated as The Song of the Nibelungs, is an epic poem written around 1200 in Middle High German. Its anonymous poet was from the region of Passau; the Nibelungenlied is based on an oral tradition that has some of its origin in historic events and individuals of the 5th and 6th centuries and that spread throughout all of Germanic-speaking Europe. Parallels to the German poem from Scandinavia are found in the heroic lays of the Poetic Edda and in the Völsunga saga; the poem is split into two parts: in the first part, Siegfried comes to Worms to acquire the hand of the Burgundian princess Kriemhild from her brother King Gunther. Gunther agrees to let Siegfried marry Kriemhild if Siegfried helps Gunther acquire the warrior-queen Brünhild as his wife. Siegfried does marries Kriemhild. In the second part, the widow Kriemhild is married to king of the Huns, she invites her brother and his court to visit Etzel's kingdom intending to kill Hagen. Her revenge results in the death of all the Burgundians who came to Etzel's court as well as the destruction of Etzel's kingdom and the death of Kriemhild herself.
The Nibelungenlied was the first heroic epic put into writing in Germany, helping to found a larger genre of written heroic poetry. The poem's tragedy appears to have bothered its medieval audience, early on a sequel was written, the Nibelungenklage, which made the tragedy less final; the poem was forgotten after around 1500, but was rediscovered in 1755. Dubbed the "German Iliad", the Nibelungenlied began a new life as the German national epic; the poem was appropriated for nationalist purposes and was used in anti-democratic and National-Socialist propaganda before and during the Second World War. Its legacy today is most visible in Richard Wagner's operatic cycle Der Ring des Nibelungen, however, is based on Old Norse sources. In 2009, the three main manuscripts of the Nibelungenlied were inscribed in UNESCO's Memory of the World Register in recognition of their historical significance, it has been called "one of the most impressive, the most powerful, of the German epics of the Middle Ages."
The poem in its various written forms was lost by the end of the 16th century, but manuscripts from as early as the 13th century were re-discovered during the 18th century. There are thirty-seven known manuscripts of its variant versions. Eleven of these manuscripts are complete; the oldest version seems to be the one preserved in manuscript "B". Twenty-four manuscripts are in various fragmentary states of completion, including one version in Dutch; the text contains 2,400 stanzas in 39 Aventiuren. The title under which the poem has been known since its discovery is derived from the final line of one of the three main versions, "hie hât daz mære ein ende: daz ist der Nibelunge liet". Liet here means lay, tale or epic rather than song, as it would in Modern German; the manuscripts' sources deviate from one another. Philologists and literary scholars designate three main genealogical groups for the entire range of available manuscripts, with two primary versions comprising the oldest known copies: *AB and *C.
This categorization derives from the signatures on the *A, *B, *C manuscripts as well as the wording of the last verse in each source: "daz ist der Nibelunge liet" or "daz ist der Nibelunge nôt". Nineteenth-century philologist Karl Lachmann developed this categorisation of the manuscript sources in "Der Nibelunge Noth und die Klage nach der ältesten Überlieferung mit Bezeichnung des Unechten und mit den Abweichungen der gemeinen Lesart"; the famous opening of the Nibelungenlied is thought to be an addition by the editor of the "C" version of the Nibelungenlied, as it does not appear in the oldest manuscripts. It may have been inspired by the prologue of the Nibelungenklage. Original Uns ist in alten mæren || wunders vil geseit von helden lobebæren,|| von grôzer arebeit, von fröuden, hôchgezîten, || von weinen und von klagen, von küener recken strîten || muget ir nu wunder hœren sagen. Modern German Uns ist in alten Geschichten viel Staunenswertes gesagt von ruhmwürdigen Helden, von großer Mühsal, von Freuden und Festen, von Weinen und Klagen, vom Kampf kühner Helden könnt ihr jetzt viel Staunenswertes sagen hören.
English In ancient tales many marvels are told us: of renowned heroes worthy of praise, of great hardship, of joys, festivities, of weeping and lamenting, of bold warriors' battles—now you may hear such marvels told. The original version instead began with the introduction of the protagonist of the work; the epic is divided into two parts, the first dealing with the story of Siegfried and Kriemhild, the wooing of Brünhild and the death of Siegfried at the hands of Hagen, Hagen's hiding of the Nibelung treasure in the Rhine. The second part deals with Kriemhild's marriage to Etzel, her plans for revenge, the journey of the Burgundians to the court of Etzel, their last stand in Etzel's hall; the first chapter introduces the court of Burgundy. Kriemhild has a dream of a falcon, killed by two eagles, her mother interprets this to mean that Kriemhild's future husband will die a violent death, Kriemhild resolves to remain unmarried. The second chapter tells of the background of Siegfried, crown prince of Xan
Durrës is the second most populous city in the Republic of Albania. The city is the capital of the surrounding Durrës County, one of 12 constituent counties of the country. By air, it is 165 kilometres northwest of Sarandë, 31 kilometres west of Tirana, 83 kilometres south of Shkodër and 579 kilometres east of Rome. Located on the Adriatic Sea, it is the country's economic and historic center; the city was founded by ancient Greek colonists from Corinth and Corfu under the name of Epidamnos around the 7th century BC on the coast of the Illyrian Taulantii. Known as Dyrrachium, it developed to become significant as it became an integral part of the Roman Empire and its successor the Byzantine Empire; the Via Egnatia, the continuation of the Via Appia, started in the city and led across the interior of the Balkan Peninsula to Constantinople in the east. In the Middle Ages, it was contested between Bulgarian and Ottoman dominions. Following the Albanian Declaration of Independence, the city served as the capital of the Principality of Albania for a short period of time.
Subsequently, it was annexed by the Kingdom of Nazi Germany in the interwar period. The city experienced a strong expansion in its demography and economic activity during Communism in Albania. Durrës is served by the Port of Durrës, one of the largest on the Adriatic Sea, which connects the city to Italy and other neighbouring countries, its most considerable attraction is the Amphitheatre of Durrës, included on the tentative list of Albania for designation as a UNESCO World Heritage site. Once having a capacity for 20,000 people, it is the largest amphitheatre in the Balkan Peninsula. In antiquity, the city was named Epidamnos and Dyrrhachion in classical Greek, corresponding to classical Latin Epidamnus and Dyrrachium; the name Dyrrhachion is explained as a Greek compound from δυσ-'bad' and ῥαχία'rocky shore, roaring waves', an explanation hinted at in antiquity by Cassius Dio, who writes it referred to the difficulties of the rocky coastline, while reporting that other Roman authors linked it to the name of an eponymous hero Dyrrachius.
The modern names of the city in Albanian and Italian are derived from Dyrrachium through the Medieval Slavic form Дърачь, from the era when the city was held by the Bulgarian and Serbian empires. This is the root of the Ottoman Turkish name Dıraç. In English usage, the Italian form Durazzo used to be widespread, but the local Albanian name Durrës has replaced it in recent decades. Though surviving remains are minimal, Durrës is one of the oldest cities in Albania. Several ancient people held the site: the presence of the Brygi appears to be confirmed by several ancient writers, the Illyrian Taulantii the Liburni who expanded southwards in the 9th century BC; the city was founded by Greek colonists in 627 BC on the coast of the Taulantii. According to ancient authors, the Greek colonists helped the Taulantii to expel Liburnians and mixed with the local population establishing the Greek element to the port. Under Agron, the Illyrian Ardiaei captured and fortified Epidamnus; when the Romans defeated the Illyrians, they replaced the rule of queen Teuta with that of Demetrius of Pharos, one of her generals.
He lost his kingdom, including Epidamnus, to the Romans in 219 BC at the Second Illyrian War. In the Third Illyrian War Epidamnus was attacked by Gentius but he was defeated by the Romans at the same year. For Catullus, the city was Durrachium Hadriae tabernam, "the taberna of the Adriatic", one of the stopping places for a Roman traveling up the Adriatic, as Catullus had done himself in the sailing season of 56. After the Illyrian Wars with the Roman Republic in 229 BC ended in a decisive defeat for the Illyrians, the city passed to Roman rule, under which it was developed as a major military and naval base; the Romans renamed it Dyrrachium. They considered the name Epidamnos to be inauspicious because of its wholly coincidental similarities with the Latin word damnum, meaning "loss" or "harm"; the meaning of Dyrrachium is unclear, but it has been suggested that it refers to the imposing cliffs near the city. Julius Caesar's rival Pompey made a stand there in 48 BC before fleeing south to Greece.
Under Roman rule, Dyrrachium prospered. Another lesser road led south to the city of the modern Butrint; the Roman emperor Caesar Augustus made the city a colony for veterans of his legions following the Battle of Actium, proclaiming it a civitas libera. In the 4th century, Dyrrachium was made the capital of the Roman province of Epirus nova, it was the birthplace of the emperor Anastasius I in c. 430. Sometime that century, Dyrrachium was struck by a powerful earthquake which destroyed the city's defences. Anastasius I rebuilt and strengthened the city walls, thus creating the strongest fortifications in the western Balkans; the 12-metre-high walls were so thick that, according to the Byzantine historian Anna Komnene, four horsemen could ride abreast on them. Significant portions of the ancient city defences still remain, although they have been much reduced over the centuries. Like much of the rest of the Balkans and the surrounding Dyrraciensis provinciae suffered from barbarian incursions during the Migrations Period.
It was besieged
Divorce Me, Darling is a musical written by Sandy Wilson. Set ten years after the events depicted in Wilson's much better known The Boy Friend, it is a pastiche of 1930s musicals rather than the "Roaring Twenties" shows that inspired the earlier show. Divorce Me, Darling! was first presented at The Players' Theatre on December 9, 1964. On 1 February 1965, it transferred to the West End and ran for 91 performances at London's Globe Theatre, it had its U. S. premiere at the Arena Theatre, Theatre Under the Stars, Texas, in 1984. It played at the Chichester Festival Theatre in July 1997, it is still revived at both an amateur and professional level, sometimes as a double bill with The Boy Friend. The action takes place over two days in the summer of 1936 on the French Riviera; the characters are older versions of the same characters introduced in The Boy Friend. In Nice on the French Riviera in the foyer of the Hotel du Paradis greeted by the hotel manager Gaston singing "Here We Are In Nice Again" with an assortment of hotel guests.
The three naughty wives confess to Hortense, the hotel receptionist, they are on a spree having told their French husbands they were off to England to visit their families there. Polly, our heroine, arrives but without Sir Tony, busy at home handling their estate; the three naughty wives reappear with giddy greetings all around. Reflecting on their dreary mates who seem more concerned with matters of business than with matters of the heart, they croon "Whatever Happened To Love?" Hortense, hotel receptionist/confidante consoles the frustrated wives and cheers them up with the news that tomorrow night an international star, the mysterious Madame K, will appear in un Grand Cabaret. The American, Bobby van Husen, a bit tipsy, enters from the bar and sings "Someone to Dance With" offering to waltz, fox-trot, tango, or rumba if only he could find a partner. Hardly recognizing one another and Polly meet and ask about each other's mate, he reports on his wife Maisie, in London trying to round up a husband for his older sister Hannah.
Bobby and Polly plan to have dinner together. Meanwhile, Mme Dubonnet confides in Hortense that she is the mysterious entertainer Madame K. With the loss of their fortune and his escape to the New World, she was forced to pursue a lowly career in cabaret, she wants to keep the awful truth from Polly. Music!" Cheering off stage heralds the arrival of the President of the South American nation of Monomania. Pierre and Alphonse, the errant husbands of Nancy and Dulcie show up in Nice feeling like bachelors again and sing of a special girl "Maisie" they remember from their carefree single days. Lady Brockhurst arrives on the scene with a trio of young girls dressed in hiking gear, their anthem is "Back To Nature," urging one and all to forget the city and explore the rugged life of the great outdoors. She brings her troops to a halt, and, of course, Lord Brockhurst, dressed in plus fours is a reluctant member of her troop—far more interested in pinching rather than bringing up the rear; the troop march off in search of a spot to pitch camp, true to form, Lord Brockhurst sneaks off in the opposite direction in pursuit of a skirt.
He runs into Dulcie and Nancy, they agree not to snitch on each other—all having deserted their mates for a bit of frolicking. They sing "On The Loose." The President of Monomania and Percy, in a tropical suit and dark glasses, greet one another as compatriots. Since they are of the same stature and with the addition of a false beard and wearing the President's uniform, Percy agrees to go in the President's place to the gala at the Cafe Pataplon; the President must be elsewhere for a reason he cannot reveal. Percy agrees to take on the role, he spots Madame K featured on a poster. He gasps recognizing his wife but with blond hair. Scene 3 reveals two balconies side by side. Hortense and Gaston are inspecting each of the suites and come out on the balconies to get a glimpse of the Riviera view. Dedicated to their chosen professions, their duet describes their dream resort, "Paradise Hotel" as other members of the staff join in the song, they exit before Polly enters one suite, kissing the photo of her husband Sir Tony.
Polly's on her balcony. He's on his. What a coincidence, he invites her, just as old friends, of course, to his balcony for champagne. They drink to absent mates and sing "No Harm Done." They dance a bit. She protests at bit saying, they dance a bit more from his suite to hers. He accidentally drops his scarf in her quarters; the telephone rings. It's Tony. Bobby gets a call on his telephone. It's Maisie. In the adjoining suite Sir Tony spots the scarf, he argues with Polly as to. Angrily he exits to take a bath, she rushes to the balcony to tell Bobby about his scarf. His news is, he pours champagne. The glass has lipstick on it, she accuses him of having a secret lover—so that's why he came to Nice! In tears she rushes out of the room, he calls for Polly from the balcony and lets her k